36. The Refutation of the Dualists & the Atheists

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1 - حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا أبو القاسم العلوي، قال: حدثنا محمد بن إسماعيل البرمكي، قال: حدثنا الحسين ابن الحسن، قال: حدثني إبراهيم بن هاشم القمي، قال: حدثنا العباس بن عمرو الفقيمي، عن هشام بن الحكم في حديث الزنديق الذي أتى أبا عبد الله عليه السلام فكان من قول أبي عبد الله عليه السلام له: لا يخلو قولك: إنهما اثنان، من أن يكونا قديمين قويين أو يكونا ضعيفين أو يكون أحدهما قويا والآخر ضعيفا، فإن كانا قويين فلم لا يدفع كل واحد منهما صاحبة ويتفرد بالتدبير، وإن زعمت أن أحدهما قوي و الآخر ضعيف ثبت أنه واحد كما نقول، للعجز الظاهر في الثاني، وإن قلت: إنهما اثنان لم يخل من أن يكونا متفقين من كل جهة أو مفترقين من كل جهة فلما رأينا الخلق منتظما والفلك جاريا واختلاف الليل والنهار، والشمس والقمر دل صحة الأمر والتدبير وائتلاف الأمر على أن المدبر واحد ثم يلزمك إن ادعيت اثنين فلا بد من فرجة بينهما حتى يكونا اثنين فصارت الفرجة ثالثا بينهما، قديما معهما، فيلزمك ثلاثة، فإن ادعيت ثلاثة لزمك ما قلنا في الاثنين حتى يكون بينهم فرجتان فيكون خمسا، ثم يتناهى في العدد إلى ما لا نهاية في الكثرة . قال هشام: فكان من سؤال الزنديق أن قال: فما الدليل عليه؟ قال أبو - عبد الله عليه السلام: وجود الأفاعيل التي دلت على أن صانعا صنعها، ألا ترى أنك إذا نظرت إلى بناء مشيد مبني علمت أن له بانيا وإن كنت لم تر الباني ولم تشاهده، قال: فما هو؟ قال: هو شئ بخلاف الأشياء، ارجع بقولي: شئ إلى إثبات معنى، وأنه شئ بحقيقة الشيئية غير أنه لا جسم ولا صورة ولا يحس ولا يجس ولا يدرك بالحواس الخمس، لا تدركه الأوهام، ولا تنقصه الدهور، ولا يغيره الزمان. قال السائل: فتقول: إنه سميع بصير؟! قال: هو سميع بصير، سميع بغير جارحة وبصير بغير آله، بل يسمع بنفسه، ويبصر بنفسه، ليس قولي، إنه يسمع بنفسه وبصير بنفسه أنه شئ والنفس شئ آخر، ولكن أردت عبارة عن نفسي إذ كنت مسؤولا وإفهاما لك إذ كنت سائلا، وأقول: يسمع بكله لا أن الكل منه له بعض، ولكني أردت إفهاما لك والتعبير عن نفسي، وليس مرجعي في ذلك إلا إلى أنه السميع البصير العالم الخبير بلا اختلاف الذات ولا اختلاف المعنى . قال السائل: فما هو؟ قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: هو الرب وهو المعبود وهو الله وليس قولي: (الله) إثبات هذه الحروف ألف، لام، هاء، ولكني أرجع إلى معنى هو شئ خالق الأشياء وصانعها وقعت عليه هذه الحروف، وهو المعنى الذي يسمى به الله والرحمن والرحيم والعزيز وأشباه ذلك من أسمائه وهو المعبود عز وجل. قال السائل: فإنا لم نجد موهوما إلا مخلوقا، قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: لو كان ذلك كما تقول لكان التوحيد عنا مرتفعا لأنا لم نكلف أن نعتقد غير موهوم ولكنا نقول: كل موهوم بالحواس مدرك، فما تجده الحواس وتمثله فهو مخلوق ولا بد من إثبات صانع الأشياء خارج من الجهتين المذمومتين إحديهما النفي إذ كان النفي هو الإبطال والعدم، والجهة الثانية التشبيه إذ كان التشبيه من صفة المخلوق الظاهر التركيب والتأليف، فلم يكن بد من إثبات الصانع لوجود المصنوعين، والاضطرار منهم إليه أثبت أنهم مصنوعون، وأن صانعهم غيرهم وليس مثلهم إذ كان مثلهم شبيها بهم في ظاهر التركيب والتأليف وفيما يجري عليهم من حدوثهم بعد أن لم يكونوا، وتنقلهم من صغر إلى كبر، وسواد إلى بياض، وقوة إلى ضعف، وأحوال موجودة لا حاجة لنا إلى تفسيرها لثباتها ووجودها. قال السائل: فقد حددته إذ أثبت وجوده، قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: لم أحده ولكن أثبته إذ لم يكن بين الاثبات والنفي منزلة. قال السائل: فله إنية ومائية؟ قال: نعم، لا يثبت الشئ إلا بإنية و مائية . قال السائل: فله كيفية؟ قال: لا لأن الكيفية جهة الصفة والإحاطة ولكن لا بد من الخروج من جهة التعطيل والتشبيه لأن من نفاه أنكره ورفع ربوبيته وأبطله ومن شبهه بغيره فقد أثبته بصفة المخلوقين المصنوعين الذين لا يستحقون الربوبية، ولكن لا بد من إثبات ذات بلا كيفية لا يستحقها غيره ولا يشارك فيها ولا يحاط بها ولا يعلمها غيره . قال السائل: فيعاني الأشياء بنفسه؟ قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: هو أجل من أن يعاني الأشياء بمباشرة ومعالجة لأن ذلك صفة المخلوق الذي لا يجئ الأشياء له إلا بالمباشرة والمعالجة، وهو تعالى نافذ الإرادة المشية فعال لما يشاء. قال السائل: فله رضى وسخط؟ قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: نعم، وليس ذلك على ما يوجد في المخلوقين، وذلك أن الرضا والسخط دخال يدخل عليه فينقله من حال إلى حال، وذلك صفة المخلوقين العاجزين المحتاجين، وهو تبارك وتعالى العزيز الرحيم لا حاجة به إلى شئ مما خلق، وخلقه جميعا محتاجون إليه، وإنما خلق الأشياء من غير حاجة ولا سبب اختراعا وابتداعا (١). قال السائل: فقوله: ﴿الرحمن على العرش استوى﴾ قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: بذلك وصف نفسه وكذلك هو مستول على العرش بائن من خلقه من غير أن يكون العرش حاملا له ولا أن يكون العرش حاويا له ولا أن العرش محتاز له، ولكنا نقول: هو حامل العرش وممسك العرش، ونقول من ذلك ما قال: (وسع كرسيه السماوات والأرض) فثبتنا من العرش والكرسي ما ثبته، ونفينا أن يكون العرش والكرسي حاويا له أو يكون عز وجل محتاجا إلى مكان أو إلى شئ مما خلق، بل خلقه محتاجون إليه. قال السائل: فما الفرق بين أن ترفعوا أيديكم إلى السماء وبين أن تخفضوها نحو الأرض؟ قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: ذلك في علمه وإحاطته وقدرته سواء، ولكنه عز وجل أمر أولياءه وعباده برفع أيديهم إلى السماء نحو العرش لأنه جعله معدن الرزق، فثبتنا ما ثبته القرآن والأخبار عن الرسول صلى الله عليه وآله حين قال: ارفعوا أيديكم إلى الله عز وجل، وهذا يجمع عليه فرق الأمة كلها . قال السائل: فمن أين أثبت أنبياء ورسلا؟ قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: إنا لما أثبتنا أن لنا خالقا صانعا متعاليا عنا وعن جميع ما خلق وكان ذلك الصانع حكيما لم يجز أن يشاهده خلقه ولا يلامسهم ولا يلامسوه ولا يباشرهم ولا يباشروه ولا يحاجهم ولا يحاجوه فثبت أن له سفراء في خلقه وعباده يدلونهم على مصالحهم ومنافعهم وما به بقاؤهم وفي تركه فناؤهم، فثبت الآمرون والناهون عن الحكيم العليم في خلقه وثبت عند ذلك أن له معبرين وهم الأنبياء وصفوته من خلقه حكماء مؤدبين بالحكمة مبعوثين بها غير مشاركين للناس في أحوالهم على مشاركتهم لهم في الخلق والتركيب، مؤيدين من عند الله الحكيم العليم بالحكمة والدلائل والبراهين و الشواهد من إحياء الموتى وإبراء الأكمه والأبرص، فلا تخلو أرض الله من حجة يكون معه علم يدل على صدق مقال الرسول ووجوب عدالته. 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‫‪1. `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al-Daqqaq (may Allah have mercy on them_ said:‬‬ ‫‪Abu al-Qasim al-`Alawi said: Muhammad ibn Isma`il al-Barmaki said: al-Husayn ibn al-Hasan‬‬ ‫‪said: Ibrahim ibn Hashim al-Qummi related to me that al-`Abbas ibn `Amr al-Fuqaymi said: on‬‬ ‫‪the authority of Hisham ibn al-Hakam that‬‬ A dualist came to Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS). Among the things Abu `Abd Allah (AS‬‬ ‫‪said to him was: If you claim that “there is two (gods)” there can only be three‬‬ ‫‪possibilities. One: that both gods are eternal and all-powerful. Two: that both gods are‬‬ ‫‪weak. Or three: that on of them is all-powerful, and the other one is weak. Now, if both‬‬ ‫‪of them are powerful, then why doesn’t one of them overthrow the other, and mange all‬‬ ‫‪affairs single-handedly? If you believe that one of them is powerful, and the other one‬‬ ‫‪weak, then you have proved that He is One, and to the apparent inability of the second. And if you say that “they are two,” then only two things are possible: one, that they are both united in all aspects; or two, that they are separate in all aspects. However, when we contemplate the organization in creation, the orbits of the planets in the celestial sphere, the variation of day and night, the sun and the moon, and how everything operate in harmony, everything points that he Manager is One. Furthermore, if you claim that there are two gods, there must be a division between them both which has always existed, and that division would have to be a third god. However, if your claim that there are three gods, then there must be two divisions between them, leaving us with fie gods, and so on add aeterum. Hisham said: The dualist then questioned him until he asked, “What is the proof of His Existence?” Abu `Abd Allah (AS) replied, “The existence of great wonders is proof that they were created by the Creator. When you see the imposing structure of building, you know instinctively that it was built by someone, even though you did not see him build it. He enquired, “What is He?” The Imam (AS) explained, He is a thing unlike other things. Consider the word “a thing” in order to understand its implication. Since He is Real, and He Exists, He is indeed a Thing. However, He is devoid of both body and image. He is neither sensed nor felt, nor is He perceived by the five senses. The imagination perceives Him not. He is not subject to time. Time has no effect upon Him. The questioner asked, “Therefore, you are saying that `Verily, He is All-Hearing, and AllSeeing?” The Imam (AS) responded, He is All-Hearing, and All-Seeing. He is All-Hearing without tools, and All-Seeing, without instruments. In fact, He hears by means of His entire being and He hears by His entire being. My statement does not mean that “He hears by means of His Entire Being” in the sense that He is something, and His Being is something else. I am simply using this example in order to answer your question. I say: “He hears by means of His Entire Being” and not in the sense that He has parts. Rather, I am attempting to make myself understood. My only other option would be to say that He is All-Hearing, All-Seeing, AllKnowing, and All-Informed, in His Very Essence. The questioner questioned, “Than what is He?” Abu `Abd Allah (AS) answered, He is the Lord. He is the Worshipped One, He is Allah. When I use the word “Allah,” I am not referring to the combination of the letters “a,” “l,” and “h”. Rather, I am pointing to its meaning. He is a thing that is the Creator of all Things, and their Manufacturer who is described by means of these letters. He is the one who is referred to by the names Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful, the Honorable, among other names. He is the Worshipped One, the High and mighty. The questioner enquired, “So anything we can conceive of it created?” Abu `Abd Allah (AS) replied: If things were as you claimed, then recognizing Divine Unity would be beyond our reach. We are not obliged to believe in what cannot be imagined. However, we say: everything we can conceive with our senses is perceived. Therefore, whatever the sense can discover and demonstrate is created. In order to prove the existence of the Creator of All Things, we must do so without recurring to two erroneous approaches: the first of which is negation, i.e. abolition [ibtal], and non-existence [`adam]; and the second is anthropomorphism, i.e. description, composition [tarkib], and formation [ta’lif]. We cannot prove the existence of the Creator on the basis of these two approaches as they are created, The Creator is not like the created. If He resembles the created, then whatever applies to the created would also apply to Him: such as coming into existence after non-existence, growth, change of color, change of strength, and so forth. The questioner said: “In attempting to prove His Existence, you have limited Him.” Abu `Abd Allah (AS) responded, “I have not limited Him. ON the contrary, I have demonstrated His Existence through the only means possible: assertion and negation.” The questioner said: “Is His Existence real and actual?” The Imam (AS) replied, “Yes, His Existence is Real as nothing can be prove without being real and actual.” The questioner asked, “Does He have a shape?” The Imam (AS) explained, No, because shape is description that delineates. We must move away from negation and anthropomorphism Whoever negates Him, denies Him, eliminates His Lordship, and abolished Him. Whoever compares Him with other things describes Him on the basis of created attributes which are not worthy of Him. Nevertheless, we must prove His Essence without referring to shape. None is worthy of His Essence besides Him. And no one shares His Essence, encompasses it, or knows it but Him. The questioner said: “Does He sustain all things by Himself?” Abu `Abd Allah (AS) answered, “He is far Greater than sustaining things directly as only crated being s bring things forth directly. Exalted is He! His Intent and His Will are effective. He is the Mighty Doer of whatever He wills.” The questioner enquired, “Does He feel pleasure or anger?” Abu `Abd Allah (AS) said: Yes. However, His Pleasure and His Anger differ from the pleasure and anger fund among crated beings. Among created beings, pleasure and anger cause a change of state which is an attribute of the created, the incapable, and the needy. He is the Blessed and Exalted, the Honorable, and the Most Merciful. He is not in need of His Creation, while all His Creation is in need of Him. Verily, He created all things by means of invention and innovation, without any need or cause. The questioner uttered, “Then what about His Word: The Most Compassionate is firm on the Empyrean.” Abu `Abd Allah (AS) replied, He described Himself as such in order to convey that He is the Possessor of the Empyrean, not in the sense that the Empyrean carries the Empyrean and restrains it. And we say this because His has said: His Throne extends over the heavens and the earth. Therefore, we say of the Empyrean and the Throne what He has said: and we refute the notion that the Empyrean or the Throne contains Him as He is not in need of space or anything which He has created. On the contrary, He has created them and they are in need of Him. The questioner said: “Then what is the difference between raising your hands to heaven and lowering them towards the earth?” Abu `Abd Allah (AS) answered, That makes no difference in His Knowledge, Encompassment, and Omnipotence, but He, the Mighty and High, commanded His Beloved Ones and His Servants to raise their hands to heaven towards the Empyrean because He made it a so0urce of sustenance. This is proved from the Qur’an. It is also proved from the tradition of the Messenger (SA) which says: “Raise your hands to Allah the Mighty and High.” And this is agreed upon between all the schools of thought in the Ummah. The questioner asked, “How can you prove that Allah sent Prophets and messengers?” Abu `Abd Allah (AS) explained, Verily, we have proved that we have a Creator and a Producer who is Exalted from His Creation, and that he Producer is the Most Wise. It is impossible for His Creation to see Him or touch Him. He does not contact His Creation directly nor does His Creation contact Him directly. He does not reason with them, and they do not reason with Him. Thus, this proves that He has Representatives and Servants in His Creations who guide humanity towards what is best for them. They shall be granted e3ternitiy if they accept guidance. And they shall face destruction if they reject guidance. Evidently, those who promote the good and forbid the evil in His Creation must have been sent by the Most Wise, the All-Knowing. This demonstrates that He has Interpreters, and they are the Prophets, the Cream of His Creation, who are men of wisdom whom He has sent to guide and educate humankind. They are human in shape, but not in nature. They are endorsed by Allah, the Most Wise, the Omniscient, with wisdom, signs, proofs, and evidence, like giving life to the dead, healing lepers, and restoring sight to the blind. Verily, Allah’s earth is never without a Proof [hujjat] (of Allah) who brings the teachings of the Messenger (AS) and who embodies justice.




2 - حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد رحمه الله قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسن الصفار، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن محمد بن أبي عمير، عن هشام بن الحكم، قال: قلت لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام: ما الدليل على أن الله واحد؟ قال: اتصال التدبير وتمام الصنع كما قال عز وجل: ﴿لو كان فيهما آلهة إلا الله لفسدتا﴾ .


2. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Walid (RA) said: Muhammad ibn al-Hasan alSaffar said, on the authority of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Isa, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Abu `Umayr, on the authority of Hisham ibn al-Hakam that I asked Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS): “What is the Proof that Allah is One?” He (AS) replied, “The Proof that Allah is One can be seen in the continued management of creation and its perfection in all aspects. As the Mighty and High says: If there had been in them any gods except Allah, they would both have certainly been in a state of disorder.”




3 - حدثنا محمد بن علي ماجيلويه رضي الله عنه، عن عمه محمد بن أبي القاسم، قال: حدثني أبو سمينة محمد بن علي الصيرفي، عن محمد بن عبد الله الخراساني خادم الرضا عليه السلام، قال: دخل رجل من الزنادقة على الرضا عليه السلام وعنده جماعة، فقال له أبو الحسن عليه السلام: أيها الرجل أرأيت إن كان القول قولكم - وليس هو كما تقولون - ألسنا وإياكم شرعا سواء ولا يضرنا ما صلينا وصمنا وزكينا وأقررنا؟ فسكت، فقال أبو الحسن عليه السلام: وإن يكن القول قولنا - وهو كما نقول - ألستم قد هلكتم ونجونا؟. فقال، رحمك الله فأوجدني كيف هو وأين هو قال: ويلك إن الذي ذهبت إليه غلط، هو أين الأين وكان ولا أين، وهو كيف الكيف وكان ولا كيف، ولا يعرف بكيفوفية ولا بأينونية ولا يدرك بحاسة ولا يقاس بشئ،. قال الرجل فإذا إنه لا شئ إذ لم يدرك بحاسة من الحواس فقال أبو الحسن عليه السلام: ويلك لما عجزت حواسك عن إدراكه أنكرت ربوبيته، ونحن إذا عجزت حواسنا عن إدراكه أيقنا أنه ربنا خلاف الأشياء . قال الرجل: فأخبرني متى كان؟ فقال أبو الحسن عليه السلام: أخبرني متى لم يكن فأخبرك متى كان. قال الرجل: فما الدليل عليه؟ قال أبو الحسن عليه السلام: إني لما نظرت إلى جسدي فلم يمكني فيه زيادة ولا نقصان في العرض والطول ودفع المكاره عنه وجر المنفعة إليه علمت أن لهذا البنيان بانيا فأقررت به، مع ما أرى من دوران الفلك بقدرته وإنشاء السحاب وتصريف الرياح ومجرى الشمس والقمر والنجوم وغير ذلك من الآيات العجيبات المتقنات علمت أن لهذا مقدرا ومنشئا. قال الرجل: فلم احتجب؟ فقال أبو الحسن عليه السلام: إن الاحتجاب عن الخلق لكثرة ذنوبهم ، فأما هو فلا يخفى عليه خافية في آناء الليل والنهار. قال: فلم لا تدركه حاسة البصر؟ قال: للفرق بينه وبين خلقه الذين تدركهم حاسة الأبصار منهم ومن غيرهم، ثم هو أجل من أن يدركه بصر أو يحيط به وهم أو يضبطه عقل. قال: فحده لي، قال: لا حد له. قال: ولم؟ قال: لأن كل محدود متناه إلى حد، وإذا احتمل التحديد احتمل الزيادة وإذا احتمل الزيادة احتمل النقصان، فهو غير محدود، ولا متزايد ولا متناقص، ولا متجزء، ولا متوهم. قال الرجل: فأخبرني عن قولكم: إنه لطيف سميع بصير عليم حكيم أيكون السميع إلا بالأذن، والبصير إلا بالعين واللطيف إلا بعمل اليدين والحكيم إلا بالصنعة؟ فقال أبو الحسن عليه السلام: إن اللطيف منا على حد اتخاذ الصنعة، أو ما رأيت الرجل منا يتخذ شيئا يلطف في اتخاذه فيقال: ما ألطف فلانا، فكيف لا يقال للخالق الجليل: لطيف إذ خلق خلقا لطيفا وجليلا وركب في الحيوان أرواحا وخلق كل جنس متبائنا عن جنسه في الصورة لا يشبه بعضه بعضا، فكل له لطف من الخالق اللطيف الخبير في تركيب صورته، ثم نظرنا إلى الأشجار وحملها أطائبها المأكولة منها وغير المأكولة فقلنا عند ذلك: إن خالقنا لطيف لا كلطف خلقه في صنعتهم، وقلنا: إنه سميع لا يخفى عليه أصوات خلقه ما بين العرش إلى الثرى من الذرة إلى أكبر مناه في برها وبحرها ولا تشتبه عليه لغاتها فقلنا عند ذلك: إنه سميع لا بإذن وقلنا: إنه بصير لا ببصر لأنه يرى أثر الذرة السحماء في الليلة الظلماء على الصخرة السوداء، ويرى دبيب النمل في الليلة الدجية ويرى مضارها ومنافعها وأثر سفادها وفراخها ونسلها فقلنا عند ذلك إنه بصير لا كبصر خلقه، قال:، فما برح حتى أسلم وفيه كلام غير هذا.


3. Muhammad ibn `Ali Majilwayh (RA) said, on the authority of his paternal uncle Muhammad ibn Abu al-Qasim that Abu Saminah Muhammad ibn `Ali al-Sayrafi related to me, on the authority of Muhammad ibn `Abd Allah al-Khursasani the servant of al-Rida (AS) that An atheist entered the presence of al-Rida (AS) when he had some people in his presence. Therefore, Abu al-Hasan al-Rida (AS) asked him, “O man! Can you not see that if your view is correct, and it is absolutely not, then we are equal despite our prayers, fasting, alms-giving, and tht beliefs we profess have not harmed us?” The atheist remained silent. Then Abu al-Hasan (AS) added, “However, if our view is the correct one, which is certainly the case, then you are lost, and we are saved.” The man said: “May Allah’s mercy be upon you! Can you describe to me how He is and where He is?” The Imam (AS) answered, Woe to you! Verily, you are misguided. He originated the “where” since He existed when there was no “where.” He originated the “how” since He existed when there was no “how.” He cannot be described in terms of “how” or “where,” nor can he be perceived by any of our senses, or gauged by any other means. The man said: “Then surely He is nothing if He cannot be perceived by any of the sense.” Abu al-Hasan (as) said: Woe to you! Will you deny His Lordship simply because your sense cannot perceive Him? Although our senses fail to perceive Him, we know for certain that He is our Lord despite arguments to the contrary.” The man said: “Then tell, since when has He existed?” Abu al-Hasan said: “If you can tell me when He did no exist, I can tell you when He did exist.” The man said: “Then how can we prove His Existence?” Abu al-Hasan (AS) replied, Verily, when I contemplate my body and see that it is impossible for me to increase or decrease its breadth and height, to keep unpleasant things away from it, or draw benefits to it, then I know that this structure has a Maker. I acknowledge His Existence on the basis of the planets which orbit in the celestial sphere by His Command. I acknowledge His Existence on the basis of the production of clouds in the sky. I acknowledge His Existence on the basis of the movement of the winds. I acknowledge His Existence on the basis of the movement of the sun, the moon, and the starts. When I consider all the wonders of creation, I know that they are the product of a Determiner [Muqaddir], and an Originator [Munshi’]. The man enquired, “Then why has He veiled Himself (from men)?” Abu al-Hasan (AS) responded, “Verily, the veil between Allah and His Creatures is the result of their sins. As for Him, no secret is hidden from Him whether day or night.” The man said: “Then why does the sense of sight not perceive Him?” The Imam (AS) answered, “Vision seized Him not because He differs from His Creatures who see and are seeing. He is far above being seeing by sight, encompassed by the imagination, or conceived through reasoning.” The man said: “Then define His Limits for me.” The Imam (AS) answered, “He has no limits.” The man asked, “Why?” The Imam (AS) answered, He has no limits, because every limited thing has an end to its limits. If something can be limited, it can also be extended. If something can be extended, it can also be contracted. However, He is Unlimited. He is neither extended nor is He constrained. He cannot be divided, nor can He be imagined. The man said: “Then tell me about your saying that: “He is Subtle, All-Hearing, AllSeeing, All-Knowing and All-Wise.’ Can He be All-Hearing without ears, All Seeing without eyes, Subtle without hands, and Most Wise without workmanship?” Abu al-Hasan (AS) replied, Verily, a person among us is judge to be subtle on the basis of his workmanship. Have you not seen a man who undertakes a task, and is subtle in his handling of it, so it is said: “How subtle is so and so!” Then how could it not be said that the Majestic Creator is not Subtle when He creates a subtle and majestic creation, places souls in the living, and creates diversity among species, so that none of them is identical to the other? Every creature He has made contains subtle differences as a sign for the Subtle, AllAware, Creator. When we look upon the trees, and the delicate fruits they bear, both edible and inedible, we say that “Verily, our Creator is Subtle, but not like the subtlety of His Creatures in their workmanship.” And we say, “Verily, He is All-Hearing,” since the sounds of His Creatures, between the Throne and the earth, are not hidden to him, whether they emanate from a mole or something larger that that, and whether they originate on the land or in the depth of the ocean. Even their various forms of communication are clear to Him. We say that “Verily, He is All-Hearing, but not through ears.” Then we say, “Verily, He is All-Seeing,” but not through eyes, for He can see even a black speck on a black stone in the darkest night. He can see the tracks of an ant when the night is pitch-black. He sees what is harmful to the ant, beneficial to the ant, and its entire cycle of reproduction. And we say, “Verily, He is All-Seeing,” but not similar to the sight of His Creatures.” The narrator added, “The man did not leave until he had embraced Islam. The Imam (AS) said other things as well.”




4 - حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا أبو القاسم حمزة بن القاسم العلوي، قال: حدثنا محمد بن إسماعيل، قال: حدثنا أبو سليمان داود بن عبد الله، قال: حدثني عمرو بن محمد، قال: حدثني عيسى بن يونس، قال: كان ابن أبي العوجاء من تلامذة الحسن البصري فانحرف عن التوحيد، فقيل له: تركت مذهب صاحبك ودخلت فيما لا أصل له ولا حقيقة ، فقال: إن صاحبي كان مخلطا، كان يقول طورا بالقدر وطورا بالجبر وما أعلمه اعتقد مذهبا دام عليه، فقدم مكة تمردا وإنكارا على من يحج، وكان يكره العلماء مساءلته إياهم ومجالسته لهم لخبث لسانه وفساد ضميره، فأتى أبا عبد الله عليه السلام ليسأله، فجلس إليه في جماعة من نظرائه. فقال: يا أبا عبد الله إن المجالس بالأمانات ولا بد لمن كان به سعال أن يسعل أفتأذن لي في الكلام؟ فقال عليه السلام: تكلم بما شئت، فقال: إلى كم تدوسون هذا البيدر، وتلوذون بهذا الحجر، وتعبدون هذا البيت المرفوع بالطوب والمدر، وتهرولون حوله هرولة البعير إذا نفر؟! إن من فكر في هذا وقدر علم أن هذا فعل أسسه غير حكيم ولا ذي نصر فقل فإنك رأس هذا الأمر وسنامه وأبوك أسه ونظامه، فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: إن من أضله الله وأعمى قلبه استوخم الحق فلم يستعذبه، وصار الشيطان وليه يورده مناهل الهلكة، ثم لا يصدره، وهذا بيت استعبد الله له خلقه ليختبر طاعتهم في إتيانه، فحثهم على تعظيمه وزيارته، وجعله محل أنبيائه وقبلة للمصلين له، فهو شعبة من رضوانه وطريق يؤدي إلى غفرانه، منصوب على استواء الكمال ومجتمع العظمة والجلال، خلقه الله قبل دحو الأرض بألفي عام، وأحق من أطيع فيما أمر وانتهي عما نهى عنه وزجر، الله المنشئ للأرواح والصور. فقال ابن أبي العوجاء: ذكرت يا أبا عبد الله فأحلت على غائب، فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: ويلك كيف يكون غائبا من هو مع خلقه شاهد وإليهم أقرب من حبل الوريد، يسمع كلامهم، ويرى أشخاصهم، ويعلم أسرارهم. فقال ابن أبي العوجاء: فهو في كل مكان؟ أليس إذا كان في السماء كيف يكون في الأرض، وإذا كان في الأرض كيف يكون في السماء؟! فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: إنما وصفت المخلوق الذي إذا انتقل عن مكان واشتغل به مكان وخلا منه مكان فلا يدري في المكان الذي صار إليه ما حدث في المكان الذي كان فيه، فأما الله العظيم الشأن الملك الديان فلا يخلو منه مكان، ولا يشتغل به مكان، ولا يكون إلى مكان أقرب منه إلى مكان، والذي بعثه بالآيات المحكمة، والبراهين الواضحة، وأيده بنصره، واختاره لتبليغ رسالته صدقنا قوله بأن ربه بعثه وكلمه، فقام عنه ابن أبي العوجاء وقال لأصحابه: من ألقاني في بحر هذا؟!. وفي رواية محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد رحمه الله: من ألقاني في بحر هذا، سألتكم أن تلتمسوا لي خمرة فألقيتموني على جمرة قالوا: ما كنت في مجلسه إلا حقيرا، قال: إنه ابن من حلق رؤوس من ترون


4. Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al-Daqqaq (RA) said: Abu al-Qasim Hamzah ibn al-Qasim al-`Alawi said: Muhammad ibn Isma`il said: Abu Sulayman Dawud ibn `Abd Allah said: `Amr ibn Muhammad related to me that `Isa ibn Yunus related to me that Ibn Abu al-`Auja’ used to be one of the students of al-Hasan al-Basri until al-Basri went astray on the subject of Divine Unity. Hence, it was said to him, “You left the path of your teacher and embraced a belief which has no foundation in reality.” Therefore, he responded, “Verily, my teacher was confused, Sometime he supported the concept of Free-will [qadr], and sometimes he supported the concept of Compulsion [jabr]. I do not know whether he finally embraced one of them.” Ibn Abu al-`Awja’ came to Mecca full of arrogance and in opposition of those who were performing the pilgrimage. He used to abhor the learned ones. However, he would sit in their gatherings, asking them evil questions conceived in his corrupt mind. On one occasion, he came to Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) to question him. Consequently, he sat down before him was a group of people who had views similar to his and asked, “O Abu `Abd Allah! Verily, meetings should be confidential. If someone has to cough, he should cough. Do you permit me to talk?” So the Imam (AS) responded, “Ask whatever you wish.” Then he asked, How much longer will y our people continue to trample underfoot this threshing floor, honor this Stone, serve this House elevated with bricks and clay, and run about it like a camel when it stampedes? Verily, whoever ponders about this will come to know that this ritual was founded by one who was both unwise and without vision. Since your father (the Prophet) established this ritual, and you are the one responsible for this affair, will you not explain it to us? Then Abu `Abd Allah (AS) answered, Verily, whoever Allah misguides and whose heart is blind cannot digest the truth; hence, he does not find it pleasant. Satan becomes his guardian and brings him to the pools of disaster, from which Allah will not save him. Allah sought His service from His creation through this House to test the obedience of His Creation. Hence, He urged them to revere it and He urged them to visit it. He made it the place of His Messengers and the direction [qiblah] of prayer. Thus, it is a means of attaining His Pleasure and a means of attaining His Forgiveness. It has been raised to a level of perfection, and is a meeting place filled with grandeur and glory. Allah created it two thousand years before spreading the earth. He is more deserving for people to obey His Commands and abstain from His Prohibitions. Allah is the Producer of Spirits and Images. Ibn Abu al-`Awja’ said: “O Abu `Abd Allah! You invoked the absent.” Abu `Abd Allah (AS) replied, “Woe be to you! How could He be absent when He is the Witness to His Creation, and is closer to them than their jugular vein? He hears their speech sees their figures, and knows their innermost secrets.” Ibn Abu al-`Awja’ asked, “Then is He is every space? If He is in heaven, then how can He be on earth? And if He is on the earth, then how can He be in heaven?” Consequently, Abu `Abd Allah (AS) replied, Verily, what you have described only applies to the created. Only the created vacate a space when they change place. As far as the created are concerned, they have no idea of their previous space when they take up a new space. As for Allah, the Most Great in Rank, and the Most Bountiful Sovereign, there is no space free of Him, and no place which contains Him. There is no space closer to Him than another space. He sent Muhammad with His Firm Signs and Clear Proofs, and provided him with His Help. He chose him to deliver His Message. We confirm this word that his Lord sent him and what He spoke to Him (through revelation). Hence, Ibn Abu al-`Awja’ left his presence and said to his friends: “Who poured this Ocean (of Knowledge) on me? And in the tradition of Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Walid (RA) it states: “Who placed me in this ocean? I asked you to find me some wine, and you dropped me on the ember?” They replied, “You behaved inappropriately in his presence.” He said: “He is indeed the son of the one who made these people shave their heads.”




5 - حدثنا أحمد بن الحسن القطان قال: حدثنا أحمد بن يحيى، عن بكر بن عبد الله بن حبيب، قال: حدثني أحمد بن يعقوب بن مطر (١) قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسن ابن عبد العزيز الأحدب الجند بنيسابور، قال: وجدت في كتاب أبي بخطه: حدثنا طلحة بن يزيد، عن عبيد الله بن عبيد (٢) عن أبي معمر السعداني أن رجلا أتى أمير المؤمنين علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام فقال: يا أمير المؤمنين إني قد شككت في كتاب الله المنزل، قال له عليه السلام: ثكلتك أمك وكيف شككت في كتاب الله المنزل؟! قال: لأني وجدت الكتاب يكذب بعضه بعضا فكيف لا أشك فيه. فقال علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام: إن كتاب الله ليصدق بعضه بعضا ولا يكذب بعضه بعضا، ولكنك لم ترزق عقلا تنتفع به، فهات ما شككت فيه من كتاب الله عز وجل، قال له الرجل: إني وجدت الله يقول: ﴿فاليوم ننسيهم كما نسوا لقاء يومهم هذا﴾ (٣) وقال أيضا: ﴿نسوا الله فنسيهم﴾ (٤) وقال: ﴿وما كان ربك نسيا﴾ (٥) فمرة يخبر أنه ينسى، ومرة يخبر أنه لا ينسى، فأني ذلك يا أمير المؤمنين. قال: هات ما شككت فيه أيضا، قال: وأجد الله يقول: (يوم يقوم الروح والملائكة صفا لا يتكلمون إلا من أذن له الرحمن وقال صوابا) (٦) وقال واستنطقوا فقالوا والله ربنا ما كنا مشركين. (٧) وقال: ﴿يوم القيمة يكفر بعضكم ببعض ويلعن بعضكم بعضا﴾ (٨) وقال: ﴿إن ذلك لحق تخاصم أهل النار﴾ (٩) وقال: ﴿لا تختصموا لدي وقد قدمت إليكم بالوعيد﴾ وقال: (نختم على أفواههم وتكلمنا أيديهم وتشهد أرجلهم بما كانوا يكسبون) (١) فمرة يخبر أنهم يتكلمون ومرة يخبر أنهم لا يتكلمون إلا من أذن له الرحمن وقال صوابا، ومرة يخبر أن الخلق لا ينطقون ويقول عن مقالتهم (والله ربنا ما كنا مشركين) ومرة يخبر أنهم يختصمون، فأني ذلك يا أمير المؤمنين وكيف لا أشك فيما تسمع. قال: هات ويحك ما شككت فيه، قال: وأجد الله عز وجل يقول: ﴿وجوه يومئذ ناضرة * إلى ربها ناظرة﴾ ﴿٢) ويقول: لا تدركه الأبصار وهو يدرك الأبصار وهو اللطيف الخبير﴾ (٣) ويقول: ﴿ولقد رآه نزلة أخرى * عند سدرة المنتهى﴾ (٤) ويقول: ﴿يومئذ لا تنفع الشفاعة إلا من أذن له الرحمن ورضي له قولا * يعلم ما بين أيديهم وما خلفهم ولا يحيطون به علما﴾ (٥) ومن أدركه الأبصار فقد أحاط به العلم، فأني ذلك يا أمير المؤمنين وكيف لا أشك فيما تسمع. قال: هات أيضا ويحك ما شككت فيه، قال: وأجد الله تبارك وتعالى يقول: ﴿وما كان لبشر أن يكلمه الله إلا وحيا أو من وراء حجاب أو يرسل رسولا فيوحي بإذنه ما يشاء﴾ (٦) وقال: ﴿وكلم الله موسى تكليما﴾ (٧) وقال: ﴿وناداهما ربهما﴾ (٨) وقال: ﴿يا أيها النبي قل لأزواجك وبناتك﴾ (٩) وقال: (﴿يا أيها الرسول بلغ ما أنزل إليك من ربك﴾ (١٠) فأني ذلك يا أمير المؤمنين وكيف لا أشك فيما تسمع. قال: هات ويحك ما شككت فيه، قال: وأجد الله جل ثناؤه يقول: ﴿هل تعلم له سميا﴾ وقد يسمي الإنسان سميعا بصيرا وملكا وربا، فمرة يخبر بأن له أسامي كثيرة مشتركة، ومرة يقول: (هل تعلم له سميا) فأني ذلك يا أمير المؤمنين وكيف لا أشك فيما تسمع. قال: هات ويحك ما شككت فيه، قال: وجدت الله تبارك وتعالى يقول: ﴿وما يعزب عن ربك من مثقال ذرة في الأرض ولا في السماء﴾ (١). ويقول: ﴿ولا ينظر إليهم يوم القيمة ولا يزكيهم﴾ (٢). ويقول: ﴿كلا إنهم عن ربهم يومئذ لمحجوبون﴾ (٣). كيف ينظر إليهم من يحجب عنهم (٤) وأنى ذلك يا أمير المؤمنين وكيف لا أشك فيما تسمع. قال: هات أيضا ويحك ما شككت فيه، قال: وأجد الله عز وجل يقول: ﴿أأمنتم من في السماء أن يخسف بكم الأرض فإذا هي تمور﴾ (٥) وقال: ﴿الرحمن على العرش استوى﴾ (٦) وقال: ﴿وهو الله في السماوات وفي الأرض يعلم سركم وجهركم﴾ (٧) وقال: ﴿والظاهر والباطن)﴾ (٨) وقال: ﴿وهو معكم أين ما كنتم﴾ (٩) وقال: ﴿ونحن أقرب إليه من حبل الوريد﴾ (١٠) فأنى ذلك يا أمير المؤمنين وكيف لا أشك فيما تسمع. قال هات أيضا ويحك ما شككت فيه، قال: وأجد الله جل ثناؤه يقول: ﴿وجاء ربك والملك صفا صفا﴾ (١١) وقال: ﴿ولقد جئتمونا فرادى كما خلقنا كم أول مرة﴾ (١٢) وقال: ﴿هل ينظرون إلا أن يأتيهم الله في ظلل من الغمام والملائكة﴾ وقال: هل ينظرون إلا أن تأتيهم الملائكة أو يأتي ربك بعض آيات ربك يوم يأتي بعض آيات ربك لا ينفع نفسا إيمانها لم تكن آمنت من قبل أو كسبت في إيمانها خيرا) (١) فمرة يقول: يوم (يأتي ربك) ومرة يقول (يوم يأتي بعض آيات ربك) فأنى ذلك أمير المؤمنين وكيف لا أشك فيما تسمع. قال: هات ويحك ما شككت فيه، قال: وأجد الله جل جلاله يقول: ﴿بل هم بلقاء ربهم كافرون﴾ (٢) وذكر المؤمنين فقال: ﴿الذين يظنون أنهم ملاقوا ربهم و أنهم إليه راجعون﴾ (٣) وقال: ﴿تحيتهم يوم يلقونه سلام﴾ (٤) وقال: ﴿من كان يرجوا لقاء الله فإن أجل الله لآت﴾ (٥) وقال: ﴿فمن كان يرجوا لقاء ربه فليعمل عملا صالحا﴾ (٦) فمرة يخبر أنهم يلقونه، ومرة أنه لا تدركه الأبصار وهو يدرك الأبصار، ومرة يقول: (ولا يحيطون بع علما) فأنى ذلك أمير المؤمنين وكيف لا أشك فيما تسمع. قال: هات ويحك ما شككت فيه، قال: وأجد الله تبارك وتعالى يقول: ﴿ورأى المجرمون النار فظنوا أنهم مواقعوها﴾ (٧). وقال: ﴿يومئذ يوفيهم الله دينهم الحق ويعلمون أن الله هو الحق المبين﴾ (٨) وقال: ﴿وتظنون بالله الظنونا﴾ (٩) فمرة يخبر أنهم يظنون ومرة يخبر أنهم يعلمون، والظن شك فأنى ذلك يا أمير المؤمنين وكيف لا أشك فيما تسمع. قال: هات ما شككت فيه قال: وأجد الله تعالى يقول: ﴿ونضع الموازين القسط ليوم القيمة فلا تظلم نفس شيئا﴾ (١٠) وقال: ﴿فلا نقيم لهم يوم القيمة وزنا﴾ وقال: (فأولئك يدخلون الجنة يرزقون فيها بغير حساب) وقال: (والوزن يومئذ الحق فمن ثقلت موازينه فأولئك هم المفلحون * ومن خفت موازينه فأولئك الذين خسروا أنفسهم بما كانوا بآياتنا يظلمون) (١) فأنى ذلك يا أمير المؤمنين وكيف لا أشك فيما تسمع. قال: هات ويحك ما شككت فيه، قال: وأجد الله تعالى يقول: ﴿قل يتوفاكم ملك الموت الذي وكل بكم ثم إلى ربكم ترجعون﴾ (٢) وقال: ﴿الله يتوفى الأنفس حين موتها﴾ (٣) وقال: ﴿توفته رسلنا وهم لا يفرطون﴾ (٤) وقال: ﴿الذين تتوفاهم الملائكة طيبين﴾ (٥) وقال: ﴿الذين تتوفاهم الملائكة ظالمي أنفسهم﴾ فأنى ذلك يا أمير المؤمنين وكيف لا أشك فيما تسمع، وقد هلكت إن لم ترحمني وتشرح لي صدري فيما عسى أن يجري ذلك على يديك، فإن كان الرب تبارك وتعالى حقا والكتاب حقا والرسل حقا فقد هلكت وخسرت، وإن تكن الرسل باطلا فما علي بأس وقد نجوت. فقال علي عليه السلام: قدوس ربنا قدوس تبارك وتعالى علوا كبيرا، نشهد أنه هو الدائم الذي لا يزول، ولا نشك فيه، وليس كمثله شئ وهو السميع البصير، وأن الكتاب حق والرسل حق، وأن الثواب والعقاب حق، فإن رزقت زيادة إيمان أو حرمته فإن ذلك بيد الله، إن شاء رزقك وإن شاء حرمك ذلك، ولكن سأعلمك ما شككت فيه، ولا قوة إلا بالله، فإن أراد الله بك خيرا أعلمك بعلمه و ثبتك، وإن يكن شرا ضللت وهلكت. أما قوله: (نسوا الله فنسيهم) إنما يعني نسوا الله في دار الدنيا، لم يعلموا بطاعته فنسيهم في الآخرة أي لم يجعل لهم في ثوابه شيئا فصاروا منسسيين من الخير وكذلك تفسير قوله عز وجل: (فاليوم ننسيهم كما نسوا لقاء يومهم هذا) يعني بالنسيان أنه لم يثبهم كما يثيب أولياءه الذين كانوا في دار الدنيا مطيعين ذاكرين حين آمنوا به وبرسله وخافوه بالغيب، وأما قوله: (وما كان ربك نسيا) فإن ربنا تبارك وتعالى علوا كبيرا ليس بالذي ينسى ولا يغفل بل هو الحفيظ العليم، وقد يقول العرب في باب النسيان: قد نسينا فلان فلا يذكرنا أي أنه لا يأمر لنا بخير ولا يذكرنا به، فهل فهمت ما ذكر الله عز وجل، قال: نعم، فرجت عني فرج الله عنك وحللت عني عقدة فعظم الله أجرك. فقال عليه السلام: وأما قوله: (يوم يقوم الروح والملائكة صفا لا يتكلمون إلا من أذن له الرحمن وقال صوابا) وقوله: (والله ربنا ما كنا مشركين) وقوله: (يوم القيمة يكفر بعضكم ببعض ويلعن بعضكم بعضا) وقوله: (إن ذلك لحق تخاصم أهل النار) وقوله: (لا تختصموا لدي وقد قدمت إليكم بالوعيد) وقوله: (اليوم نختم على أفواههم وتكلمنا أيديهم وتشهد أرجلهم بما كانوا يكسبون) فإن ذلك في مواطن غير واحد من مواطن ذلك اليوم الذي كان مقداره خمسين ألف سنة، يجمع الله عز وجل الخلائق يومئذ في مواطن يتفرقون، ويكلم بعضهم بعضا ويستغفر بعضهم لبعض أولئك الذين كان منهم الطاعة في دار الدنيا للرؤساء والاتباع (١) ويلعن أهل المعاصي الذين بدت منهم البغضاء وتعاونوا على الظلم والعدوان في دار الدنيا، المستكبرين والمستضعفين يكفر بعضهم ببعض ويلعن بعضهم بعضا (٢) والكفر في هذه الآية البراءة، يقول: يبرء بعضهم من بعض، ونظيرها في سورة إبراهيم قول الشيطان (إني كفرت بما أشركتمون من قبل) (٣) وقول إبراهيم خليل الرحمن: ﴿كفرنا بكم﴾ يعني تبرأنا منكم، ثم يجتمعون في موطن آخر يبكون فيه فلو أن تلك الأصوات بدت لأهل الدنيا لأذهلت جميع الخلق عن معائشهم، ولتصدعت قلوبهم إلا ما شاء الله، فلا يزالون يبكون الدم، ثم يجتمعون في موطن آخر فيستنطقون فيه فيقولون: (والله ربنا ما كنا مشركين) فيختم الله تبارك وتعالى على أفواههم و يستنطق الأيدي والأرجل والجلود فتشهد بكل معصية كانت منهم، ثم يرفع عن ألسنتهم الختم فيقولون لجلودهم: ﴿لم شهدتم علينا قالوا أنطقنا الله الذي أنطق كل شئ﴾ (١) ثم يجتمعون في موطن آخر فيستنطقون فيفر بعضهم من بعض، فذلك قوله عز وجل: ﴿يوم يفر المرء من أخيه * وأمه وأبيه * وصاحبته وبنيه﴾ (٢) فيستنطقون فلا يتكلمون إلا ن أذن له الرحمن وقال صوابا، فيقوم الرسل صلى الله عليهم فيشهدون في هذا الموطن فذلك قوله ﴿فكيف إذا جئنا من كل أمة بشهيد وجئنا بك على هؤلاء شهيدا﴾ (٣) ثم يجتمعون في موطن آخر يكون فيه مقام محمد صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم وهو المقام المحمود، فيثني على الله تبارك وتعالى بما لم يثن عليه أحد قبله ثم يثني على الملائكة كلهم فلا يبقى ملك إلا أثنى عليه محمد صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم، ثم يثني على الرسل بما لم يثن عليهم أحد قبله، ثم يثني على كل مؤمن ومؤمنة يبدء بالصديقين والشهداء ثم بالصالحين، فيحمده أهل السماوات والأرض، فذلك قوله: ﴿عسى أن يبعثك ربك مقاما محمودا﴾ فطوبى لمن كان له في ذلك المقام حظ، وويل لمن لم يكن له في ذلك المقام حظ ولا نصيب، ثم يجتمعون في موطن آخر ويدال بعضهم من بعض وهذا كله قبل الحساب، فإذا أخذ في الحساب شغل كل إنسان بما لديه، نسأل الله بركة ذلك اليوم، قال: فرجت عني فرج الله عنك يا أمير المؤمنين، وحللت عني عقدة فعظم الله أجرك. فقال عليه السلام: وأما قوله عز وجل: (وجوه يومئذ ناضرة إلى ربها ناظرة) وقوله: (لا تدركه الأبصار وهو يدرك الأبصار) وقوله: (ولقد رآه نزلة أخرى عند سدرة المنتهى) وقوله (يومئذ لا تنفع الشفاعة إلا من أذن له الرحمن ورضي له قولا يعلم ما بين أيديهم وما خلفهم ولا يحيطون به علما) فأما قوله: (وجوه يومئذ ناضرة إلى ربها ناظرة) فإن ذلك في موضع ينتهي فيه أولياء الله عز وجل بعد ما يفرغ من الحساب إلى نهر يسمى الحيوان فيغتسلون فيه ويشربون منه فتنضر وجوههم إشراقا (١) فيذهب عنهم كل قذى ووعث، ثم يؤمرون بدخول الجنة، فمن هذا المقام ينظرون إلى ربهم كيف يثيبهم، ومنه يدخلون الجنة، فذلك قوله عز وجل من تسليم الملائكة عليهم: ﴿سلام عليكم طبتم فادخلوها خالدين﴾ (٢) فعند ذلك أيقنوا بدخول الجنة والنظر إلى ما وعدهم ربهم فذلك قوله: (إلى ربها ناظرة) وإنما بالنظر إليه النظر إلى ثوابه تبارك وتعالى. وأما قوله: (لا تدركه الأبصار وهو يدرك الأبصار) فهو كما قال: (لا تدركه الأبصار) يعني لا تحيط به الأوهام (وهو يدرك الأبصار) يعني يحيط بها وهو اللطيف الخبير، وذلك مدح امتدح به ربنا نفسه تبارك وتعالى وتقدس علوا كبيرا، وقد سأل موسى عليه السلام وجرى على لسانه من حمد الله عز وجل ﴿رب أرني أنظر إليك﴾ فكانت مسألته تلك أمرا عظيما وسأل أمرا جسيما فعوقب، فقال الله تبارك وتعالى: لن تراني في الدنيا حتى تموت فتراني في الآخرة ولكن إن أردت أن تراني في الدنيا فانظر (إلى الجبل فإن استقر مكانه فسوف تراني) فأبدى الله سبحان بعض آياته وتجلى ربنا للجبل فتقطع الجبل فصار رميما وخر موسى صعقا، يعني ميتا فكان عقوبته الموت ثم أحياه الله وبعثه وتاب عليه، فقال: (سبحانك تبت إليك وأنا أول المؤمنين) يعني أول مؤمن آمن بك منهم أنه لن يراك، وأما قوله: (ولقد رآه نزلة أخرى عند سدره المنتهى) يعني محمدا صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم كان عند سدرة المنتهى حيث لا يتجاوزها خلق من خلق الله وقوله في آخر الآية: (ما زاغ البصر وما طغى لقد رأى من آيات ربه الكبرى) رأى جبرئيل عليه السلام في صورته مرتين هذه المرة ومرة أخرى وذلك أن خلق جبرئيل عظيم فهو من الروحانيين الذين لا يدرك خلقهم وصفتهم إلا الله رب العالمين . وأما قوله: (يومئذ لا تنفع الشفاعة إلا من أذن له الرحمن ورضي له قولا يعلم ما بين أيديهم وما خلفهم ولا يحيطون به علما) لا يحيط الخلائق بالله عز وجل علما إذ هو تبارك وتعالى جعل على أبصار القلوب الغطاء، فلا فهم يناله بالكيف، ولا قلب يثبته بالحدود، فلا يصفه إلا كما وصف نفسه ليس كمثله شئ وهو السميع البصير، الأول والآخر والظاهر والباطن، الخالق البارئ المصور، خلق الأشياء فليس من الأشياء شئ مثله تبارك وتعالى، فقال: فرجت عني فرج الله عنك، وحللت عني عقدة فأعظم الله أجرك يا أمير المؤمنين. فقال عليه السلام: وأما قوله: (وما كان لبشر أن يكلمه إلا وحيا أو من وراء حجاب أو يرسل رسولا فيوحي بإذنه ما يشاء) وقوله: (وكلم الله موسى تكليما) و قوله: ((وناداهما ربهما) وقوله: (يا آدم اسكن أنت وزوجك الجنة) فأما قوله (ما كان لبشر أن يكلمه الله إلا وحيا أو من وراء حجاب) فإنه ما ينبغي لبشر أن يكلمه الله إلا وحيا وليس بكائن إلا من وراء حجاب، أو يرسل رسولا فيوحي بإذنه ما يشاء، كذلك قال الله تبارك وتعالى علوا كبيرا، قد كان الرسول يوحى إليه من رسل السماء فيبلغ رسل السماء رسل الأرض، وقد كان الكلام بين رسل أهل الأرض وبينه من غير أن يرسل بالكلام مع رسل أهل السماء، وقد قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: يا جبرئيل هل رأيت ربك فقال جبرئيل: إن ربي لا يرى، فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: فمن أين تأخذ الوحي؟ فقال: آخذه من إسرافيل فقال: ومن أين يأخذه إسرافيل؟ قال: يأخذه من ملك فوقه من الروحانيين، قال: فمن أين يأخذه ذلك الملك؟ قال: يقذف في قلبه قذفا، فهذا وحي، وهو كلام الله عز وجل، وكلام الله ليس بنحو واحد، منه ما كلم الله به الرسل، ومنه ما قذفه في قلوبهم، ومنه رؤيا يريها الرسل، ومنه وحي وتنزيل يتلى ويقرأ، فهو كلام الله، فاكتف بما وصفت لك من كلام الله، فإن معنى كلام الله ليس بنحو واحد فإن منه ما يبلغ به رسل السماء رسل الأرض، قال: فرجت عني فرج الله عنك و حللت عني عقدة فعظم الله أجرك يا أمير المؤمنين. فقال عليه السلام: وأما قوله: (هل تعلم له سميا) فإن تأويله هل تعلم أحدا اسمه الله غير الله تبارك وتعالى، فإياك أن تفسر القرآن برأيك حتى تفقهه عن العلماء، فإنه رب تنزيل يشبه كلام البشر وهو كلام الله، وتأويله لا يشبه كلام - البشر، كما ليس شئ من خلقه يشبهه، كذلك لا يشبه فعله تبارك وتعالى شيئا من أفعال البشر، ولا يشبه شئ من كلامه كلام البشر، فكلام الله تبارك وتعالى صفته وكلام البشر أفعالهم، فلا تشبه كلام الله بكلام البشر فتهلك وتضل، قال: فرجت عني فرج الله عنك، وحللت عني عقدة فعظم الله أجرك يا أمير المؤمنين. فقال عليه السلام: وأما قوله: (وما يعزب عن ربك من مثقال ذره في الأرض ولا في السماء، كذلك ربنا لا يعزب عنه شئ، وكيف يكون من خلق الأشياء لا يعلم ما خلق وهو الخلاق العليم. وأما قوله: (لا ينظر إليهم يوم القيمة) يخبر أنه لا يصيبهم بخير، وقد تقول العرب: والله ما ينظر إلينا فلان، وإنما يعنون بذلك أنه لا يصيبنا منه بخير، فذلك النظر ههنا من الله تعالى إلى خلقه، فنظره إليهم رحمة منه لهم، وأما قوله: (كلا إنهم عن ربهم يومئذ لمحجوبون) فإنما يعني بذلك يوم القيامة أنهم عن ثواب ربهم محجوبون قال: فرجت عني فرج الله عنك، وحللت عني عقدة فعظم الله أجرك. فقال عليه السلام: وأما قوله: (أأمنتم من في السماء أن يخسف بكم الأرض فإذا هي تمور) وقوله: (وهو الله في السماوات وفي الأرض) وقوله: (الرحمن على العرش استوى) وقوله: (وهو معكم أينما كنتم) وقوله: (ونحن أقرب إليه من حبل الوريد) فكذلك الله تبارك وتعالى سبوحا قدوسا، تعالى أن يجري منه ما يجري من المخلوقين وهو اللطيف الخبير، وأجل وأكبر أن ينزل به شئ مما ينزل بخلقه وهو على العرش استوى علمه، شاهد لكل نجوى، وهو الوكيل على كل شئ، والميسر لكل شئ، والمدبر للأشياء كلها، تعالى الله عن أن يكون على عرشه علوا كبيرا. فقال عليه السلام: وأما قوله: (وجاء ربك والملك صفا صفا) وقوله: (ولقد جئتمونا فرادى كما خلقناكم أول مرة)، قوله: (هل ينظرون إلا أن يأتيهم الله في ظلل من الغمام والملائكة) وقوله: (هل ينظرون إلا أن تأتيهم الملائكة أو يأتي ربك أو يأتي بعض آيات ربك) فإن ذلك حق كما قال الله عز وجل، و ليس له جيئة كجيئة الخلق، وقد أعلمتك أن رب شئ من كتاب الله تأويله على غير تنزيله ولا يشبه كلام البشر، وسأنبئك بطرف منه فتكتفي إن شاء الله، من ذلك قول إبراهيم عليه السلام: ﴿إني ذاهب إلى ربي سيهدين﴾ (١) فذهابه إلى ربه توجهه إليه عبادة واجتهادا وقربة إلى الله عز وجل، ألا ترى أن تأويله غير تنزيله، وقال ﴿وأنزلنا الحديد فيه بأس شديد﴾ (٢) يعني السلاح وغير ذلك، وقوله: (هل ينظرون إلا أن تأتيهم الملائكة) يخبر محمدا (٣) صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم عن المشركين والمنافقين الذين لم يستجيبوا لله وللرسول، فقال: (هل ينظرون إلا أن تأتيهم الملائكة) حيث لم يستجيبوا لله ولرسوله (أو يأتي ربك أو يأتي بعض آيات ربك) يعني بذلك العذاب يأتيهم في دار الدنيا كما عذب القرون الأولى، فهذا خبر يخبر به النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم عنهم، ثم قال: (يوم يأتي بعض آيات ربك لا ينفع نفسا إيمانها لم تكن آمنت من قبل أو كسبت في إيمانها خيرا) يعني من قبل أن يجيئ هذه الآية، وهذه الآية طلوع الشمس من مغربها، وإنما يكتفي أولوا الألباب والحجى وأولوا النهى أن يعلموا أنه إذا انكشف الغطاء رأوا ما يوعدون، وقال: في آية أخرى: ﴿فأتاهم الله من حيث لم يحتسبوا﴾ (٤) يعني أرسل عليهم عذابا، وكذلك إتيانه بنيانهم قال الله عز وجل: ﴿فأتى الله بنيانهم من القواعد﴾ فإتيانه بنيانهم من القواعد إرسال العذاب عليهم، وكذلك ما وصف من أمر الآخرة تبارك اسمه وتعالى علوا كبيرا أنه يجري أموره في ذلك اليوم الذي كان مقداره خمسين ألف سنة كما يجري أموره في الدنيا لا يغيب ولا يأفل مع الآفلين، فاكتف بما وصفت لك من ذلك مما جال في صدرك مما وصف الله عز وجل في كتابه، ولا تجعل كلامه ككلام البشر، هو أعظم وأجل وأكرم وأعز تبارك وتعالى من أن يصفه الواصفون إلا بما وصف به نفسه في قوله عز وجل: ﴿ليس كمثله شئ وهو السميع البصير﴾ (١) قال: فرجت عني يا أمير المؤمنين فرج الله عنك، وحللت عني عقدة. فقال عليه السلام: وأما قوله: (بل هم بلقاء ربهم كافرون) وذكر الله المؤمنين (الذين يظنون أنهم ملاقوا ربهم)) وقوله لغيرهم: ﴿إلى يوم يلقونه بما أخلفوا الله ما وعدوه﴾ وقوله: (فمن كان يرجوا لقاء ربه فليعمل عملا صالحا) فأما قوله: (بل هم بلقاء ربهم كافرون) يعني البعث فسماه الله عز وجل لقاءه، وكذلك ذكر المؤمنين (الذين يظنون أنهم ملاقوا ربهم) يعني يوقنون أنهم يبعثون و يحشرون ويحاسبون ويجزون بالثواب والعقاب، فالظن ههنا اليقين خاصة، و كذلك قوله: (فمن كان يرجوا لقاء ربه فليعمل عملا صالحا) وقوله: (من كان يرجوا لقاء الله فإن أجل الله لآت) يعني: من كان يؤمن بأنه مبعوث فإن وعد الله لآت من الثواب والعقاب، فاللقاء ههنا ليس بالرؤية، واللقاء هو البعث، فافهم جميع ما في الكتاب من لقائه فإنه يعني بذلك البعث، وكذلك قوله: (تحيتهم يوم يلقونه سلام) يعني أنه لا يزول الإيمان عن قلوبهم يوم يبعثون، قال: فرجت عني يا أمير المؤمنين فرج الله عنك، فقد حللت عني عقدة. فقال عليه السلام: وأما قوله: (ورأى المجرمون النار فظنوا أنهم مواقعوها) يعني أيقنوا أنهم داخلوها، وكذلك قوله: (إني ظننت أني ملاق حسابيه) يقول إني أيقنت أني أبعث فأحاسب، وكذلك قوله: (يومئذ يوفيهم الله دينهم الحق ويعلمون أن الله هو الحق المبين) وأما قوله للمنافقين: (وتظنون بالله الظنونا) فهذا الظن ظن شك وليس ظن يقين، والظن ظنان: ظن شك وظن يقين، فما كان من أمر معاد من الظن فهو ظن يقين، وما كان من أمر الدنيا فهو ظن شك فافهم ما فسرت لك، قال: فرجت عني يا أمير المؤمنين فرج الله عنك. فقال عليه السلام: وأما قوله تبارك وتعالى: (ونضع الموازين القسط ليوم القيمة فلا تظلم نفس شيئا) فهو ميزان العدل يؤخذ به الخلائق يوم القيامة، يدين الله تبارك و تعالى الخلق بعضهم من بعض بالموازين. وفي غير هذا الحديث الموازين هم الأنبياء والأوصياء عليهم السلام . وأما قوله عز وجل: (فلا نقيم لهم يوم القيمة وزنا) فإن ذلك خاصه. وأما قوله: (فأولئك يدخلون الجنة يرزقون فيها بغير حساب) فإن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم قال: قال الله عز وجل: لقد حقت كرامتي - أو قال: مودتي - لمن يراقبني ويتحاب بجلالي إن وجوههم يوم القيامة من نور على منابر من نور عليهم ثياب خضر، قيل: من هم يا رسول الله؟ قال: قوم ليسوا بأنبياء ولا شهداء، ولكنهم تحابوا بجلال الله ويدخلون الجنة بغير حساب، نسأل الله عز وجل أن يجعلنا منهم برحمته. وأما قوله: فمن ثقلت موازينه وخفت موازينه فإنما يعني الحساب، توزن الحسنات والسيئات، والحسنات ثقل الميزان والسيئات خفة الميزان. فقال عليه السلام: وأما قوله: (قل يتوفاكم ملك الموت الذي وكل بكم ثم إلى ربكم ترجعون) وقوله: (الله يتوفى الأنفس حين موتها) وقوله: (توفته رسلنا وهم لا يفرطون) وقوله: (الذين تتوفاهم الملائكة ظالمي أنفسهم) وقوله: تتوفاهم الملائكة طيبين يقولون سلام عليكم) فإن الله تبارك وتعالى يدبر الأمور كيف يشاء، ويوكل من خلقه من يشاء بما يشاء. أما ملك الموت فإن الله يوكله بخاصة من يشاء من خلقه، ويوكل رسله من الملائكة خاصة بمن يشاء من خلقه، والملائكة الذين سماهم الله عز ذكره وكلهم بخاصة من يشاء من خلقه، إنه تبارك وتعالى يدبر الأمور كيف يشاء، وليس كل العلم يستطيع صاحب العلم أن يفسره لكل الناس لأن منهم القوي والضعيف، ولأن منه ما يطاق حمله ومنه ما لا يطاق حمله إلا من يسهل الله له حمله وأعانه عليه من خاصة أوليائه، وإنما يكفيك أن تعلم أن الله هو المحيي المميت وأنه يتوفى الأنفس على يدي من يشاء من خلقه من ملائكته وغيرهم، قال: فرجت عني فرج الله عنك يا أمير المؤمنين ونفع الله المسلمين بك . فقال علي عليه السلام للرجل: إن كنت قد شرح الله صدرك بما قد تبينت لك فأنت والذي فلق الحبة وبرأ النسمة من المؤمنين حقا، فقال الرجل: يا أمير المؤمنين كيف لي أن أعلم بأني من المؤمنين حقا؟ قال عليه السلام: لا يعلم ذلك إلا من أعلمه الله على لسان نبيه صلى الله عليه وآله وشهد له رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله بالجنة أو شرح الله صدره ليعلم ما في الكتب التي أنزلها الله عز وجل على رسله وأنبيائه، قال: يا أمير المؤمنين ومن يطيق ذلك؟ قال: من شرح الله صدره ووفقه له، فعليك بالعمل لله في سر أمرك وعلانيتك فلا شئ يعدل العمل. قال مصنف هذا الكتاب: الدليل على أن الصانع واحد لا أكثر من ذلك أنهما لو كانا اثنين لم يخل الأمر فيهما من أن يكون كل واحد منهما قادرا على منع صاحبه مما يريد أو غير قادر، فإن كان كذلك فقد جاز عليهما المنع ومن جاز عليه ذلك فمحدث كما أن المصنوع محدث، وإن لم يكونا قادرين لزمهما العجز و النقص وهما من دلالات الحدث، فصح أن القديم واحد. ودليل آخر وهو أن كل واحد منهما لا يخلوا من أن يكون قادرا على أن يكتم الآخر شيئا، فإن كان كذلك فالذي جاز الكتمان عليه حادث، وإن لم يكن قادرا فهو عاجز والعاجز حادث لما بيناه، وهذا الكلام يحتج به في إبطال قديمين صفة كل واحد منهما صفة القديم الذي أثبتناه، فأما ما ذهب إليه ماني وابن ديصان من خرافاتهما في الامتزاج ودانت به المجوس من حماقاتها في أهرمن ففاسد بما يفسد به قدم الأجسام، ولدخولهما في تلك الجملة اقتصرت على هذا الكلام فيهما ولم أفرد كلا منهما بما يسأل عنه منه.


5. Ahmad ibn al-Hasan al-Qittan said: Ahmad ibn Yahya said, on the authority of Bakr ibn `Abd Allah ibn Hubayb that Ahmad ibn Ya`qub ibn Matar related to me that Muhammad ibn alHasan bin `Abd al-`Aziz al-Ahdab al-Jund said in Naysabur that I found in my father’s book in his writing: Talhah ibn Yazid said, on the authority of `Ubayd Allah ibn `Ubayd, on the authority of Abu Ma`mar al-Sa`dani that A man came to the Commander of the Faithful `Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS) and said: “O Commander of the Faithful! Verily, I have doubted the Revealed Book of Allah.” The Imam (AS) replied to him, “May your mother be bereaved of you! How did you come to doubt the Revealed Book of Allah?” He said: “Because I find some parts of the Book belie some other parts then how should I not doubt in it.?” Consequently, `Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS) replied, “Verily, when it comes to the Book of Allah, some parts of it verify other parts. However, you have not been given the sustenance of wisdom to benefit form it. Bring me what you doubt in the Book of Allah, the Mighty and High.” The man explained to him (AS), “I found Allah saying that So today We forget them, as they forgot the meeting of this day of theirs, also: They have forgotten Allah, so He has forgotten them, and said: And your Lord is not forgetful. Thus, once He informs that He does forget and in another place He says that He does not forget. O Commander of the Faithful, what is that?” Imam `Ali (AS) said: “Bring me what you doubt in.” He said: I have found Allah saying that The Day on which the spirit and the angels shall stand in ranks; they shall not speak except he whom the Most Compassionate God permits and who speaks the right thing, He says: (they will speak) They would say: By Allah, our Lord, we were not polytheist, He says: On the Resurrection Day some of you shall deny others, and some of you shall curse others, then He says: That most surely is the truth: the contending one with another of the inmates of the fire, He says: Do not quarrel in My Presence, and indeed I gave you the threatening beforehand, and He says: We will set a seal upon their mouths, and their hands shall speak to Us, and their feet shall bear witness of what t hey earned. Therefore, on one occasion He says that they will speak, and on another occasion He says: “they will not speak except he whom the Most Compassionate permits and who speaks the right thing.” In one place He informs that the creation will not speak and describes their statement: “By Allah, our Lord, we were not polytheist.” In another place He says that they will quarrel. O Commander of the Faithful, why is that? And how shall I not doubt in what you hear (from me)? The Imam said: “Woe unto you! Bring me what you doubt in.” He responded, I also find Allah, the Mighty and High saying that Faces on that day shall be bright, looking to their Lord, and he says: Vision comprehends Him not, and He comprehends (all) vision; and He is the Knower of Subtleties, the Aware, He says: And certainly he saw him in another descent, a the farthest lotus-tree; He also says: On that day shall no intercession avail except of him whom the Beneficent Allah allows and whose word He is pleased with. He knows what is before them and what is behind them, while they do not comprehend it in knowledge. Whoever the eyes have perceived is encompassed in knowledge. O Commander of Faithful, why is that? And how shall I not doubt in what you hear? The Imam (AS) said: “Woe unto you! Bring me what you doubt in.” The man uttered, I also find Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, that And it is not for any man that Allah should speak to him save by revelation or from behind a veil, or by sending a messenger (angel) and to reveal by His permission what He wills, He also says: And to Musa, Allah addressed His Word, speaking (to him), and He says: And their Lord called out to them, and He says, O Prophet! Say to your wives and your daughters and He also says: O Messenger! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord. Why is that O Commander of the Faithful? And how shall I not doubt in what you hear? The Imam said: “Woe unto you! Bring me what you doubt in.” The man further said: I find Allah, High be His Praise, saying that Do you know anyone else named with the same names? He names the human as hearing [sami`], seeing [basir`], sovereign [malik], lord [rabb]. Therefore, at times He says that He has many common names, and at other times He says: “do you know anyone else named with the same name?” Why is that O Commander of the Faithful? And ho shall I not doubt in what you hear?” The Imam said: “Woe unto you! Bring me what you doubt in.” He said: I found Allah, the Blessed and Exalted saying, that And there does not lie concealed from your Lord the weight of an atom in the earth or in heaven, and that nor will He look upon them on the Day of Resurrection nor will He purify them, and also that Nay! Most surely they shall on that day be veiled from their Lord. How does He look at them when they are veiled? And why is that O Commander of the Faithful? And how shall I not doubt in what you hear? The Imam (AS) replied, “Woe unto you! Bring me what you doubt in.” He continued, And I find Allah, the Might and High, saying that Are you secure of those in heaven and He should not make the earth to swallow you up, and that The Most Compassionate Allah is firm on the Empyrean, and also that And He is Allah in heavens and in the earth; He knows your secrets and your disclosures, and that The Manifested and the Hidden, and that He is with you wherever you may be, and also that We are nearer to him than his jugular vein. Then why is that O Commander of the Faithful? And ho shall I not doubt in what you hear? The Imam (AS) said: “Woe unto you! Bring me more what you doubt in.” The man further said: I find Allah, High be His praise, saying that And your Lord comes and (also) the angels in ranks, and he said: Verily, you have come to Us alone as We created you at first, and said: They do not wait aught but that Allah should come to them in the shadows of the clouds along with the angels, and also said: They do not wait aught but that the angels should come to them, or that your Lord should come, or that some of the signs of your Lord should come. On the day when some of the Signs of your Lord shall come, its faith shall not profit a soul which did no believe before, or earn good through its faith. Thus, in one place He says: “On the Day your Lord should come” and in another place He says: “on the Day some of the Signs of your Lord should come.” Then why is that O Commander of the Faithful? And how shall I not doubt in what you hear? The Imam (AS) said: “Woe unto you! Bring me what you doubt in.” The man continued, And I find Allah, the Mighty and High, saying that Nay! They are unbelievers in the meeting of their Lord, and when He mentioned the Believer, He said: Who know that they shall meet their Lord and that they shall return to Him, and said: Their greetings on the Day when they meet Him shall be: “Peace,” and He also said: Whoever hopes to meet Allah, then meeting Him is forthcoming, and said: Therefore, whoever hope to meet his Lord, he should do good deeds. Thus, in one occasion, He says that they will meet Him, and on other occasion, He says that vision cannot perceive Him, and that He perceives all vision. And at another time He says: “They cannot encompass Him with knowledge.” Then why is that O Commander of the Faithful? And how shall I not doubt in what you hear The Imam (AS) said: “Woe unto you! Bring me what you doubt in.” The man said: I found Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, that And the guilty shall see the fire, then they shall think that they are going to fall into it, and He said: On that day Allah will pay back to them in full their just reward, and they shall know that Allah is the evident Truth, and He also said: You began to think diverse thoughts of Allah. So in one place He says that “they think,” and in another place He says that “they know.” Thinking [zann] is doubt. Then why is that O Commander of the Faithful? And how shall I not doubt in what you heard? The Imam (AS) said: “Bring me what you doubt in.” The man said: I find Allah, the Exalted, saying that And We will set up a just balance on the Day of Resurrection, so no soul shall be dealt with unjustly in the least; and He said: Therefore, We will not set up a balance for them on the Day of Resurrection, and He also said: These shall enter the garden, in which they shall be given sustenance without measure, and He also said: And the measuring out on the that day will be just; then as for him whose measure (of good deeds) is heavy, those are they who shall be successful; and as for him whose measure (of good deeds) is light those are they who have made their souls suffer loss because they were unjust towards Our signs. Then why is that O Commander of the Faithful? And how shall I not doubt in what you hear? The Imam (AS) replied, “Woe unto you! Bring me what you doubt in.” The man said: I found Allah, the Exalted, saying that Say: The Angel of Death who is given charge of you takes your souls, then to your Lord you shall be brought back, and He said: Allah takes the souls at the time of their death, and He also said: Our Messengers (angels) take his soul away, and they are not remiss, and also said: Thos whom the angels take away their souls in a good state, and He also said: Those whom the angels take away their souls while they are unjust to themselves. Then why is that O Commander of the Faithful? And how shall I not doubt in what you hear? Thus, I shall perish if you do not have mercy on me, and expand my chest for me in what might happen by my hands. For if the Lord, the Blessed and Exalted is truth, the book is truth, and the Messengers are truth, then I have perished and am in loss. However, if the Messengers are false then it does not matter, and I am saved. Consequently, `Ali (AS) said: Our Lord, the Most Holy, Blessed and Exalted be He, is Elevated, and Great. We bear witness that He is the Ever-Lasting who does not decline. We do not doubt in Him, and there is nothing whatsoever like Him, and He is All-Hearing, the All-Seeing. And we bear witness that the Book is truth, the Messengers are truth, and that the reward of Allah and the wrath of Allah are true. Thus, if you are given faith, or faith is taken away from you, then that is Allah’s prerogative. If He wishes to bless you, He will and if He does not wish to, He will not. Nonetheless, I will clarify the issues in which you doubt. There is no strength or power but Allah. If Allah intends good for you, He will grant you guidance through His Knowledge and keep you firm in faith. However, if He wishes evil for you, then certainly you have gone astray and you have perished. As for His Statement: “They forgot Allah so He has forgotten them,” Verily, that means “they forgot Allah in this world.” Since they do not obey Him in this world, He has forgotten them in the Hereafter. In other words, He will not reward them. As such, they have been excluded from good. Similar is the explanation of His Word, the Mighty and High “So today We forget them, as they forgot the meeting of this day of theirs.” What He means by “the forgetting” is that He will not reward them like He rewards His Beloved Ones who were obedient to Him in this world, and who remembered Him by professing faith in Him and in His Messengers, and who feared Him in secret. As for His word: “And you Lord id not forgetful” it means that our Lord, the Blessed and Exalted, the Elevated, and the Great, is not forgetful or neglectful, rather, He is the Protecting, the All-Knowing. The Arabs say about forgetfulness: “So and so has forgotten us,” i.e. he does not wish good for us not does he remember us with goodness. As a result, have you understood what Allah, the Mighty and High, has mentioned? The man replied, “Verily, you have comforted me. May Allah comfort you! You have resolved my problem. May Allah increase your reward! The Imam (AS) continued, As for His Word: “The Day on which the spirit and the angels shall stand in ranks; they shall not speak except he whom the Most Compassionate God permits and who speaks the right thing,” and His Word: “By Allah, our Lord, we were not polytheists,” and His Word: “On the Resurrection Day some of you shall deny others, and some of you shall curse others,” and His Word: “That most surely is the truth: the contending one with another of the inmates of the fire,” and His Word: “Do not quarrel in My Presence, and indeed I gave you the threatening beforehand.” And he says: “We will set a seal upon their mouths, and their hand shall speak to Us, and their feet shall bear witness of what they earned.” Verily, these events take place at different times and at different places on the Day that will last fifty thousand years. Allah, the Mighty and High, will bring forth all the creations that Day in different places. Some will speak to others, and some of whom will seek forgiveness for others. They are the obedient ones, and followers of the (righteous) leaders in this world. The disobedient ones will curse. They are the ones who incited hatred, and engaged in oppression and aggression on worldly abode. The empowered ones and the weak ones will deny each other and curse each other. The denial [kufr] in this verse refers to immunity. He is that “some of them shall grant immunity to others.” It is like the statement of Satan in surah “Abraham: ”Verily, I disbelievers in your associating me with Allah before; and the statement of Ibrahim (AS) the Friend of Allah: We renounce you, i.e. we disassociate ourselves for you. Then they will unite in another place where they will cry. If those screams arise for the people of this world, they would certainly startle all of the creation from their livelihood, and their hearts would crack except what Allah wills. Hence, they shall continue to weep bold. Then they will unite in another place where they will be made to speak and say: “By Allah, our Lord, we were not polytheists.” Therefore, Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, will set a seal upon their mouths, and their hands, feet and skins will be made to speak. So they will witness every sin which they did with these parts. Then the seal from their tongues will be raised so they will say to their skins: Why have you borne witness against us? They shall say: Allah who makes everything speak has made us speak. Then they unite in another place and will be made to speak, but they will escape from one another. This is the meaning of the Word of the Mighty and High: The day on which a man shall fly from his brother, and his mother and his father, and his spouse and his son. Thus, they will seek to speak but no one shall speak except for whom the Beneficent permits and who speaks the right thing. At this point the Messengers, blessings of Allah be upon them, shall rise and bear witness, to the Word of Allah: How will it be, then, when We bring from every people a witness and bring you as a witness against these? Then they will meet in another place, where there shall be the place of Muhammad (SA) and that is the Praised Position [almuqam al-mahmud]. Thus, he (SA) will praise Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, the way no one has praised Him before him. Then he (SA) will praise each and every angel. There shall not remain any angel that he will not have praised. Then he will praise the Messengers (AS) in such way that no one has done so before him. The he (SA) will praise every believing man and believing woman starting with the strictly veracious [siddiqin], the martyrs, and the pious ones [salihin]. Then all the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth will praise him as we see in the Word of Alla: Maybe your Lord will raise you to a praised position. Hence, blessed are those who have any allotment in that Position, and woe unto those who do not have any allotment or share in that Position. Then they will unite in another place, and some of them will vie the upper hand to others. This is all before the Accountability [al-hisab]. Thus, when one is taken to accountability then everyone shall be occupied with what they have before them. We ask Allah for the blessing of that Day. The man responded, “You have comforted me, O Commander of the Faithful. May Allah comfort you! You have solved my problem. May Allah increase your reward!” The Imam (AS) then continued, As for the Word of the Mighty and High: “Faces on that day shall be bright, looking to their Lord,” and His Word: “Vision comprehends Him not, and He comprehends (ALL) vision;” and His Word: “and verily he saw him in another descent, at the farthest lotustree;” and His Word also: “On that day shall not intercession avail except of him whom the Most Compassionate Allah allows and whose word He is pleased with. He knows what is before them and what is behind them, while they do not comprehend it in knowledge.” As for His Word: “Faces on that day shall be bright, looking to their Lord” then Verily, that is a place where the Beloved Ones of Allah, the Mighty and High, end up in after they have finished with the accountability to the river which is named al-Hayawan. They will wash in it and drink from it so their faces will be helped to shine. Hence, every floating impurity and difficulty will vanish from them. Then they will be ordered to enter Paradise. From this position they will look at their Lord, how He rewards them and from there they will enter Paradise. That is the Word of the Mighty and High about the salutation of the angels unto them: Peace be on you, you shall be happy; therefore, enter it to abide. At that point, they will be certain of entering Paradise and looking at what their Lord had promised them. Thus, that is the Word of Allah: “looking to their Lord.” Verily, what is meant by “looking at Him” here is “looking at the reward of the Blessed and Exalted.” As for His Word: “Vision comprehends Him not, and He comprehends vision” then it is just as He said: “vision comprehends Him not,” i.e. the imaginations cannot encompass him. “He comprehends vision” i.e. He encompasses vision “and He is the Knower of subtleties, the Aware.” That is the praise with which our Lord, the Blessed and Exalted, has eulogized and extolled Himself, the Elevated, the High. Musa (AS) asked and the praise of Allah, the Mighty and High, flowed over his tongue: My Lord! Show me (Thyself), so that I may look upon Thee. Thus, his question was a great matter and he had asked for a body matter and, hence, was inflicted. So Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, said: you will not see me in this world until you die, then you will see Me in the Hereafter. However, if you intend to see me in this world then look at the mountain, if it remains firm in its place, then will you see Me; therefore, Allah, glory be Him, expressed some of His signs and our Lord manifested to the mountain, the mountain had crumbled and had become dust and Musa fell down in a swoon; i.e. he had died. Thus, his infliction was the death, and then he was brought back to life by Allah and he recovered, he returned and said: Glory be to Thee, I turn to Thee, and I am the first of the Believers, i.e. the first who believed in You and who never say You. As for His Word: And verily he saw him in another descent, at the farthest lotus-tree; i.e. Muhammad (SA) was at the farthest lotus-tree, as no creation from the creation of Allah crosses that position. And Allah’s Word a the end of the verse: The eye did not turn aside, nor did it exceed the limit, certainly he saw of the greatest signs of his Lord. He (SA) saw Jibra’il (AS) in his true form twice, at this time, and at another time. Jibra’il is enormous. He is one of the holy ones [rawhaniyin] whose creation and description cannot be perceived except by Allah, the Lord of the Universe. As for His Word: On that Day shall no intercession avail except of him whom the Most Compassionate Allah allows and whose word He is pleased with. He knows what is before them and what is behind them, while they do no comprehend it in knowledge. The creations cannot comprehend Allah, the Mighty and High, in knowledge, as He is the Blessed and Exalted. He has placed over the vision of the hearts a veil. Thus, no understanding reaches Him in form. Nor any heat proves Him with limits. Therefore, no one attributes Him except with what He has attributed Himself. There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him and He is the All-Hearing, All-Seeing, the First, the Last, the Manifest, the Hidden, the Creator, the Maker, the Imager. He created all things; none of the things are like Him, the blessed and Exalted. The man said: “You have comforted me. May Allah comfort you! You have solved a problem. May Allah increase your reward, O Commander of the Faithful! The Imam (AS) then added, As for His Word: And it is not for any man that Allah should speak to him save by revelation or from behind a veil, or by sending a messenger (angel) and to reveal by His Permission what He wills, and His Word: And to Musa, Allah addressed His Words, speaking (to him), and also His Word: And their Lord called out to them, and His Word: O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the garden! As for His Word: “And it is not for any man that Allah should speak to him except by revelation or from behind a veil” for verily it is a must for humankind that Allah may only speak to him through revelation and that is not possible except from behind a veil, or by sending an angel to reveal by His permission what He wills. That is what Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, has said, the Elevated and high. The Messenger was revealed unto from the angels of heaven, thus, the angels of heave delivered to the angels of the earth. The speech between the angels of the earth and the Messenger did not happen without their speech with the angels of heaven. Hence, the Messenger of Allah (SA) said: “O Jibra’il, have you seen your Lord?” He replied, `Verily, my Lord cannot be seen.” Consequently, the Messenger of Allah (SA) asked, “Then where do you take the revelation from?” He answered, “I take it from Israfil.” He (SA) enquired, “And where does Israfil take it form?” He replied, “He takes it from another angel above him from the divine ones.” The Messenger (SA) asked, “And where does that angel take it from?” He explained,” It is thrown upon his heart.” This is revelation and that is the word of Allah, the Mighty and High, and the word of Allah is not (revealed) in one method; among them is what Allah spoke to the Messengers, among them is what He threw upon their hearts, among them is what the Messengers see in their dreams, among them is inspiration and revelation which is read and delivered. That is the word of Allah. Thus, I will suffice with what I have described for you of Allah’s speech. Verily, the meaning of Allah’s Word is not one. Among them is certainly what the angels of heaven deliver to the angels of the earth. The man said: “You have comforted me. May Allah comfort you! You have solved a problem. May Allah increase your reward, O Commander of the Faithful!” The Imam (AS) then added, As for His Word: Do you know anyone else named with the same name? Verily, the interpretation of that is “do you know anyone else with the name Allah, other than Allah, the Blessed and Exalted.” Be careful not to explain the Qur’an by your personal views unless you deeply understand it from the learned. For verily, there is revelation many a times resembling the word of man, but it is the word of Allah. So its interpretation does not resemble the word of man, like nothing from His Creation resembles Him. Likewise, none of His Actions, the Blessed and Exalted, resemble the actions of man and his Word does not resemble the word of man. Thus, the Word of Allah, the Blessed and Exalted is His Attribute, and the words of man are their actions. Therefore, do not compare the Word of Allah with the word of man for it you do then you shall perish and go astray. The man responded, “You have comforted me. May Allah comfort you! You have solve a problem. May Allah increase your reward, O Commander of the Faithful!” Then the Imam (AS) continued, As for His Word: And there does not lie concealed from your Lord the weight of an atom in the earth or in heaven, that is how our Lord is, nothing lies concealed from Him and how could it, He who created the things would not know what He created, while He is the Creator, the All-Knowing. And as for His Word: nor will he look upon them on the Day of Resurrection, He is informing that He will not bestow upon them good. The Arabs say: “By Allah, so and so does not look upon us.” Verily, what they mean by it is that “he does not bestow us good.” Thus, that is the “look from Allah, the Exalted, to His Creation here. So His Look upon them is His Mercy for them. And for His Word: Nay! Most surely they shall on that day be veiled from their Lord. Verily, what He means by this is “on the Day of Resurrection, they shall be veiled from the reward of their Lord.” The man responded, “You have comforted me. May Allah comfort you! You have solved a problem. May Allah increase your reward!” The Imam (AS) then said: As for His Word: Are you secure of those in heaven that He should not make the earth to swallow you up? And His Word: And He is Allah in heavens and in the Earth; and His Word: The Most Compassionate Allah is firm on the Empyrean, and also His Word: He is with you wherever you may be, and also His Word: We are nearer to him than his jugular vein. Such is Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, the Most Praised, the Most Holy. Exalted is He from what befalls the creations. He is the Subtle, the All-Informed, and far beyond being compared to His Creation. His Knowledge is firm on the Empyrean. He is the Witness to every whisper. He is the Custodian over Everything, the Creator of Everything, and the Director of Everything. Far Exalted is Allah, Elevated and High, from being on His Empyrean! Thus, the Imam (AS) continued, And as for His Word: And you Lord comes and (also) the angels in ranks, and His Word: Verily, you have come to Us alone as We created you at first, and also His Word: They do not wait aught but that Allah should come to them in the shadows of the clouds along with the angels, and also His Word: They do not wait aught but that the angels should come to them, or that your Lord should come, or that some of the signs of your Lord should come. Verily, this is all truth as Allah, the Mighty and High has said. He does not have a coming like the coming of the creation. I have already taught you that there is something from the Book of Allah, interpretation of which is other than its revelation and it does not resemble the word of man. I will shortly notify you to one of its dimensions and that should suffice you, if Allah willing. From that is the word of Ibrahim (AS): Surely I am going to my Lord; He will guide me. Therefore, his going to His Lord is attention towards Him in service, effort and closeness to Allah, High and Mighty. Do you not see that its interpretation is other than its revelation? He has also said: We sent down the iron, wherein is latent mighty power, i.e. the weapons etc. They do not wait aught but that the angels should come to them, He is informing Muhammad (SA) about the infidels and the hypocrites who did not respond to Allah and the Messenger. So He said: They do not wait aught but that the angels should come to them. As they did not respond to Allah and His Messenger, “or that your Lord should come, or that some of the signs of your Lord should come.” What He means by this is that the punishment should come to them in this world like He punished the earlier ages. Thus, this is information about them He is giving to the Prophet (SA). Then He says: On the day when some of the signs of your Lord shall come, its faith shall not profit a soul which did not believe before, or earn good through its faith. That is, before this sing comes, this sign is rising of the sun from the west; Verily, it would suffice the ones with intellect, brain and understanding to know that if he removes the veil they will see what they have been promised. He has said in another verse: But Allah came to them whence they did not expect, i.e. He sent unto them a punishment. And like is His Coming to their building as Allah, the Mighty and High, has said: Then Allah came (and demolished) their building from the foundations. Thus, His coming to their buildings from their foundations means sending the punishment over them. Similar is what He has described for the affair of the Hereafter, Blessed and Exalted be His Name, Elevated High. Verily, He will set running His affairs in that Day, which is fifty thousand years long, like He set running His affairs in this world. He does not disappear, nor does He pass with the transitory. Thus, I will suffice with what I have described for you from that which is wandering in your mind of what Allah, the Mighty and High has described in His Book. Do not make His Words like the word of humankind. He is Greater, Mightier, More Generous and Higher, Blessed and Exalted from that which the attributers may attribute. Except with what He attributes Himself in His Word, the Mighty and High: There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him and He is the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing. The man said: “You have comforted me, O Commander of the Faithful! May Allah comfort you! You have soled a problem. May Allah increase your reward! The Imam (AS) then said: As for His Word: Nay! They are unbelievers in the meeting of their Lord, and when He mentioned the Believer: Who know that they shall meet their Lord, and His Word for other than the Believers: Till the day when they shall meet Him because they failed to perform towards Allah what they had promised with Him, and also His Word: Therefore, whoever hopes to meet his Lord, he should do good deeds. As for His Word: Nay! They are unbelievers in the meeting of their Lord, i.e. the raising from death [al-ba`th] so Allah, the Mighty and High, has named it His Meeting. Likewise, He has mentioned the Believers: Who know that they shall meet their Lord, i.e. they are certain that they will be raised, gathered, accounted and paid with the reward or punishment. Therefore, the word zann (strong belief) in this context specifically is “certainty.” Like is His Word: Therefore, whoever hopes to meet his Lord, he should do good deeds. And His Word: Whoever hopes to meet Allah, then meeting Him is forthcoming, i.e. whoever believes that he will be raised from death, then verily Allah’s promise about the reward and punishment is forthcoming. Hence, here “the meeting” is not “the viewing.” In fact, it is the raising from death. So understand this that verily all of “His Meeting” in the Book of Allah is meant to be “the raising from death.” And similar is His Word: their greetings on the Day when they meet Him shall be: “Peace,” i.e. that “the faith will not decline from their hearts the Day when they are raised again.” The man said: “You have comforted me, O Commander of the Faithful! May Allah comfort you! You have solved a problem. May Allah increase your reward!” At that time the Imam (AS) said: As for His Word: And the guilty shall see the fire, then they shall think that they are going to fall into it, i.e. they will be certain that they are going to enter it. Similar is His Word: Surely I knew that I shall meet my account, He is saying that I am certain that I will be raised and then accounted for. Similar is His Word: On that Day Allah will pay back to them in full their just reward, and they shall know that Allah is the Evident Truth. And as for His Word about the hypocrites: “You began to think diverse thought of Allah,” then this zann is doubt and not certainty. Zann is of two types: doubt and surety. Therefore, that which is a matter of the Hereafter, then that is “the certainty” and that which is of a worldly matter is “the doubt.” Pay attention to what I have explained for you. The man said: “You have comfort me, O Commander of the Faithful! May Allah comfort you!” The Imam (AS) explained, And so for His Word, the Blessed and Exalted: And We will set up a just balance on the Day of Resurrection, so no soul shall be dealt with unjustly in the least; that is the balance of justice, all the creations will be taken to it on the Day of Judgment. Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, will grant credit to some of the creation from others with the balances. The compiler of this book says: In another tradition “the balance” stands for the Prophets and their Successors (SA) (this one sentence is by the Compiler. The passages after it are the continuation of the tradition.) And as for His Word, the Mighty and High: Therefore, We will not set up a balance for them on the Day of Resurrection, verily this is specifically. And as for His Word: These shall enter the garden, in which they shall be given sustenance without measure. Verily, the Messenger of Allah (SA) has said: Allah, the Mighty and High, says: “Those who observe Me and love one another for My Glory, deserve My love,” or he said, “My honor. Verily, on the Day of Judgment their faces will be of the light on the pulpits of light, over which shall be green cloths.” It was asked; “Who are they, O Messenger of Allah?” He replied: “A group of people who are neither Prophets, not martyrs, but they are ones who loved one another for the Glory of Allah. They will enter Paradise without any accountability.” We ask Allah, the Mighty and High, to make us of them for His Mercy. As for His Word: then as for him whose measure (of good deeds) is heavy…and as for him, whose measure (of good deeds) is light, i.e. verily, it means the accountability. The good deeds and the bad deeds will be weighed. The good deeds cause the balance to be weighty and the bad deeds cause the balance to be light. Then the Imam (AS) continued, As for His Word: Say: The Angels of Death who is given charges of you takes your souls, then to your Lord you shall be brought back, and His Word: Allah takes the souls at the time of their death, and also His Word: Our messengers (angels) take his soul away, and they are not remiss, and also His Word: Those whom the angels take away their souls while they are unjust to themselves. And His Word: “those whom the angels take away their souls in a good state, that Peace be on you.” Verily, Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, directs all affairs as He wills and He assigns from His Creation whoever He wills and whatever He Wills. As for the Angels of Death, verily, Allah assigns him specifically whoever He will from His Creation and he assigns His Messengers from the angels specifically with whoever He wills of His Creation. The angels which Allah, Mighty be His remembrance, has named and assigned them specifically for whoever He wills from His Creation. Verily, He, the Blessed and Exalted, directs the affairs however He pleases. Not all knowledge makes capable a learned person of explaining to all the people, because there are strong and weak (in understanding) among them. Also, because of them are those who have the strength to bear it and of them are ones who cannot bear it, except for whoever Allah eases the bearing and helps him over it from His beloved ones specifically. Verily, it suffices you to know that Allah is the Reviver and the One who makes to dies. And verily He it is that takes the souls away through whoever He wills of His Creation from the His angels and other than angels. The man said: “You have comforted me, O Commander of the Faithful! May Allah comfort you! And may Allah benefit all the Muslims by you!” `Ali (AS) said to the man, “If Allah has expanded your chest for you with what I have explained for you then you are, by the Splitter of Grain Seed and the Maker of Humanity, from the true Believers.” The man asked, “O Commander of Faithful, how is it possible for me to find out that I am of the true Believers?” He (AS) replied: No one knows that except for he who Allah has taught him with the tongue of His Prophet (SA), and the Messenger of Allah (SA) has bore witness for him with Paradise. Or he who Allah has expanded his chest to know what is in the Books which Allah, the Mighty and High, has revealed over His Messengers and Prophets. The man enquired, “O Commander of the Faithful, who has the strength for that?” He (AS) explained, “Whoever Allah expands his chest and directs him to Himself. It is up to you to serve Allah openly and secretly, for nothing equals worship.” The Compiler of this book says: The proof that the Producer is One and not more than that is that if there were two then the matter is not free from being one of the two; that each one of them is All-Powerful over prohibiting his associate form whatever He intends, or that they are not All-Powerful. If it is so then it is possible for both of them to be prevented, and whatever can be prevented has been brought into being. If they are not All-Powerful, they are incapable and deficient, and only things with beginnings can be as such. Therefore, it is correct that he One without Beginning One. The second proof is that each one of them is not powerful enough to hide from the other. Hence, if it is so, the one from whom one can hide, has a beginning. If he is not All-Powerful then he is incapable, and anything which is incapable has beginning as we have already explained earlier. This statement can be used to nullify the concept of two eternal beings. What Mani and Ibn Daysan have professed is nothing but their own superstition. The same nonsense which the Zoroastrians [majus] have professed regarding the Devil [Ahriman] is equally invalid according to this argument. This argument also applies to them. Thus, I have shortened my statement about both of them and did not individually deal with what they asked him (AS).




6 - حدثنا عبد الواحد بن محمد بن عبدوس النيسابوري العطار رضي الله عنه، بنيسابور سنة اثنتين وخمسين وثلاثمائة، قال: حدثنا علي بن محمد بن قتيبة النيسابوري قال: سمعت الفضل بن شاذان يقول: سأل رجل من الثنوية أبا الحسن علي بن موسى الرضا عليهما السلام، وأنا حاضر فقال له: إني أقول: إن صانع العالم اثنان، فما الدليل على أنه واحد؟ فقال: قولك: إنه اثنان دليل على أنه واحد لأنك لم تدع الثاني إلا بعد إثباتك الواحد، فالواحد مجمع عليه وأكثر من واحد مختلف فيه . باب الرد على الذين قالوا إن الله ثالث ثلاثة: وما من إله إلا إله واحد


6. `Abd Al-Wahid ibn Muhammad ibn `Abdus al-Naysaburi al-`Attar (RA) said in Naysabur year 352 AH that `Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Qutaybah al-Naysaburi said that I heard al-Fadl ibn Shadhan that when I was present, a dualist asked Abu al-Hasan `Ali ibn Musa al-Rida (AS): “I say: Verily, there are two producers of the Universe. Then what is the proof that He is One?” Consequently, he (AS) replied, “You statement: “Verily, He is two” is proof that He is One, because you have not claimed the second except after ascertaining the One. Therefore, One is agreed upon, and more than one is disagreed.