1. The Clay from Which the Believers and Unbelievers Are Made

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ رِبْعِيِّ بْنِ عَبْدِ الله عَنْ رَجُلٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ (عَلَيهِما السَّلام) قَالَ إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ خَلَقَ النَّبِيِّينَ مِنْ طِينَةِ عِلِّيِّينَ قُلُوبَهُمْ وَأَبْدَانَهُمْ وَخَلَقَ قُلُوبَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ تِلْكَ الطِّينَةِ وَجَعَلَ خَلْقَ أَبْدَانِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ دُونِ ذَلِكَ وَخَلَقَ الْكُفَّارَ مِنْ طِينَةِ سِجِّينٍ قُلُوبَهُمْ وَأَبْدَانَهُمْ فَخَلَطَ بَيْنَ الطِّينَتَيْنِ فَمِنْ هَذَا يَلِدُ الْمُؤْمِنُ الْكَافِرَ وَيَلِدُ الْكَافِرُ الْمُؤْمِنَ وَمِنْ هَاهُنَا يُصِيبُ الْمُؤْمِنُ السَّيِّئَةَ وَمِنْ هَاهُنَا يُصِيبُ الْكَافِرُ الْحَسَنَةَ فَقُلُوبُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ تَحِنُّ إِلَى مَا خُلِقُوا مِنْهُ وَقُلُوبُ الْكَافِرِينَ تَحِنُّ إِلَى مَا خُلِقُوا مِنْهُ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from Rib’i ibn ‘Abd Allah from a man from Ali ibn al-Husayn (a.s.) who has said the following: “Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, created the prophets from the clay of ‘Illiyiyyn (paradise), both their bodies and souls. He made the hearts of the believers from such clay and He made their bodies from a world lower than that world. He created the unbelievers, both their bodies and souls from the clay of Sijjin (fire). He thus mixed the two clays. For this reason children of unbelievers become believers and vice versa. For this reason the believers get afflicted with evil and unbelievers receive good things. Thus, the hearts of the believers incline to that from which they are created and the hearts of the unbelievers incline to that from which they are created.”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/ 7)



2ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ عَنِ النَّضْرِ بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْغَفَّارِ الْجَازِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ خَلَقَ الْمُؤْمِنَ مِنْ طِينَةِ الْجَنَّةِ وَخَلَقَ الْكَافِرَ مِنْ طِينَةِ النَّارِ وَقَالَ إِذَا أَرَادَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بِعَبْدٍ خَيْراً طَيَّبَ رُوحَهُ وَجَسَدَهُ فَلا يَسْمَعُ شَيْئاً مِنَ الْخَيْرِ إِلا عَرَفَهُ وَلا يَسْمَعُ شَيْئاً مِنَ الْمُنْكَرِ إِلا أَنْكَرَهُ قَالَ وَسَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ الطِّينَاتُ ثَلاثٌ طِينَةُ الأنْبِيَاءِ وَالْمُؤْمِنُ مِنْ تِلْكَ الطِّينَةِ إِلا أَنَّ الأنْبِيَاءَ هُمْ مِنْ صَفْوَتِهَا هُمُ الأصْلُ وَلَهُمْ فَضْلُهُمْ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ الْفَرْعُ مِنْ طِينٍ لازِبٍ كَذَلِكَ لا يُفَرِّقُ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بَيْنَهُمْ وَبَيْنَ شِيعَتِهِمْ وَقَالَ طِينَةُ النَّاصِبِ مِنْ حَمَإٍ مَسْنُونٍ وَأَمَّا الْمُسْتَضْعَفُونَ فَمِنْ تُرَابٍ لا يَتَحَوَّلُ مُؤْمِنٌ عَنْ إِيمَانِهِ وَلا نَاصِبٌ عَنْ نَصْبِهِ وَلله الْمَشِيئَةُ فِيهِمْ.


2. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Hassan from al- Nadr ibn Shu’ayb from ‘Abd al-Ghaffar al-Jaziyy from abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) who has said the following: “Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, created the believers from the clay of paradise. He created the unbelievers from the clay of fire. He then said, ‘When Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, decides to grant good to one of His servants. He purifies his spirit and body. Whenever he hears any good thing he recognizes it. Whenever he hears any bad things he dislikes them.’ I (the narrator) then heard him saying, ‘The clays are of three kinds: (a) one is the clay of the prophets from which the believers are also created, except that the prophets are made of the superior kind of clay. The prophets are the roots and the believers are the branches and for this reason they are more excellent than the believers. The believers are created from a stickier kind of clay. Thus Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious will not keep them apart from their followers.’ The Imam than said, ‘The clay of those who insult (‘ A’immah ) are from a black clay that smells foul. The weak ones are made from soil. The believers do not change their faith nor do evil doers (those who insult ‘ A’immah , recipients of divine supreme covenant) do so and Allah has a definite goal behind it.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/ 7)



3ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ صَالِحِ بْنِ سَهْلٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ مِنْ أَيِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ خَلَقَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ طِينَةَ الْمُؤْمِنِ فَقَالَ مِنْ طِينَةِ الأنْبِيَاءِ فَلَمْ تَنْجَسْ أَبَداً.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn Mahbub from Salih ibn Sahl who has said that I asked abu abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) the following: “May Allah keep my soul of service to you, from what kind of material has Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, created the clay of the believers? He then replied, ‘He has created them with the clay from which the prophets were made. Thus, they never become unclean.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (7/ 7)



4ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى وَغَيْرُهُ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَغَيْرِهِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَلَفٍ عَنْ أَبِي نَهْشَلٍ قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنْ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ الثُّمَالِيِّ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ إِنَّ الله جَلَّ وَعَزَّ خَلَقَنَا مِنْ أَعْلَى عِلِّيِّينَ وَخَلَقَ قُلُوبَ شِيعَتِنَا مِمَّا خَلَقَنَا مِنْهُ وَخَلَقَ أَبْدَانَهُمْ مِنْ دُونِ ذَلِكَ وَقُلُوبُهُمْ تَهْوِي إِلَيْنَا لأنَّهَا خُلِقَتْ مِمَّا خُلِقْنَا مِنْهُ ثُمَّ تَلا هَذِهِ الآيَةَ كَلا إِنَّ كِتابَ الأبْرارِ لَفِي عِلِّيِّينَ وَما أَدْراكَ ما عِلِّيُّونَ كِتابٌ مَرْقُومٌ يَشْهَدُهُ الْمُقَرَّبُونَ وَخَلَقَ عَدُوَّنَا مِنْ سِجِّينٍ وَخَلَقَ قُلُوبَ شِيعَتِهِمْ مِمَّا خَلَقَهُمْ مِنْهُ وَأَبْدَانَهُمْ مِنْ دُونِ ذَلِكَ فَقُلُوبُهُمْ تَهْوِي إِلَيْهِمْ لأنَّهَا خُلِقَتْ مِمَّا خُلِقُوا مِنْهُ ثُمَّ تَلا هَذِهِ الآيَةَ كَلا إِنَّ كِتابَ الفُجَّارِ لَفِي سِجِّينٍ وَما أَدْراكَ ما سِجِّينٌ كِتابٌ مَرْقُومٌ وَيْلٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِلْمُكَذِّبِينَ.


4. Muhammad ibn Yahya and others have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalaf from abu Nahshal who has said that Muhammad ibn ‘Isma’il narrated from abu Hamza al-Thumali who has the following: “I heard abu la’ far (a.s.) saying, ‘Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, created us from the top most of paradise. He made the hearts of our followers from that which He had created us. He created their bodies from that which is below, thus, their hearts incline to us; they are made from what He had made us.’ He then recited this verse of the Holy Quran. ‘However, the records of the deeds of the virtuous ones will certainly be in llliyin (83:18). Would that you had known what llliyin is! (19). It is a comprehensively written Book (of records) (20). The ones nearest to Allah will bring it to the public (83:21).’ He then said, ‘Allah has created our enemies from Sijjin (the fire) and He has created the hearts of their followers from what He had created them. He created the bodies of their followers (followers of our enemies) from other matters. Thus, their hearts (the hearts of the followers of our enemies) incline to them (to our enemies) because they are created from what they (our enemies) are created.’ Then he recited this verse of the Holy Quran: ‘Let them know that the records of the sinners’ deeds are in Sijin (83:7). Would that you had known what Sijin is! (8). It is a comprehensively written Book (of records) (9). Woe, on that day, to those who have rejected Allah’s revelations (10) and those who have rejected the Day of Judgment (83:11).’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (7/ 7)



5ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَغَيْرِ وَاحِدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ جَمِيعاً عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أُورَمَةَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ يَسَارٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ يُوسُفَ قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي عَبْدُ الله بْنُ كَيْسَانَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ أَنَا مَوْلاكَ عَبْدُ الله بْنُ كَيْسَانَ قَالَ أَمَّا النَّسَبُ فَأَعْرِفُهُ وَأَمَّا أَنْتَ فَلَسْتُ أَعْرِفُكَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ إِنِّي وُلِدْتُ بِالْجَبَلِ وَنَشَأْتُ فِي أَرْضِ فَارِسَ وَإِنَّنِي أُخَالِطُ النَّاسَ فِي التِّجَارَاتِ وَغَيْرِ ذَلِكَ فَأُخَالِطُ الرَّجُلَ فَأَرَى لَهُ حُسْنَ السَّمْتِ وَحُسْنَ الْخُلُقِ وَكَثْرَةَ أَمَانَةٍ ثُمَّ أُفَتِّشُهُ فَأَتَبَيَّنُهُ عَنْ عَدَاوَتِكُمْ وَأُخَالِطُ الرَّجُلَ فَأَرَى مِنْهُ سُوءَ الْخُلُقِ وَقِلَّةَ أَمَانَةٍ وَزَعَارَّةً ثُمَّ أُفَتِّشُهُ فَأَتَبَيَّنُهُ عَنْ وَلايَتِكُمْ فَكَيْفَ يَكُونُ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ لِي أَ مَا عَلِمْتَ يَا ابْنَ كَيْسَانَ أَنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَخَذَ طِينَةً مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ وَطِينَةً مِنَ النَّارِ فَخَلَطَهُمَا جَمِيعاً ثُمَّ نَزَعَ هَذِهِ مِنْ هَذِهِ وَهَذِهِ مِنْ هَذِهِ فَمَا رَأَيْتَ مِنْ أُولَئِكَ مِنَ الأمَانَةِ وَحُسْنِ الْخُلُقِ وَحُسْنِ السَّمْتِ فَمِمَّا مَسَّتْهُمْ مِنْ طِينَةِ الْجَنَّةِ وَهُمْ يَعُودُونَ إِلَى مَا خُلِقُوا مِنْهُ وَمَا رَأَيْتَ مِنْ هَؤُلاءِ مِنْ قِلَّةِ الأمَانَةِ وَسُوءِ الْخُلُقِ وَالزَّعَارَّةِ فَمِمَّا مَسَّتْهُمْ مِنْ طِينَةِ النَّارِ وَهُمْ يَعُودُونَ إِلَى مَا خُلِقُوا مِنْهُ.


5. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad, who has narrated from more than one person from al-Husayn ibn al-Hassan. All of the above have narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Uwarma from Muhammad ibn Ali from ‘Isma’il ibn Yasar from ‘Uthman ibn Yusuf who has said that, reported to him ‘Abd Allah ibn Kaysan, from abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) who has said the following: “Once I said to the Imam, ‘May Allah keep my soul in service for your cause, I am your servant, abu ‘Abd Allah ibn Kaysan.’ The Imam said, ‘I know your genealogy. However, I do not know you (so well).’ I said, ‘I was born in the mountains and grew up in the land of Persia. I associate with people in business and other occasions. I, thus, associate with a man and find his appearance very good, to be of good manners and more trustworthy. When I investigate 1 find him to be one of your enemies. I also associate with another man who has bad manners, is less trustworthy and hot tempered. I then investigate and find him to be of your supporters and followers. Why is it so?’ “He (the Imam) said, ‘O ibn Kaysan, Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, took a clay from paradise and also from fire and then mixed them together. Then He separated this from that and that from this. The good appearances, good manners and trustworthiness that you find in them (our enemies) is because of the touch of the clay from paradise but they will return to that from which they are made. The deceitfulness, bad manners and hot-temperament that you find in them (our supporters and followers) is because of the touch of the clay from fire, however, they will return to that from which they were made.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/ 7)



6ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ صَالِحِ بْنِ سَهْلٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) الْمُؤْمِنُونَ مِنْ طِينَةِ الأنْبِيَاءِ قَالَ نَعَمْ.


6. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Khalid from Salih ibn Sahl who has said the following: “I asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Are the believers made from the clay from which the prophets were made?’ He said, ‘Yes, that is correct.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (10/ 7)



7ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ صَالِحِ بْنِ أَبِي حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَمَّا أَرَادَ أَنْ يَخْلُقَ آدَمَ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) بَعَثَ جَبْرَئِيلَ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) فِي أَوَّلِ سَاعَةٍ مِنْ يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ فَقَبَضَ بِيَمِينِهِ قَبْضَةً بَلَغَتْ قَبْضَتُهُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ السَّابِعَةِ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ الدُّنْيَا وَأَخَذَ مِنْ كُلِّ سَمَاءٍ تُرْبَةً وَقَبَضَ قَبْضَةً أُخْرَى مِنَ الأرْضِ السَّابِعَةِ الْعُلْيَا إِلَى الأرْضِ السَّابِعَةِ الْقُصْوَى فَأَمَرَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ كَلِمَتَهُ فَأَمْسَكَ الْقَبْضَةَ الأولَى بِيَمِينِهِ وَالْقَبْضَةَ الأخْرَى بِشِمَالِهِ فَفَلَقَ الطِّينَ فِلْقَتَيْنِ فَذَرَا مِنَ الأرْضِ ذَرْواً وَمِنَ السَّمَاوَاتِ ذَرْواً فَقَالَ لِلَّذِي بِيَمِينِهِ مِنْكَ الرُّسُلُ وَالأنْبِيَاءُ وَالأوْصِيَاءُ وَالصِّدِّيقُونَ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَالسُّعَدَاءُ وَمَنْ أُرِيدُ كَرَامَتَهُ فَوَجَبَ لَهُمْ مَا قَالَ كَمَا قَالَ وَقَالَ لِلَّذِي بِشِمَالِهِ مِنْكَ الْجَبَّارُونَ وَالْمُشْرِكُونَ وَالْكَافِرُونَ وَالطَّوَاغِيتُ وَمَنْ أُرِيدُ هَوَانَهُ وَشِقْوَتَهُ فَوَجَبَ لَهُمْ مَا قَالَ كَمَا قَالَ ثُمَّ إِنَّ الطِّينَتَيْنِ خُلِطَتَا جَمِيعاً وَذَلِكَ قَوْلُ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِنَّ الله فالِقُ الْحَبِّ وَالنَّوى‏ فَالْحَبُّ طِينَةُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الَّتِي أَلْقَى الله عَلَيْهَا مَحَبَّتَهُ وَالنَّوَى طِينَةُ الْكَافِرِينَ الَّذِينَ نَأَوْا عَنْ كُلِّ خَيْرٍ وَإِنَّمَا سُمِّيَ النَّوَى مِنْ أَجْلِ أَنَّهُ نَأَى عَنْ كُلِّ خَيْرٍ وَتَبَاعَدَ عَنْهُ وَقَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَمُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتِ مِنَ الْحَيِّ فَالْحَيُّ الْمُؤْمِنُ الَّذِي تَخْرُجُ طِينَتُهُ مِنْ طِينَةِ الْكَافِرِ وَالْمَيِّتُ الَّذِي يَخْرُجُ مِنَ الْحَيِّ هُوَ الْكَافِرُ الَّذِي يَخْرُجُ مِنْ طِينَةِ الْمُؤْمِنِ فَالْحَيُّ الْمُؤْمِنُ وَالْمَيِّتُ الْكَافِرُ وَذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَ وَمَنْ كانَ مَيْتاً فَأَحْيَيْناهُ فَكَانَ مَوْتُهُ اخْتِلاطَ طِينَتِهِ مَعَ طِينَةِ الْكَافِرِ وَكَانَ حَيَاتُهُ حِينَ فَرَّقَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بَيْنَهُمَا بِكَلِمَتِهِ كَذَلِكَ يُخْرِجُ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ الْمُؤْمِنَ فِي الْمِيلادِ مِنَ الظُّلْمَةِ بَعْدَ دُخُولِهِ فِيهَا إِلَى النُّورِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْكَافِرَ مِنَ النُّورِ إِلَى الظُّلْمَةِ بَعْدَ دُخُولِهِ إِلَى النُّورِ وَذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لِيُنْذِرَ مَنْ كانَ حَيًّا وَيَحِقَّ الْقَوْلُ عَلَى الْكافِرِينَ.


7. Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Salih ibn abu Hammad from al-Husayn ibn Yazid from al-Hassan ibn Ali ibn abu Hamza from Ibrahim from abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) who has said the following: “When Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, willed to create Adam He sent Jibril in the first hours of the Friday. He picked up with his right hand a handful. His hand had in its reach from the seventh heavens to the heaven above earth. From each of the heavens he picked up a handful. He also picked up another handful from the seventh earth of the above-most and to the farthest seventh earth. Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, then commanded His word to hold the first handful in his right and the other in his left. The clay then was cleaved into two. It was scattered from earth and from the heavens and then said to the clay in his right hand, ‘From you will be the messengers, the prophets, their successors, the truthful ones, the believers, those who will achieve salvation and those whom I will to have honors.’ It then became necessary for them to be as He said them to be. He then said to that which was on his left, ‘From you will be the tyrants, the polytheists, the unbelievers, the devils and those whom I will to humiliate and be of the wicked ones.’ It then became necessary for them to become what He said them to become. Thereafter the two clays mixed together as Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, has said, ‘Allah makes the seed and the nuts to cleave apart.’ (6:95) The seed is the clay of the believers upon which Allah has placed His love. The nuts are the clay of the unbelievers that are far from all good. It is called nuts (al- Nawa’) because it is far away from all good and from Him. Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, has said, ‘He (Allah) brings forth the living from the dead and the dead from the living.’ (6:95) The living are the believers who come out from the unbelievers and the dead who come out of the living are the unbelievers who are from the believers. The living are the believers and the dead are the unbelievers. This is because of the words of Allah, ‘Are those whom We brought to life after their being dead . . .’ (6:122) Their death was the mixing of their clay with the clay of the unbelievers and his coming to life was when Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, caused separation between them through His word. In this way Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, takes the believers at birth out to light from darkness after their entering therein and He takes the unbelievers out of the light to darkness after their entering into the light as it is said in the words of Allah, the Majestic the Glorious, ‘So that he can give warning to those who are of the living and the word about the unbelievers truly come to pass.’” (36:70)


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (7/10)