50. The Empyrean and Its‬‬ Description

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1 - حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق رحمه الله قال: حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله الكوفي، قال: حدثنا محمد بن إسماعيل البرمكي، قال: حدثنا الحسين بن الحسن، قال: حدثني أبي، عن حنان بن سدير، قال: سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن العرش والكرسي، فقال: إن للعرش صفات كثيرة مختلفة، له في كل سبب وضع في القرآن صفة على حدة فقوله: (رب العرش العظيم) يقول: الملك العظيم، وقوله: (الرحمن على العرش استوى) يقول: على الملك احتوى، وهذا ملك الكيفوفية الأشياء ثم العرش في الوصل متفرد من الكرسي لأنهما بابان من أكبر أبواب الغيوب، وهما جميعا غيبان، وهما في الغيب مقرونان لأن الكرسي هو الباب الظاهر من الغيب الذي منه مطلع البدع ومنه الأشياء كلها، والعرش هو الباب الباطن الذي يوجد فيه علم الكيف والكون والقدر والحد والأين والمشية وصفة الإرادة، وعلم الألفاظ والحركات والترك، وعلم العود والبدء فهما في العلم بابان مقرونان لأن ملك العرش سوى ملك الكرسي وعلمه أغيب من علم الكرسي، فمن ذلك قال: (رب العرش العظيم) أي صفته أعظم من صفة الكرسي وهما في ذلك مقرونان، قلت: جعلت فداك فلم صار في الفضل جار الكرسي؟ قال: إنه صار جاره لأن علم الكيفوفية فيه، وفيه الظاهر من أبواب البداء وأينيتها وحد رتقها وفتقها، فهذان جاران أحدهما حمل صاحبه في الصرف (١) وبمثل صرف العلماء (٢) و يستدلوا على صدق دعواهما (٣) لأنه يختص برحمته من يشاء وهو القوي العزيز. فمن اختلاف صفات العرش (٤) أنه قال تبارك وتعالى: ﴿رب العرش عما يصفون﴾ وهو وصف عرش الوحدانية لأن قوما أشركوا كما قلت لك قال تبارك وتعالى: (رب العرش) رب الوحدانية عما يصفون، وقوما وصفوه بيدين فقالوا: (يد الله مغلولة) وقوما وصفوه بالرجلين فقالوا: وضع رجله على صخرة بيت المقدس فمنها ارتقى إلى السماء وقوما وصفوه بالأنامل فقالوا: إن محمدا صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم قال: إني وجدت برد أنامله على قلبي، فلمثل هذه الصفات قال: (رب العرش عما يصفون) يقول رب المثل الأعلى عما به مثلوه (١) ولله المثل الأعلى الذي لا يشبهه شئ ولا يوصف ولا يتوهم، فذلك المثل الأعلى، ووصف الذين لم يؤتوا من الله فوائد العلم فوصفوا ربهم بأدنى الأمثال وشبهوه بالمتشابه منهم فيما جهلوا به (٢) فلذلك قال: (وما أوتيتم من العلم إلا قليلا) فليس له شبه ولا مثل ولا عدل، وله الأسماء الحسنى التي لا يسمى بها غيره، وهي التي وصفها في الكتاب فقال: ﴿فادعوه بها وذروا الذين يلحدون في أسمائه﴾ ﴿٣) جهلا بغير علم، فالذي يلحد في أسمائه بغير علم يشرك وهو لا يعلم ويكفر به وهو يظن أنه يحسن، فلذلك قال: وما يؤمن أكثرهم بالله إلا وهم مشركون﴾ فهم الذين يلحدون في أسمائه بغير علم فيضعونها غير مواضعها، يا حنان إن الله تبارك وتعالى أمر أن يتخذ قوم أولياء، فهم الذين أعطاهم الله الفضل وخصهم بما لم يخص به غيرهم، فأرسل محمدا صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم فكان الدليل على الله بأذن الله عز وجل حتى مضى دليلا هاديا فقام من بعده وصيه عليه السلام دليلا هاديا على ما كان هو دل عليه من أمر ربه من ظاهر علمه، ثم الأئمة الراشدون عليهم السلام. باب أن العرش خلق أرباعا


‫‪1. `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al-Daqqaq (may Allah have mercy on him) said:‬‬ ‫‪Muhammad ibn Abu `Abd Allah al-Kufi said: Muhammad ibn Isma`il al-Barmaki said: alHusayn ibn al-Hasan said: My father related to me, on the authority of Hannan ibn Sadir that‬‬ I asked Abu `Abd Allah (AS) about the Empyrean and the Throne. Hence, he said: Verily, the Empyrean has many different meanings which differ on the basis of their context in the Qur’an. By His Word: The Lord of the great Empyrean, He is that Great Sovereign. And by His Word: The Most Compassionate God is firm on the Empyrean, He encompasses by means of His Sovereignty, and this is sovereignty of qualities in things. The connection between the Empyrean and the Throne is unique as they are both openings to the greatest openings of the unseen. Although they are both unseen, they are both connected, because the Throne is the apparent opening from which are the innovation and all the things. The Empyrean is the hidden opening in which is found the knowledge of quality, existence, the divine decree, the boundaries, space, will intent, knowledge of words, actions, neglect, and the knowledge of the return and the beginning. Thus, they are both connected openings in knowledge, because the sovereignty of the Empyrean is different from the sovereignty of the Throne, and His Knowledge is more unseen than the Knowledge of the Throne. Therefore, it is for this reason that he said: The Lord of the great Empyrean, i.e. its description is grate than the description of the Throne, and they are both connected in that.” I asked, “May I be your ransom. Why does it share the same merit as the Throne?” He (AS) replied, Verily, it shares in its merit because of the knowledge of quality they both contain. However, the Throne has the apparent openings of the beginning and its whereabouts, and the limits of contraction and expansion. Therefore, these two are partners: one of them is the carrier of its partner in exchange. It is similar to the exchange of scholars, so they may reason in their claim over the truth of these two, because Allah specifies His Mercy to whomever He wills. And He is the Powerful, the Honorable. Among the different descriptions of the Empyrean is that He, the Blessed and Exalted said: Lord of the Empyrean from what they attribute (to Him). He described the Empyrean of the Oneness, because a group had associated (Him with it), like I explained to you. The Blessed and Exalted said: Lord of the Empyrean, i.e. Lord of the Oneness from what they attribute. A group attributed Him with two hands, so they said: The Hand of Allah is tied up. A group attributed Him with two feet, and said: “ “He put His Foot over the rock of the Sacred House [bayt al-muqaddas], and from there He ascended to heaven.” A group attributed Him with fingertips, and said: “Verily, Muhammad (SA) said: `I found the coolness of His Fingertips on my heart.” For the likeness of these attributes He said: Lord of the empyrean from what they attribute (to Him), that Lord of the highest example from what they resemble Him with. For Allah is the highest attribute, which no one resembles, and He cannot be described or imagined. That is the highest attribute. The one who have not been given benefits of knowledge, describe their Lord with adjectives which are below Him. They anthropomorphise Him and compare Him with that which they are ignorant of. And you have been given only a little portion of knowledge. Thus, He has no compeer, no likeness, and no equal. And Allah’s are the best names, with which no one is named but He. These are the ones that He described in the Book, and said: Therefore, call on Him thereby, and leave alone those who violate the sanctity of his names; ignorantly, and without knowledge. Therefore, the ones who violate the sanctity of His Names without knowledge, and describe Him out of ignorance, actually deny Him while thinking that they are doing good deeds. That is why He has said: And most of them do not believe in Allah without associating others (with Him). Hence, they are the ones who violate the sanctity of His Names out of ignorance through misplacing His Names. O Hannan! Verily, Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, has commanded to take a group to be `the Guardians.’ They are the ones Allah has bestowed with merit, and described them in terms with which He has not described others. Thus, He sent Muhammad (SA). He was a guide and leader to Allah until he passed away, with the authorization of the Mighty and High. Then his successor stood in his place as a guide and leader with knowledge according to the guidance and command of the Lord. He was followed by the other Rightly-Guided Imams (AS) [at-A`mmat al-Rashidun].”