29. The Names of Allah, the Exalted,‬‬ and the Difference between their Meanings and the Meaning of the‬‬ Names of Creation

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1 - حدثنا محمد بن علي ماجيلويه رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا علي بن إبراهيم ابن هاشم، عن المختار بن محمد بن المختار الهمداني، عن الفتح بن يزيد الجرجاني عن أبي الحسن عليه السلام قال: سمعته يقول: هو اللطيف الخبير السميع البصير، الواحد الأحد الصمد إلي لم يلد ولم يولد ولم يكن له كفوا أحد، منشئ الأشياء ومجسم الأجسام ومصور الصور، لو كان كما يقولون لم يعرف الخالق من المخلوق، ولا المنشئ من المنشأ، لكنه المنشئ، فرق بين من جسمه وصوره وأنشأه وبينه إذ كان لا يشبهه شئ ولا يشبه هو شيئا، قلت: أجل، جعلني الله فداك، لكنك قلت: الأحد الصمد، وقلت: لا يشبه هو شيئا، والله واحد والإنسان واحد، ليس قد تشابهت الوحدانية؟! قال: يا فتح أحلت ثبتك الله، إنما التشبيه في المعاني، فأما في الأسماء فهي واحدة، وهي دلالة على المسمى، وذلك أن الإنسان وإن قيل واحد فإنما يخبر أنه جثة واحدة وليس باثنين، فالإنسان نفسه ليس بواحد، لأن أعضاءه مختلفة وألوانه مختلفة غير واحدة، وهو أجزاء مجزأة ليس بسواء، دمه غير لحمه ولحمه غير دمه، وعصبه غير عروقه، وشعره غير بشره، وسواده غير بياضه وكذلك سائر الخلق، فالإنسان واحد في الاسم لا واحد في المعنى، والله جل جلاله هو واحد في المعنى، لا واحد غيره، لا اختلاف فيه ولا تفاوت ولا زيادة ولا نقصان فأما الإنسان المخلوق المصنوع المؤلف من أجزاء مختلفة وجواهر شتى غير أنه بالاجتماع شئ واحد، قلت: جعلت فداك فرجت عني فرج الله عنك، فقولك: (اللطيف الخبير) فسره لي كما فسرت الواحد، فإني أعلم أن لطفه على خلاف لطف خلقه للفصل، غير أني أحب أن تشرح ذلك لي، فقال: يا فتح إنما قلنا: اللطيف، للخلق اللطيف، ولعلمه بالشئ اللطيف، أولا ترى وفقك الله وثبتك إلى أثر صنعه في النبات اللطيف وغير اللطيف وفي الخلق اللطيف من الحيوان الصغار من البعوض والجرجس وما هو أصغر منهما مما لا يكاد تستبينه العيون، بل لا يكاد يستبان لصغره الذكر من الأنثى والحدث المولود من القديم، فلما رأينا صغر ذلك في لطفه، واهتدائه للسفاد، والهرب من الموت، والجمع لما يصلحه مما في لجج البحار وما في لحاء الأشجار والمفاوز والقفار، وفهم بعضها عن بعض منطقها، وما يفهم به أولادها عنها، ونقلها الغذاء إليها، ثم تأليف ألوانها حمرة مع صفرة، وبياض مع حمرة، وما لا تكاد عيوننا تستبينه بتمام خلقها ولا تراه عيوننا ولا تلمسه أيدينا. علمنا أن خالق هذا الخلق لطيف، لطف في خلق ما سميناه بلا علاج ولا أداة ولا آله، وإن صانع كل شئ فمن شئ صنع والله الخالق اللطيف الجليل خلق وصنع لا من شئ .


‫‪1. Muhammad ibn `Ali ibn Majilwayh (may Allah have mercy on him) said: `Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn‬‬ ‫‪Hashim said, on the authority of al-Mukhtar ibn Muhammad ibn al-Mukhtar al-Hamdani said,‬‬ ‫‪on the authority of al-Fath ibn Yazid al-Jurjani, that‬‬ I heard Abu al-Hasan al-Rida (AS) say: He is the Subtle, the All-Aware, the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing, the One, the Unique, the Needless, who begets not nor is begotten, and there is none like unto Him. He is the Producer of all Things, the Former of Bodies, and the Maker of Images. If He was as they say, then the Creator would not be distinguished from the created, nor the Producer from the production. However, He is the Producer. The difference between Him and bodes and images I that he created them, and there is nothing like unto Him. I asked, “By all means. May Allah make me your ransom! However, you said: `The Alone, the Needless’ and you also said: `He is not like anything.’ If Allah is One, and man is one, are they not similar in unity?” He (AS) replied, O Fath! You paid attention, may Allah secure you! Verily, the similarity is limited to meaning. Identifiers are merely means of identifying the identified. If it is said that there is one man, it means that there is one body, as opposed to two. However, although we say that man is one, he is not truly one, as he has different body parts and different colors. Although we say that he is one, he is composed of many different parts which are not he same. His blood is other than his flesh, his flesh is other than his blood, his nerves are other than his veins, his hair is other than his skin, and the darkness of his skin is other than the paleness of his skin. Likewise is the rest of creation. Thus, the human being is “one” in name, but he is other than “one” in meaning. Not only is Allah, lofty be His Majesty, One in name, He is also One in meaning as there is none other than Him. There is no variation in Him, no contrast, nor any increase or decrease. As a crated being, the human being is composed of different parts and substances. H e is one “one” in combination. I enquired: “You have relieved me. May Allah relieve you! As for your statement: `The Subtle, All-Aware,’ could you explain it to me as you explained to me the meaning of `the One.’ I really need to know how His Subtlety is different from the subtlety of His Creation. I would surely appreciate it if you could explain that to me.” Therefore, he (AS) answered: O Fath! We had said: He is the Subtle due to the delicate nature of His Creation, and for His Knowledge of tiny things. Do you not see, may Allah help you and secure you, the effect of His Making in soft and hard plants? And do you not see in the delicate creation of tiny insects like the mosquito, the gnat, and that which is smaller than these two, and are almost not evident to the (naked) eyes? In fact, due to their small size, it is virtually impossible to differentiate between the male and the female, and between the young and the old. Thus, we come to know that the Creator is Subtle in His Creation when we see the smallness of creatures in their refinement, their guidance out of decay, and their fleeing from death. We come to know that the Creator is Subtle when we contemplate the creatures found teeming in the depths of the ocean, on the branches of trees, and in the deserts and barren lands. We come to know the Creator is Subtle when we contemplate how species communicate with one another using various forms of communication, permitting them to communicate with their offspring. We come to know that the Creator is Subtle when we contemplate how creatures provide food to their offspring, and how they are distinguished by colors, red with yellow, white with red, and with what we can barely see with our eyes due to its small size. We come to know that the Creator is Subtle when we contemplate the creatures that our eyes cannot see and our hands cannot touch. He created the world in subtlety without planning, without instruments, and without tools. Verily, the founder of anything founded it on the basis of another. However, Allah, the Creator, the Subtle, and the Sublime, created everything out of nothing.




2 - حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق رحمه الله قال: حدثنا محمد بن يعقوب الكليني، قال: حدثنا علي بن محمد، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن الحسين ابن خالد، عن أبي الحسن الرضا عليه السلام أنه قال: إعلم - علمك الله الخير - أن الله تبارك وتعالى قديم، والقدم صفة دلت العاقل على أنه لا شئ قبله ولا شئ معه في ديموميته، فقد بان لنا بإقرار العامة مع معجزة الصفة لا شئ قبل الله ولا شئ مع الله في بقائه وبطل قول من زعم أنه كان قبله أو كان معه شئ وذلك أنه لو كان معه شئ فبقائه لم يجز أن يكون خالقا له لأنه لم يزل معه: فكيف يكون خالقا لمن لم يزل معه، ولو كان قبله شئ كان الأول ذلك الشئ لا هذا، وكان الأول أولى بأن يكون خالقا للأول الثاني . ثم وصف نفسه تبارك وتعالى بأسماء دعا الخلق إذ خلقهم وتعبدهم وابتلاهم إلى أن يدعوه بها، فسمى نفسه سميعا بصيرا قادرا قائما ظاهرا باطنا لطيفا خبيرا قويا عزيزا حكيما عليما وما أشبه هذه الأسماء، فلما رأى ذلك من أسمائه الغالون المكذبون وقد سمعونا نحدث عن الله أنه لا شئ مثله ولا شئ من الخلق في حاله قالوا: أخبرونا إذ زعمتم أنه لا مثل لله ولا شبه له كيف شاركتموه في أسمائه الحسنى فتسميتم بجميعها؟! فإن في ذلك دليلا على أنكم مثله في حالاته كلها أو في بعضها دون بعض، إذ جمعتكم الأسماء الطيبة، قيل لهم: إن الله تبارك وتعالى ألزم العباد أسماء من أسمائه على اختلاف المعاني وذلك كما يجمع الاسم الواحد معنيين مختلفين، والدليل على ذلك قول الناس الجائز عندهم الشائع، وهو الذي خاطب الله به الخلق وكلمهم بما يعقلون ليكون عليهم حجة في تضييع ما ضيعوا، وقد يقال للرجل: كلب وحمار وثور وسكرة وعلقمة وأسد، وكل ذلك على خلافه وحالاته لم تقع الأسامي على معانيها التي كانت بنيت عليها، لأن الإنسان ليس بأسد ولا كلب، فافهم ذلك رحمك الله. وإنما نسمي الله بالعلم بغير علم حادث علم به الأشياء، واستعان به على حفظ ما يستقبل من أمره والروية فيما يخلق من خلقه، وبعينه ما مضى مما أفنى من خلقه مما لو لم يحضره ذلك العلم ويعنه كان جاهلا ضعيفا كما أنا رأينا علماء الخلق أنما سموا بالعلم لعلم حادث إذ كانوا قبله جهلة، وربما فارقهم العلم بالأشياء فصاروا إلى الجهل وإنما سمي الله عالما لأنه لا يجهل شيئا، فقد جمع الخالق والمخلوق اسم العلم واختلف المعنى على ما رأيت، وسمى ربنا سميعا لا بجزء فيه يسمع به الصوت ولا يبصر به، كما أن جزءنا الذي نسمع به لا نقوى على النظر به، ولكنه أخبر أنه لا يخفى عليه الأصوات، ليس على حد ما سمينا نحن، فقد جمعنا الاسم بالسميع واختلف المعنى، وهكذا البصر لا بجزء به أبصر، كما أنا نبصر بجزء منا لا ننتفع به في غيره، ولكن الله بصير لا يجهل شخصا منظورا إليه، فقد جمعنا الاسم واختلف المعنى، وهو قائم ليس على معنى انتصاب وقيام على ساق في كبد كما قامت الأشياء ولكن أخبر أنه قائم، يخبر أنه حافظ، كقولك: الرجل القائم بأمرنا فلان، وهو قائم على كل نفس بما كسبت، والقائم أيضا في كلام الناس الباقي، والقائم أيضا يخبر عن الكفاية، كقولك للرجل قم بأمر فلان أي اكفه، والقائم منا قائم على ساق، فقد جمعنا الاسم ولم يجمعنا المعنى، وأما اللطيف فليس على قلة وقضافة وصغر، ولكن ذلك على النفاذ في الأشياء والامتناع من أن يدرك، كقولك لطف عني هذا الأمر، ولطف فلان في مذهبه وقوله يخبرك أنه غمض فبهر العقل وفات الطلب وعاد متعمقا متلطفا لا يدركه الوهم، فهكذا لطف الله، تبارك وتعالى عن أن يدرك بحد أو يحد بوصف، واللطافة منا الصغر و القلة، فقد جمعنا الاسم واختلف المعنى، وأما الخبير فالذي لا يعزب عنه شئ ولا يفوته شئ، ليس للتجربة ولا للاعتبار بالأشياء فيفيده التجربة والاعتبار علما لولاهما ما علم، لأن من كان كذلك كان جاهلا، والله لم يزل خبيرا بما يخلق والخبير من الناس المستخبر عن جهل المتعلم، وقد جمعنا الاسم واختلف المعنى، وأما الظاهر فليس من أجل أنه علا الأشياء بركوب فوقها، وقعود عليها، وتسنم لذراها، ولكن ذلك لقهره ولغلبته الأشياء ولقدرته عليها كقوله الرجل: ظهرت على أعدائي وأظهرني الله على خصمي، يخبر عن الفلج والغلبة، فهكذا ظهور الله على الأعداء . ووجه آخر أنه الظاهر لمن أراده، لا يخفى عليه شئ وأنه مدبر لكل ما برأ، فأي ظاهر أظهره وأوضح من الله تعالى، وإنك لا تعدم صنعه حيثما توجهت، وفيك من آثاره ما يغنيك، والظاهر منا البارز بنفسه والمعلوم بحده، فقد جمعنا الاسم ولم يجمعنا المعنى، وأما الباطن فليس على معنى الاستبطان للأشياء بأن يغور فيها ولكن ذلك منه على استبطانه للأشياء علما وحفظا وتدبيرا، كقول القائل أبطنته، يعني خبرته وعلمت مكتوم سره، والباطن منا بمعنى الغائر في الشئ والمستتر به فقد جمعنا الاسم واختلف المعنى، وأما القاهر فإنه ليس على معنى علاج ونصب واحتيال ومداراة ومكر، كما يقهر العباد بعضهم بعضا، فالمقهور منهم يعود قاهرا، والقاهر يعود مقهورا، ولكن ذلك من الله تبارك وتعالى على أن جميع ما خلق ملتبس به الذل لفاعله وقلة الامتناع لما أراد به، لم يخرج منه طرفة عين غير أنه يقول له: كن فيكون، والقاهر منا على ما ذكرته ووصفت، فقد جمعنا الاسم واختلف المعنى، وهكذا جميع الأسماء وإن كنا لم نسمها كلها، فقد يكتفي للاعتبار بما ألقينا إليك، والله عوننا وعونك في إرشادنا وتوفيقنا.


2. `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al-Daqqaq (RA) said: Muhammad ibn Ya`qub alKulayni said: `Ali ibn Muhammad, said, on the authority Muhammad ibn `Isa, on the authority of al-Husayn ibn Khalid that Abu al-Hasan al-Rida (AS) said: May Allah bestow upon you knowledge of what is good! Know that Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, is Eternal. Eternity is an attribute through which the wise understand that there was nothing before Him in eternity, and that there is nothing alongside Him in eternity. Even the common folk acknowledge that nothing existed before Allah, and that nothing exists alongside Him. At the same time, it invalidates the claim that there was something before Him. Had there been something eternal along with Him. He would not have been the Creator of that thing. If something existed along with Him, how then would He have been its Creator? Had there been something existing before Him, then that thing would have been worthier of being His Creator because it existed before Him. The blessed and Exalted ascribed certain names to Himself. When He created his creatures, He enabled them to serve Him, and told His creatures to call Him by those names. He called Himself the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing, the All-Powerful, the Riser ]qa`im], the Manifest, the Hidden, the Subtle, the All-Aware, the Powerful, the Honorable, the All-Wise, and the All-Knowing, among other similar names. When the lying exaggerators [ghalun] heard us talk about such names, that there is nothing similar to Him, and that none of the creatures are like unto Him, they said: “When you say that there is nothing like unto Him, and nothing is similar to Him, then how can you share with Him His Most Beautiful Names, and apply them to yourselves? Thus, this is proof that you are similar to Him in all conditions or in some conditions because you share the same purified names.” It is said to them: Verily, Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, has named His Servants with some of His own Names but with differences in meaning just like one name may have two different meanings. The proof of this can be found among he common people. This is the way in which Allah, the Mighty and High, has addressed the creation. He has spoken to them by means of things that they understand so that the will have no excuse for their misdeeds. A man is sometimes called a dog, a donkey, a bull or a lion just like he can be called sweet or bitter. All of these words are used with a n allegorical meaning which differs from their literal meaning. A man cannot literally be a lion or a dog. Please pay close attention to this, May Allah have mercy on you! Verily, we say that Allah is AllKnowing, and not that He crated knowledge. It does not mean that He uses his Knowledge in order to record His Future Commands or His Process of Creation and Destruction because had that knowledge not been present that would imply ignorance or weakness. Likewise, the learned among creation are called knowledgeable because they possess created knowledge, which they did not have at some time in the past. They may lose their knowledge at some point and become ignorant again. However, Allah is called All-Knowing because He is not ignorant of anything. Thus, the Creator and the created are both called knowing, but the meaning is different as you have noticed.Our Lord is called All-Hearing. However, this is not through a body part or sensory organ without which He could not hear the sound as is the case with us. We cannot see with the part with which we hear. However, He has told us that no sound is hidden from Him. His hearing is not limited, as it is in our case. Here again the name hearing is used in both cases, but its meaning is different. The same applies for seeing. He does not see by means of an eye as we do. We see using a body part which serves that sole purpose. However, Allah is All-Seeing, and is never unaware of any individual. Again, the same name is used in both cases, but its meaning is different. He is Standing, but not in the sense of standing of His Les as would be the case for other beings. However, He informed us that He is Sanding, and that He is the Guardian. This is like the saying “A man is standing behind our affairs.” He is Standing behind every soul watching what is gains. As used by people, the word “standing” also has meanings like `sufficing.’ As you may say to a man, “Stand up for the affairs of so and so” which means to deal with them in a sufficient manner. Standing for us means that we stand on our legs. Therefore, the name is similar but its meaning is different. As for the term Subtle, it is Subtle, it is not used in the sense of smallness or being infinitesimal. Rather, it is used to express how difficult it is to perceive things. As an example, it may be said: “It has become very delicate for me,” and that “so and so is very delicate in his manners and dealings.” This means that it is profound for the intellect, and it is very difficult to understand. It has become so delicate that it cannot even be perceived by means of the imagination. Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, is far more Subtle than to be comprehended through definitions or be limited by an attribute in the way we are subtle, small and delicate. Names can be the same but they can differ in meaning. As for the All-Aware, it means that He is the One who Knows all Things, Completely, but not through study or experience, without which He would know nothing. One without experience and training is ignorant. Allah is always All-Aware of what He ha created. The people who are well are those people who are learning to overcome their ignorance. Thus, names are the same but again, they differ in meaning. As for the Manifest, it does not mean that He is over and above all things or sitting on the uppermost part of them. Rather, it refers to His Dominion and His Power over All Things. An example of this would be when a person says, “I overcame my enemies” or that “Allah granted me victory over my enemies.” In this case, there is a report of failure and victory. Thus, this shows Allah’s Dominion over all enemies.Another illustration that He is Manifest is that for those who intend Him, nothing is hidden form Him, and He is the Planner of all that can be seen. What can be clearer or more manifest than Allah, the Exalted? No matter where you look, His Presence will never vanish. Even within you, His Traces are sufficient proof for His Existence. However, what is manifested in us is apparent, and its limits are known. Therefore, the names are thee same, but their meanings differ. As for the Hidden, it does not mean that He is inside things. Rather, it refers to His Inner Knowledge of all things from their planning to their preserving. As one may say, “I tried to get to the inside of the matter,” that is, “I came to learn and discover his secrets.” For us, what is hidden is what is unseen and covered. Once again, the names are the same, but they differ in meaning. As for the Subduer, it does not refer to plotting, using certain devices, speaking seductive words, or using cunning means as some people do to subdue one another. The victorious among the people may become subdued, and vice versa. However, for Allah, the Blessed and Exalted,, all creatures are weak. Due to the absence of obstacles in what He wills for them, it takes less than a blinking of the eye for Him to say “Be and it is.” Subduing in our case is how I mentioned and explained. Thus, names are alike but their meanings differ. That is the case for all the names, although we have not mentioned all of them. We will suffice with this for learning purpose. May Allah be our Helper and your Helper assuring our guidance and success!




3 - حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن يعقوب، قال: حدثنا علي بن محمد، عن صالح بن أبي حماد، عن الحسين بن يزيد، عن الحسن بن علي بن أبي حمزة، عن إبراهيم بن عمر، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: إن الله تبارك وتعالى خلق اسما بالحروف وهو عز وجل بالحروف غير منعوت وباللفظ غير منطق، وبالشخص غير مجسد، وبالتشبيه غير موصوف، وباللون غير مصبوغ، منفي عنه الأقطار، مبعد عنه الحدود، محجوب عنه حس كل متوهم، مستتر غير مستور، فجعله كلمة تامة على أربعة أجزاء معا، ليس منها واحد قبل الآخر، فأظهر منها ثلاثة أسماء لفاقة الخلق إليها (١) وحجب واحدا منها، وهو الاسم المكنون المخزون بهذه الأسماء الثلاثة التي أظهرت، فالظاهر هو الله تبارك وتعالى، وسخر سبحانه لكل اسم من هذه أربعة أركان (٢) فذلك اثنا عشر ركنا، ثم خلق لكل ركن منها ثلاثين اسما، فعلا منسوبا إليها (٣) فهو الرحمن الرحيم، الملك، القدوس، الخالق البارئ، المصور، الحي القيوم، لا تأخذه سنة ولا نوم، العليم، الخبير، السميع، البصير، الحكيم، العزيز، الجبار، المتكبر، العلي، العظيم، المقتدر، القادر، السلام، المؤمن المهيمن، البارئ (٤) المنشئ، البديع، الرفيع، الجليل، الكريم، الرزاق، المحيي، المميت، الباعث الوارث، فهذه الأسماء وما كان من الأسماء الحسنى حتى تتم ثلاثمائة وستين اسما فهي نسبة لهذه الأسماء الثلاثة، وهذه الأسماء الثلاثة أركان وحجب للاسم الواحد المكنون المخزون بهذه الأسماء الثلاثة، وذلك قوله عز وجل: ﴿قل ادعوا الله أو ادعوا الرحمن أيا ما تدعوا فله الأسماء الحسنى﴾ .


3. `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al-Daqqaq (RA) said: Muhammad ibn Ya`qub said: `Ali ibn Muhammad said, on the authority of Salih ibn Abu Hammad, on the authority of al-Husayn ibn Yazid, on the authority of al-Hasan ibn `Ali ibn Abu Hamzah, on the authority of Ibrahim ibn `Umar that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) said: Verily, Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, created names by letters and He, the Mighty and High, cannot be described by letters. He cannot be uttered by words, cannot be embodied in person, cannot be described by anthropomorphism, and cannot be colored by colors. Regions are negated from Him. Limits are far from Him. The sense of every imaginer is covered from Him. He is understood and not hidden. Hence, He has made it a complete word in four parts altogether. Neither one of them precedes the other. Then he showed three of those names to creation out of their need for them, and hid one of them. That is the well-kept treasured name through which these names were manifested. Thus, the apparent is Allah, the Blessed and Exalted. He, glory be to Him, utilized each one of the four first principles, and that became twelve principles. Then He created for each of the principles thirty names, in effect, related to them. They are the Most Compassionate, the most Merciful, the Sovereign, the Most Holy, the Creator, the Maker [al-Bari’], the Imager, the Ever-Living, the Self-Subsistent [al-Qayyum], slumber seized Him not, nor does sleep, the All-Knowing, the All-Aware, the All-Hearing, the all-Seeing, the Most Wise, the Honorable, the Supreme, the Possessor of all Greatness [al-Mutakabbir], the Most High, the Most Great, the All-Powerful [al-Muqtadir], the Omnipotent, the Giver of Peace [al-Salam], the Granter of Security [al-Mu`mum], the Guardian over All [alMuhaymin], the Maker, the Producer, the Originator [al-Badi’], the Lofty [al-Rafi`]. The Sublime, Generous, the Sustainer, the Giver of Life, the Causer of Death, the Raiser [alBa`ith], and the Inheritor. These are the names, among which are the Most Beautiful Names, until 360 names are complete. Thus, these are related to the three names. These three names are the first principles, and concealment for the Well-Kept Treasured name by these three names. As we read in the Word of the Mighty and High: Say, call upon Allah or call upon the Most Compassionate Allah; whichever you call upon, He has the best names.




4 - أبي رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا أحمد بن إدريس، عن الحسين بن عبيد الله، عن محمد بن عبد الله، وموسى بن عمرو، والحسن بن علي بن أبي عثمان، عن ابن سنان قال: سألت أبا الحسن الرضا عليه السلام هل كان الله عارفا بنفسه قبل أن يخلق الخلق؟ قال: نعم، قلت: يراها ويسمعها، قال: ما كان الله محتاجا إلى ذلك، لأنه لم يكن يسألها ولا يطلب منها، هو نفسه ونفسه هو، قدرته نافذة، وليس يحتاج أن يسمي نفسه، ولكن اختار لنفسه أسماء لغيره يدعوه بها، لأنه إذا لم يدع باسمه لم يعرف فأول ما اختار لنفسه العلي العظيم لأنه أعلى الأشياء كلها، فمعناه الله، واسمه العلي العظيم، هو أول أسمائه لأنه علي، علا كل شئ.


4. My father (RA) said: Ahmad ibn Idris said, on the authority of al-Husayn ibn `Ubayd Allah, on the authority of Muhammad ibn `Abd Allah; Musa ibn `Amr and al-Hasan ibn `Ali ibn Abu `Uthman, on the authority of Ibn Sinan that I asked Abu al-Hasan al-Rid (AS), “Did Allah know Himself before He created the creation?” He (AS) replied, “Of course.” I asked, “Did He see Himself, and hear Himself?” He said: Allah was not required to do so because He did not ask Himself anything or demand anything from Himself. He is Himself, and His Self is He. His Power was effective and He did not need to call Himself. However, He chose names for Himself so that He could be called upon, because unless He is called upon by His Name, there is no way for Him to be known. Therefore, the first name He chose for Himself was the Most High, the Most Great [al-`Ali al-`Azim], because He is Higher than all things. Hence, His meaning is Allah, and His Name is the Most High, the Most Great. That is among His first names, because He is High, Higher than Everything.




5 - وبهذا الإسناد، عن محمد بن سنان قال: سألته عن الاسم ما هو؟ قال: صفة لموصوف.


5. And with this chain of narration, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Sinan that I asked him (AS) “What is a name?” He said: ”It is an attribute for the attributed.”




6 - حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله، عن محمد بن إسماعيل، عن بعض أصحابه، عن بكر بن صالح، عن علي بن الحسن بن محمد، عن خالد بن يزيد، عن عبد الأعلى، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: اسم الله غير الله، وكل شئ وقع عليه اسم شئ فهو مخلوق ما خلا الله فأما ما عبرته الألسن أو ما عملته الأيدي فهو مخلوق، والله غاية من غاياه، و المغيى غير الغاية، والغاية موصوفة، وكل موصوف مصنوع، وصانع الأشياء غير موصوف بحد مسمى، لم يتكون فتعرف كينونته بصنع غيره، ولم يتناه إلى غاية إلا كانت غيره، لا يذل من فهم هذا الحكم أبدا، وهو التوحيد الخالص، فارعوه وصدقوه وتفهموه بإذن الله، من زعم أنه يعرف الله بحجاب أو بصورة أو بمثال فهو مشرك، لأن الحجاب والمثال والصورة غيره، وإنما هو واحد موحد فكيف يوحد من زعم أنه عرفه بغيره، وإنما عرف الله من عرفه بالله، ومن لم يعرفه به فليس يعرفه، إنما يعرف غيره، ليس بين الخالق والمخلوق شئ، فالله خالق الأشياء لا من شئ كان، والله يسمى بأسمائه وهو غير أسمائه والأسماء غيره .


6. `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al-Daqqaq (RA) said: Muhammad ibn Abu `Abd Allah said, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Isma`il, on the authority of some of our scholars, on the authority of Bkar ibn Salih, on the authority of `Ali ibn al-Hasan ibn Muhammad, on the authority of Khalid ibn Yazid, on the authority of `Abd al-A`la that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) said: Allah’s name is other than Him. The identifier is other than the identified, and is thus created, with the exception of Allah. Anything which is uttered by tongues or written by hands is created. Allah is the destination of all those who seek to reach Him. The aimer is other than the aimed. The aimed is described, and everything which is described is created. The Creator of All Things is not described with the limit of the named. He is not formed so that His Form could be compared to the created. Anything which is intended is other than Him. He is never disregarded by whoever understands this conclusion and that is pure Tawhid. Thus, listen to Allah, accept Him, and try to understand Him with His permission. Whoever claims that he has recognized Allah through concealing or revealing an image or the like, is a polytheist, because anything concealed or revealed is other than Him. Verily, He is One United Being. Therefore, how can one profess a belief in Divine Unity when one recognizes Him by other than Him? Only he has recognized Allah who recognizes Him by Allah (Himself). Thus, whoever does not recognize Him by Himself‬‬ ‫‪has not recognized Him, and certainly has recognized other than Him. There is nothing‬‬ ‫‪between the Creator and the created. Therefore, Allah is the creator of all things and is‬‬ ‫‪not from a thing. He is named by His Names and, hence, He is other than His Names,‬‬ ‫‪and the names are other than Him.‬‬ ‫‪ 7. `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al-Daqqaq (RA) said: Muhammad ibn Abu `Abd‬‬ ‫‪Allah al-Kufi said: Muhammad ibn Bishr related to me, on the authority of Abu Hashim alJa`fari that‬‬ I was with Abu Ja`far the Second (AS), when a man asked him, “Inform me about the Lord, the Blessed and Exalted. There are names and attributes for Him in His Book. Are those His Only Names and attributes?” Consequently, Abu Ja`far (AS) replied, Verily, there are two interpretations to your question. If you are referring to quantity, then Exalted is Allah from such limitations. However, if you wanted to know whether these attributes and names have always existed, then there are two possibilities. Either they have always been part of His Knowledge, and He has always deserved them, and this is true. However, if you want to now whether the image of these attributes and names, their alphabets, and their form, have always been there, then may Allah save me from the claim that something has existed alongside Him. In fact, Allah existed when no creation existed. Then He created the names as a means for His Creation to beseech Him and serve Him. They are the means through which He is remembered. Allah was there when no remembrance existed. The One who is Remembered is Allah, the Eternal, who has always existed. The Names and Attributes are creation of meanings. What is meant by them is that Allah is not subject to agreement or disagreement, since only one with parts disagrees or agrees. Hence, it is not said: Allah agreed, nor that Allah is more or less. However, He is Eternal in His Essence, because whatever is other than One has parts, and Allah is the One without Parts. He cannot be imagines as less, nor can he be imagines as more. Anything composed of parts, and which can be conceived as less or conceived as more, was created by a Creator Thus, when you say that “Verily, Allah is Omnipotent” you are affirming that nothing incapacitates Him. Therefore, you have negate the word: ”incapable,” and applied it to other than Him. Likewise, by your use of the word: “AllKnowing” you have indeed negated ignorance and related ignorance to other than Him. When Allah causes all things to perish, He will cause images and alphabets to perish. Nevertheless, He, who has always been All-Knowing, will never expire or decline. The man asked, “How can our Lord be called the All-Hearing?” He (AS) answered, That is because nothing which is understood by means of hearing is hidden form Him. We do not claim that He hears through ears. Likewise, when we call Him All-Seeing, we say so because nothing visual is hidden from Him: be it colors, people, or other objects. We do not claim that He sees through eyes. We call Him the Subtle One due to His knowledge of subtle things like the mosquito, and for His Knowledge of creatures which are even smaller than that. We call Him the subtle One because of His Knowledge of the place of their division, their thoughts, their needs, their reproductive cycle, their affection for offspring, their means of communication, their bringing of food and drink to their offspring in the mountains, deserts, valleys, and wastelands (of the worlds). We come to know that the Creator of these things is the Subtle One without quality. Verily, quality applies only to the created. Our Lord is called the Powerful One, but not with the same type of power found among created beings. If His Power were like the power found among created beings, then He would be compared to His Creation, and He would be susceptible to both increase and decrease and could not be Eternal. Whatever is not eternal is powerless. Thus, our Lord, the Blessed and Exalted, has no compeer [shibh], no opponent, no equal, no quality, no end, and no regions. The mind is incapable of conceiving Him, the imagination is incapable of limiting Him, and the conscience is incapable of placing conditions on Him. He is Higher than the implements of His Creation and characteristics of His Creatures. Exalted is He, the Elevated and Great, from such things!




8 - حدثنا أحمد بن الحسن القطان، قال: حدثنا أحمد بن يحيى بن زكريا القطان، قال: حدثنا بكر بن عبد الله بن حبيب، قال: حدثنا تميم بن بهلول، عن أبيه، عن أبي الحسن العبدي، عن سليمان بن مهران، عن الصادق جعفر بن محمد، عن أبيه محمد بن علي، عن أبيه علي بن الحسين، عن أبيه الحسين بن علي، عن أبيه علي بن أبي طالب عليهم السلام قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: إن لله تبارك و تعالى تسعة وتسعين اسما مائة إلا واحدا، من أحصاها دخل الجنة، وهي: الله، الإله، الواحد، الأحد، الصمد، الأول، الآخر، السميع، البصير، القدير، القاهر، العلي، الأعلى، الباقي، البديع، البارئ، الأكرم، الطاهر، الباطن، الحي، الحكيم، العليم، الحليم، الحفيظ، الحق، الحسيب، الحميد الحفي، الرب، الرحمن، الرحيم، الذارئ، الرزاق، الرقيب، الرؤوف الرائي، السلام، المؤمن، المهين، العزيز، الجبار، المتكبر، السيد، السبوح الشهيد، الصادق، الصانع، الطاهر، العدل، العفو، الغفور، الغني، الغياث، الفاطر، الفرد، الفتاح، الفالق، القديم، الملك، القدوس، القوي، القريب، القيوم، القابض، الباسط، قاضي الحاجات، المجيد، المولى، المنان، المحيط المبين، المقيت، المصور، الكريم، الكبير، الكافي، كاشف الضر، الوتر، النور، الوهاب، الناصر، الواسع، الودود، الهادي، الوفي، الوكيل، الوارث البر، الباعث، التواب، الجليل، الجواد، الخبير، الخالق، خير الناصرين، الديان، الشكور، العظيم، اللطيف، الشافي .


8. Ahmad ibn al-Hasan al-Qittan said: Ahmad ibn Yahya ibn Zakariyya al-Qittan said: Bakr ibn `Abd Allah ibn Hubayb said: Tamim ibn Buhul said, on the authority of his father, on the authority of Abu al-Hasan ibn al-`Abdi, on the authority of Sulayman ibn Mihran, on the authority of al-Sadiq Ja`far ibn Muhammad on the authority of his father Muhammad ibn `Ali, on the authority of his father `Ali ibn al-Husayn, on the authority of his father al-Husayn ibn `Ali, on the authority of his father `Ali ibn Abu Talib, salutations of Allah be upon them all, that The Messenger of Allah (SA) said: Verily, Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, has NinetyNine names: one less than a hundred. Whoever enumerates them will enter Paradise. They are: Allah, God, the One, the Unique, the Needless, the First, the Last, the AllHearing, the All-Seeing, the Omnipotent, the Subduer, the Most High, the Most Sublime, the Ever-Remaining [al-Baqi], the Originator, the Maker, the Most Generous, the Manifested, the Hidden, the Ever-Living, the All-Wise, the All-Knowing, the Forbearing [al-Halim], the Protector [al-Hafiz], the Truth, the Reckoner [al-Hasib], the Praiseworthy [al-Hamid], the Most Gracious [al-Hafi], the Lord, the Compassionate, the Most Merciful, the One that sows [al-Dhari’], the Sustainer, the Watcher [al-Raqib], the Affectionate [alRa’uf], the Obserer [al-Ra’i], the Giver of Peace, the Granter of Security, the Guardian over all the Honorable, the Supreme, the Possessor of every greatness, the Master, the Most Praised [al-Subbuh], the Witness [al-Shahid], the Most Truthful, the Creator, the Pure, the Just, the Pardoning, the Forgiving, the Self-Sufficient,the Aid (al-Ghiyah), the Cleaver [al-Fatir], the Peerless, the Opener [al-Fattah], the Splitter [al-Faliq], the Eternal, the Sovereign, the Most Holy, the Powerful, the Near, the Self-Subsistent, the Seizer (of souls0 [Qabid], the Extender, the Provider of Needs, the All-Glorious [al-Majid], the Lord, the Granter [al-Mannan], the One that encompasses everything [al-Muhit], the Clear [Mubin], the Nourisher [al-Muqit], the Imager, the Generous, the Great, the Sufficient [al-Kafi], the Remover of harms [Kashif al-dur], the Singly [al-Watr], the Light, the Bestower [al-Wahhab], the Helper, the All-Embracing [al-Was`],, the Loving One [alWadud], the Guide, the Reliable [al-Wafi], the Custodian [al-Wakil], the Inheritor, the Righteous [al-Birr], the Raiser, the Oft-Returning (in mercy) [al-Tawwab], the Sublime [al-Jalil], the Generous, the All-Aware, the Creator, the Best of the Helpers, the Rewarder [al-Dayyan], the Thankful [al-Shakur], the Most Great, the Subtle, the Cure [alShafi].




9 - حدثنا أحمد بن زياد بن جعفر الهمداني رضي الله عنه، قال: حدثنا علي ابن إبراهيم بن هاشم، عن أبيه، عن أبي الصلت عبد السلام بن صالح الهروي، عن علي بن موسى الرضا، عن أبيه، عن آبائه، عن علي عليهم السلام قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: لله عز وجل تسعة وتسعون اسما، من دعا الله بها استجاب له، ومن أحصاها دخل الجنة. قال محمد بن علي بن الحسين مؤلف هذا الكتاب: معنى قول النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم إن لله تبارك وتعالى تسعة وتسعين اسما من أحصاها دخل الجنة، إحصاؤها هو الإحاطة بها والوقوف على معانيها، وليس، وليس معنى الاحصاء عدها، وبالله التوفيق. (الله، الإله) الله والإله هو المستحق للعبادة، ولا يحق العبادة إلا له، و تقول: لم يزل إلها بمعنى أنه يحق له العبادة، ولهذا لما ضل المشركون فقد روى أن العبادة تجب للأصنام سموها آلهة وأصله الإلاهة وهي العبادة، ويقال: أصله الإله، يقال: أله الرجل يأله إليه، أي فزع إليه من أمر نزل به، وألهه أي أجاره، ومثاله من الكلام (الإمام) فاجتمعت همزتان في كلمه كثر استعمالهم لها و استثقلوها فحذفوا الأصلية، لأنهم وجدوا فيما بقي دلالة عليها، فاجتمعت لأمان أولاهما ساكنة فأدغموها في الأخرى، فصارت لاما مثقلة في قولك: الله. (الواحد، الأحد) الأحد معناه أنه واحد في ذاته ليس بذي أبعاض ولا أجزاء ولا أعضاء، ولا يجوز عليه الأعداد والاختلاف، لأن اختلاف الأشياء من آيات وحدانيته مما دل به على نفسه، ويقال: لم يزل الله واحدا، ومعنى ثان أنه واحد لا نظير له فلا يشاركه في معنى الوحدانية غيره، لأن كل من كان له نظراء وأشباه لم يكن واحدا في الحقيقة، ويقال: فلان واحد الناس أي لا نظير له فيما يوصف به، والله واحد لا من عدد، لأنه عز وجل لا يعد في الأجناس، ولكنه واحد ليس له نظير. وقال بعض الحكماء في الواحد والأحد: إنما قيل: الواحد لأنه متوحد والأول لا ثاني معه، ثم ابتدع الخلق كلهم محتاجا بعضهم إلى بعض، والواحد من العدد في الحساب ليس قبله شئ، بل هو قبل كل عدد، والواحد كيف ما أدرته أو جزأته لم يزد عليه شئ ولم ينقص منه شئ، تقول: واحد في واحد واحد، فلم يزد عليه شئ ولم يتغير اللفظ عن الواحد، فدل على أنه لا شئ قبله، وإذا دل على أنه لا شئ قبله دل على أنه محدث الشئ، وإذا كان هو محدث الشئ دل أنه مفني الشئ، وإذا كان هو مفني الشئ دل أنه لا شئ بعده، فإذا لم يكن قبله شئ ولا بعد شئ فهو المتوحد بالأزل، فلذلك قيل: واحد، أحد، وفي الأحد خصوصية ليست في الواحد، تقول ليس في الدار واحد، يجوز أن واحدا من الدواب أو الطير أو الوحش أو الإنس لا يكون في الدار، وكان الواحد بعض الناس وغير الناس، وإذا قلت ليس في الدار أحد فهو مخصوص بالآدميين دون سائرهم، والأحد ممتنع من الدخول في الضرب والعدد والقسمة وفي شئ من الحساب، وهو متفرد بالأحدية، والواحد منقاد للعدد والقسمة وغيرهما داخل في الحساب، تقول: واحد واثنان وثلاثة فهذا العدد، والواحد علة العدد وهو خارج من العدد وليس بعدد، وتقول: واحد في اثنين أو ثلاثة فما فوقها فهذا الضرب، وتقول: واحد بين اثنين أو ثلاثة لكل واحد من الاثنين نصف ومن الثلاثة ثلث فهذه القسمة. والأحد ممتنع في هذه كلها لا يقال: أحد واثنان، ولا أحد في أحد، ولا واحد في أحد، ولا يقال: أحد بين اثنين، والأحد والواحد وغيرهما من هذه الألفاظ كلها مشتقة من الوحدة. (الصمد) الصمد معناه السيد ومن ذهب إلى هذا المعنى جاز له أن يقول لم يزل صمدا، ويقال للسيد المطاع في قومه الذي لا يقضون أمرا دونه: صمد، وقد قال الشاعر: علوته بحسام ثم قلت له * خذها حذيف فأنت السيد الصمد وللصمد معنى ثان وهو أنه المصمود إليه في الحوائج، يقال: صمدت صمد هذا الأمر أي قصدت قصده، ومن ذهب إلى هذا المعنى لم يجز له أن يقول: لم يزل صمدا، لأنه قد وصفه عز وجل بصفة من صفات فعله، وهو مصيب أيضا، والصمد الذي ليس بجسم ولا جوف له. وقد أخرجت في معنى (الصمد) في تفسير قل هو الله أحد في هذا الكتاب معاني أخرى لم أحب إعادتها في هذا الباب. (الأول والآخر) الأول والآخر معناهما أنه الأول بغير ابتداء والآخر بغير انتهاء. (السميع) السميع معناه أنه إذا وجد المسموع كان له سامعا، ومعنى ثان أنه سميع الدعاء أي مجيب الدعاء، وأما السامع فإنه يتعدى إلى مسموع ويوجب وجوده، ولا يجوز فيه بهذا المعنى لم يزل، والبارئ عز اسمه سميع لذاته. (البصير) البصير معناه إذا كانت المبصرات كان لها مبصرا، ولذلك جاز أن يقال: لم يزل بصيرا، ولم يجز أن يقال: لم يزل مبصرا لأنه يتعدى إلى مبصر و يوجب وجوده، والبصارة في اللغة مصدر البصير وبصر بصارة، والله عز وجل بصير لذاته، وليس وصفنا له تبارك وتعالى بأنه سميع بصير وصفا بأنه عالم، بل معناه ما قدمناه من كونه مدركا (١) وهذه الصفة صفة كل حي لا آفة به. (القدير، القاهر) القدير والقاهر معناهما أن الأشياء لا تطيق الامتناع منه ومما يريد الانفاذ فيها، وقد قيل: إن القادر من يصح منه الفعل إذا لم يكن في حكم الممنوع (٢)، والقهر الغلبة، والقدرة مصدر قولك: قدر قدرة أي ملك، فهو قدير قادر مقتدر، وقدرته على ما لم يوجد واقتداره على إيجاده هو قهره وملكه له: وقد قال: عز ذكره: ﴿مالك يوم الدين﴾ ويوم الدين لم يوجد بعد، و يقال: أنه عز وجل قاهر لم يزل، ومعناه أن الأشياء لا تطيق الامتناع منه ومما يريد إنفاذه فيها، ولم يزل مقتدرا عليها ولم تكن موجودة كما يقال: مالك يوم الدين، ويوم الدين لم يوجد بعد. (العلي الأعلى) العلي معناه القاهر فالله العلي ذو العلى والعلاء والتعالي أي ذو القدرة والقهر والاقتدار، يقال: علا الملك علوا، ويقال لكل شئ قد علا: علا يعلو علوا وعلي يعلى علاء، والمعلاة مكتسب الشرف وهي من المعالي، و علو كل شئ أعلاه - برفع العين وخفضها - وفلان من علية الناس وهو اسم، ومعنى الارتفاع والصعود والهبوط عن الله تبارك وتعالى منفي، ومعنى ثان أنه علا تعالى عن الأشباه والأنداد وعما خاضت فيه وساوس الجهال وترامت إليه فكر الضلال، فهو علي متعال عما يقول الظالمون علوا كبيرا، وأما الأعلى فمعناه العلي والقاهر، ويؤيد ذلك قوله عز وجل لموسى عليه السلام: (لا تخف إنك أنت الأعلى) أي القاهر، وقوله عز وجل في تحريض المؤمنين على القتال: (ولا تهنوا ولا تحزنوا وأنتم الأعلون إن كنتم مؤمنين) (١) وقوله عز وجل ﴿أن فرعون علا في الأرض﴾ (٢) أي غلبهم واستولى عليهم، وقال الشاعر في هذا المعنى: فلما علونا واستوينا عليهم * تركناهم صرعى لنسر وكاسر ومعنى ثان أنه متعال عن الأشباه والأنداد أي متنزه كما قال: ﴿تعالى عما يشركون﴾ (٣). (الباقي) الباقي معناه الكائن بغير حدث ولا فناء، والبقاء ضد الفناء، بقي الشئ بقاء، ويقال: ما بقيت منهم باقية ولا وقتهم من الله واقية، والدائم في صفاته هو الباقي أيضا الذي لا يبيد ولا يفنى. (البديع) البديع معناه مبدع البدائع ومحدث الأشياء على غير مثال و احتذاء، وهو فعيل بمعنى مفعل كقوله عز وجل: (عذاب أليم) (٤) والمعنى مؤلم ويقول العرب: ضرب وجيع والمعنى موجع، وقال الشاعر في هذا المعنى: أمن ريحانه الداعي السميع * يؤرقني وأصحابي هجوع فالمعنى الداعي المسمع، والبدع الشئ الذي يكون أولا في كل أمر، و منه قوله عز وجل، ﴿قل ما كنت بدعا من الرسل﴾ أي لست بأول مرسل، والبدعة اسم ما ابتدع من الدين وغيره، وقد قال الشاعر في هذا المعنى: وكفاك لم تخلقا للندى * ولم يك بخلهما بدعة فكف عن الخير مقبوضة * كما حط عن مائة سبعة وأخرى ثلاثة آلافها * وتسع مائيها لها شرعة ويقال: لقد جئت بأمر بديع أي مبتع عجيب. (البارئ) البارئ معناه أنه بارئ البرايا، أي خالق الخلائق، برأهم يبرأهم أي خلقهم يخلقهم، والبرية الخليقة، وأكثر العرب على ترك همزها، و هي فعيلة بمعنى مفعولة، وقال بعضهم: بل هي مأخوذة من بريت العود، ومنهم من يزعم أنه من البرى وهو التراب أي خلقهم من التراب، وقالوا: لذلك لا يهمز. (الأكرم) الأكرم معناه الكريم، وقد يجئ أفعل في معنى الفعيل، مثل قوله عز وجل: ﴿وهو أهون عليه﴾ (١) أي هين عليه، ومثل قوله عز وجل: (لا يصليها إلا الأشقى) وقوله: ﴿وسيجنبها الأتقى﴾ (٢) يعني بالأشقى والأتقى الشقي والتقي، وقد قال الشاعر في هذا المعنى: إن الذي سمك السماء بنى لنا * بيتا دعائمه أعز وأطول (الظاهر) الظاهر معناه أنه الظاهر بآياته التي أظهرها من شواهد قدرته وآثار حكمته وبينات حجته التي عجز الخلق جميعا عن إبداع أصغرها وإنشاء أيسرها وأحقرها عندهم كما قال الله عز وجل: ﴿إن الذين تدعون من دون الله لن يخلقوا ذبابا ولو اجتمعوا له﴾ (٣) فليس شئ من خلقه إلا وهو شاهد له على وحدانيته من جميع جهاته، وأعرض تبارك وتعالى عن وصف ذاته (٤) فهو ظاهر بآياته وشواهد قدرته، محتجب بذاته، ومعنى ثان أنه ظاهر غالب قادر على ما يشاء، ومنه قوله عز وجل: ﴿فأصبحوا ظاهرين﴾ أي غالبين لهم. (الباطن) الباطن معناه أنه قد بطن عن الأوهام، فهو باطن بلا إحاطة، لا يحيط به محيط لأنه قدم الفكر فخبت عنه (١) وسبق المعلوم فلم يحط به (٢) وفات الأوهام فلم تكتنهه، وحارت عنه الأبصار فلم تدركه، فهو باطن كل باطن، و محتجب كل محتجب، بطن بالذات، وظهر وعلا بالآيات، فهو الباطن بلا حجاب والظاهر بلا اقتراب، ومعنى ثان أنه باطن كل شئ أي خبير بصير بما يسرون و ما يعلنون وبكل ما ذرأ وبرأ، وبطانة الرجل وليجته من القوم الذين يداخلهم و يداخلونه في دخيلة أمره، والمعنى أنه عالم بسرائرهم، لا أنه عز وجل يبطن في شئ يواريه. (الحي) الحي معناه أنه الفعال المدبر، وهو حي لنفسه لا يجوز عليه الموت والفناء، وليس يحتاج إلى حياة بها يحيى. (الحكيم) الحكيم معناه أنه عالم، والحكمة في اللغة العلم، ومنه قوله عز وجل: ﴿يؤتي الحكمة من يشاء﴾ ومعنى ثان أنه محكم وأفعاله محكمة متقنة من الفساد، وقد حكمته وأحكمته لغتان، وحكمة اللجام سميت بذلك لأنها تمنعه من الجري الشديد وهي ما أحاطت بحنكه. (العليم) العليم معناه أنه عليم بنفسه، عالم بالسرائر، مطلع على الضمائر، لا يخفى عليه خافية، ولا يعزب عنه مثقال ذرة، علم الأشياء قبل حدوثها، وبعد ما أحدثها، سرها وعلانيتها، ظاهرها وباطنها، وفي علمه عز وجل بالأشياء على خلاف علم الخلق دليل على أنه تبارك وتعالى بخلافهم في جميع معانيهم والله عالم لذاته، والعالم من يصح منه الفعل المحكم المتقن، فلا يقال: إنه يعلم الأشياء بعلم كما لا يثبت معه قديم غيره، بل يقال: إنه ذات عالمة، وهكذا يقال في جميع صفات ذاته. (الحليم) الحليم معناه أنه حليم عمن عصاه لا يعجل عليهم بعقوبته. (الحفيظ) الحفيظ الحافظ، وهو فعيل بمعنى الفاعل، ومعناه أنه يحفظ الأشياء ويصرف عنها البلاء، ولا يوصف بالحفظ على معنى العلم لأنا نوصف بحفظ القرآن والعلوم على المجاز، والمراد بذلك أنا إذا علمناه لم يذهب عنا كما إذا حفظنا الشئ لم يذهب عنا (١). (الحق) الحق معناه المحق، ويوصف به توسعا لأنه مصدر (٢) وهو كقولهم ((غياث المستغيثين) ومعنى ثان يراد به أن عبادة الله هي الحق وعبادة غيره هي الباطل، ويؤيد ذلك القول عز وجل: ﴿ذلك بأن الله هو الحق وأن ما يدعون من دونه هو الباطل﴾ أي يبطل ويذهب ولا يملك لأحد ثوابا ولا عقابا. (الحسيب) الحسيب معناه أنه المحصي لكل شئ، العالم به، لا يخفى عليه شئ، ومعنى ثان أنه المحاسب لعباده يحاسبهم بأعمالهم ويجازيهم عليها، وهو فعيل على معنى مفاعل مثل جليس ومجالس، ومعنى ثالث: أنه الكافي، والله حسبي وحسبك أي كافينا، وأحسبني هذا الشئ أي كفاني، وأحسبته أي أعطيته حتى قال: حسبي، ومنه قوله عز وجل: (جزاء من ربك عطاء حسابا) أي كافيا. (الحميد) الحميد معناه المحمود، وهو فعيل في معنى المفعول، والحمد نقيض الذم، ويقال: حمدت فلانا إذا رضيت فعله ونشرته في الناس. (الحفي) الحفي معناه العالم، ومنه قوله عز وجل: (يسألونك كأنك حفي عنها) (١) أي يسألونك عن الساعة كأنك عالم بوقت مجيئها (٢)، ومعنى ثان أنه اللطيف، والحفاية مصدر الحفي: اللطيف المحتفي بك ببرك وبلطفك (٣). (الرب) الرب معناه المالك، وكل من ملك شيئا فهو ربه ومنه قوله عز وجل: ﴿ارجع إلى ربك﴾ أي إلى سيدك ومليكك، وقال قائل يوم حنين: لأن يربني رجل من قريش أحب إلي من أن يربني رجل من هوازن. يريد يملكني ويصير لي ربا ومالكا، ولا يقال لمخلوق: الرب بالألف واللام لأن الألف واللام دالتان على العموم، وإنما يقال للمخلوق: رب كذا فيعرف بالإضافة لأنه لا يملك غيره فينسب إلى ما يملكه، والربانيون نسبوا إلى التأله والعبادة للرب في معنى الربوبية له، والربيون الذين صبروا مع الأنبياء عليهم السلام. (الرحمن) الرحمن معناه الواسع الرحمة على عباده يعمهم بالرزق و الإنعام عليهم، ويقال: هو اسم من أسماء الله تبارك وتعالى في الكتب لا سمي له فيه ويقال للرجل: رحيم القلب ولا يقال: الرحمن لأن الرحمن يقدر على كشف البلوى ولا يقدر الرحيم من خلقه على ذلك، وقد جوز قوم أن يقال للرجل: رحمن وأرادوا به الغاية في الرحمة، وهذا خطأ، والرحمن هو لجميع العالم والرحيم بالمؤمنين خاصة. (الرحيم) الرحيم معناه أنه رحيم بالمؤمنين يخصهم برحمته في عاقبة أمرهم كما قال الله عز وجل: ( وكان بالمؤمنين رحيما) والرحمن والرحيم اسمان مشتقان من الرحمة على وزن ندمان ونديم، ومعنى الرحمة النعمة، والراحم المنعم كما قال الله عز وجل لرسوله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: ﴿وما أرسلناك إلا رحمة للعالمين﴾ (١) يعني: نعمة عليهم ويقال للقرآن: هدى ورحمة، وللغيث رحمة يعني نعمة، وليس معنى الرحمة الرقة لأن الرقة عن الله عز وجل منفية، وإنما سمي رقيق القلب من الناس رحيما لكثرة ما توجد الرحمة منه، ويقال: ما أقرب رحم فلان إذا كان ذا مرحمة وبر، والمرحمة الرحمة، ويقال: رحمته مرحمة ورحمة. (الذارئ) الذارئ معناه الخالق يقال: ذرأ الله الخلق وبرأهم أي خلقهم وقد قيل: إن الذرية منه اشتق اسمها كأنهم ذهبوا إلى أنها خلق الله عز وجل خلقها من الرجل، وأكثر العرب على ترك همزها وإنما تركوا الهمزة في هذا المذهب لكثرة ترددها في أفواهم كما تركوا همزة البرية وهمزة بري وأشباه ذلك، ومنهم من يزعم أنها من ذروت أو ذريت معا يريد أنه قد كثرهم وبثهم في الأرض بثا، كما قال الله تعالى: ﴿وبث منهما رجالا كثيرا ونساء﴾ . (الرازق) الرازق معناه أنه عز وجل يرزق عباده برهم وفاجرهم رزقا بفتح الراء رواية من العرب، ولو أرادوا المصدر لقالوا: رزقا، بكسر الراء ويقال: ارتزق الجند رزقة واحدة أي أخذوه مرة واحدة. (الرقيب) الرقيب معناه الحافظ وهو فعيل بمعنى فاعل، ورقيب القوم حارسهم. (الرؤوف) الرؤوف معناه الرحيم، والرأفة الرحمة. (الرائي) الرائي معناه العالم، والرؤية العلم، معنى ثان: أنه المبصر ومعنى الرؤية الإبصار، ويجوز في معنى العلم لم يزل رائيا، ولا يجوز ذلك في معنى الإبصار. (السلام) السلام معناه المسلم، وهو توسع لأن السلام مصدر، والمراد به أن السلامة تنال من قبله، والسلام والسلامة مثل الرضاع والرضاعة واللذاذ و اللذاذة، ومعنى ثان أنه يوصف بهذه الصفة لسلامته مما يلحق الخلق من العيب والنقص والزوال والانتقال والفناء والموت، وقوله عز وجل: ﴿لهم دار السلام عند ربهم﴾ (١) فالسلام هو الله عز وجل وداره الجنة، ويجوز أن يكون سماها سلاما لأن الصائر إليها يسلم فيها من كل ما يكون في الدنيا من مرض ووصب و موت وهرم وأشباه ذلك، فهي دار السلامة من الآفات والعاهات، وقوله عز وجل ﴿فسلام لك من أصحاب اليمين﴾ (٢) يقول: فسلامة لك منهم أي يخبرك عنهم سلامة والسلامة في اللغة الصواب والسداد أيضا، ومنه قوله عز وجل: ﴿وإذا خاطبهم الجاهلون قالوا سلاما﴾ (٣) أي سدادا وصوابا، ويقال: سمي الصواب من القول سلاما لأنه يسلم من العيب والإثم. (المؤمن) المؤمن معناه المصدق، والإيمان التصديق في اللغة، يدلك على ذلك قوله عز وجل حكاية عن إخوة يوسف عليه السلام: ﴿وما أنت بمؤمن لنا ولو كنا صادقين﴾ (٤) فالعبد مؤمن مصدق بتوحيد الله وبآياته، والله مؤمن مصدق لما وعده ومحققه، ومعنى ثان: أنه محقق حقق وحدانيته بآياته عند خلقه وعرفهم حقيقته (٥) لما أبدى من علاماته وأبان من بيناته وعجائب تدبيره ولطائف تقديره، ومعنى ثالث أنه آمنهم من الظلم والجور، قال الصادق عليه السلام: سمي البارئ عز وجل مؤمنا لأنه يؤمن من عذابه من أطاعه، وسمي العبد مؤمنا لأنه يؤمن على الله عز وجل فيجيز الله أمانه (٦) وقال عليه السلام: (المؤمن من أمن جاره بوائقه)، وقال عليه السلام: (المؤمن الذي يأتمنه المسلمون على أموالهم وأنفسهم). (المهيمن) المهيمن معناه الشاهد، وهو كقوله عز وجل: ﴿ومهيمنا عليه﴾ أي شاهدا عليه، ومعنى ثان أنه اسم مبني من الأمين، والأمين اسم من أسماء الله عز وجل، ثم بني كما بني المبيطر من البيطر والبيطار، وكأن الأصل فيه مؤيمن فقلبت الهمزة هاء كما قلبت همزة أرقت وأيهات فقيل: هرقت وهيهات، وأمين اسم من أسماء الله عز وجل، ومن طول الألف أراد (يا أمين) فأخرجه مخرج قولهم: أزيد. على معنى يا زيد، ويقال: المهيمن اسم من أسماء الله عز وجل في الكتب السابقة. (العزيز) العزيز معناه أنه لا يعجزه شئ ولا يمتنع عليه شئ أراده فهو قاهر للأشياء، غالب غير مغلوب، وقد يقال في المثل: (من عز بز) أي من غلب سلب، وقوله عز وجل حكاية عن الخصمين: ﴿وعزني في الخطاب﴾ (١) أي غلبني في مجاوبة الكلام (٢)، ومعنى ثان: أنه الملك ويقال للملك: عزيز كما قال إخوة يوسف ليوسف عليه السلام: ﴿يا أيها العزيز﴾ والمراد به يا أيها الملك . (الجبار) الجبار معناه القاهر الذي لا ينال، وله التجبر والجبروت أي التعظم والعظمة، ويقال للنخلة التي لا تنال: جبارة، والجبر أن تجبر إنسانا على ما يكرهه قهرا تقول: جبرته على أمر كذا وكذا، وقال الصادق عليه السلام: (لا جبر ولا تفويض بل أمر بين أمرين) عني بذلك: أن الله تبارك وتعالى لم يجبر عباده على المعاصي ولم يفوض إليهم أمر الدين حتى يقولوا فيه بآرائهم ومقائسهم فإنه عز وجل قد حدو وظف وشرع وفرض وسن وأكمل لهم الدين، فلا تفويض مع التحديد والتوظيف والشرع والفرض والسنة وإكمال الدين. (المتكبر) المتكبر مأخوذ من الكبرياء، وهو اسم للتكبر والتعظم. (السيد) السيد معناه الملك، ويقال لملك القوم وعظيمهم: سيدهم، و قد سادهم يسودهم. وقيل لقيس بن عاصم: بم سدت قومك؟ قال: ببذل الندى، و كف الأذى، ونصر المولى، وقال النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: (علي سيد العرب، فقالت عائشة: يا رسول الله ألست سيد العرب؟ فقال: أنا سيد ولد آدم، وعلي سيد العرب، فقالت: يا رسول الله وما السيد؟ قال: من افترضت طاعته كما افترضت طاعتي). وقد أخرجت هذا الحديث مسندا في كتاب معاني الأخبار، فعلى معنى هذا الحديث السيد هو الملك الواجب الطاعة. (السبوح) هو اسم مبني على فعول، وليس في كلام العرب فعول إلا سبوح وقدوس، ومعناهما واحد، وسبحان الله تنزيها له عن كل ما لا ينبغي أن يوصف به، ونصبه لأنه في موضع فقل على معنى تسبيحا لله يريد سبحت تسبيحا لله، ويجوز أن يكون نصبا على الظرف، ومعناه نسبح لله وسبحوا لله . (الشهيد) الشهيد معناه الشاهد بكل مكان صانعا ومدبرا على أن المكان مكان لصنعه وتدبيره، لا على أن المكان مكان له، لأنه عز وجل كان ولا مكان. (الصادق) الصادق معناه أنه صادق في وعده، ولا يبخس ثواب من يفي بعهده. (الصانع) الصانع معناه أنه صانع كل مصنوع أي خالق كل مخلوق، ومبدع جميع البدائع، وكل ذلك دال على أنه لا يشبهه شئ من خلقه، لأنا لم نجد فيما شاهدنا فعلا يشبه فاعله، لأنهم أجسام وأفعالهم غير أجسام والله تعالى عن أن يشبه أفعاله، وأفعاله لحم وعظم وشعر ودم وعصب وعروق وأعضاء وجوارح وأجزاء ونور وظلمة وأرض وسماء وحجر وشجر وغير ذلك من صنوف الخلق وكل ذلك فعله وصنعه عز وجل، وجميع ذلك دليل على وحدانيته شاهد على انفراده وعلى أنه بخلاف خلقه وأنه لا شريك له. وقال بعض الحكماء في هذا المعنى وهو يصف النرجس: عيون في جفون في فنون * بدت فأجاد صنعتها المليك بأبصار التغنج طامحات * كأن حداقها ذهب سبيك على غصن الزمرد مخبرات * بأن الله ليس له شريك (الطاهر) الطاهر معناه أنه متنزه عن الأشباه والأنداد والأضداد و الأمثال والحدود والزوال والانتقال ومعاني الخلق من الطول والعرض والأقطار والثقل والخفة، والرقة والغلظة، والدخول والخروج، والملازقة والمباينة، و الرائحة والطعم، واللون والمجسة والخشونة واللين، والحرارة والبرودة، و الحركة والسكون، والاجتماع والافتراق، والتمكن في مكان دون مكان، لأن جميع ذلك محدث مخلوق وعاجز ضعيف من جميع الجهات، دليل على محدث أحدثه وصانع صنعه، قادر قوي طاهر من معانيها لا يشبه شيئا منها (١) لأنها دلت من جميع جهاتها على صانع صنعها ومحدث أحدثها وأوجبت على جميع ما غاب عنها من أشباهها وأمثالها أن يكون دالة على صانع صنعها، تعالى الله عن ذلك علوا كبيرا. (العدل) العدل معناه الحكم بالعدل والحق، وسمي به توسعا لأنه مصدر والمراد به العادل، والعدل من الناس المرضي قوله وفعله وحكمه. (العفو) العفو اسم مشتق من العفو على وزن فعول، والعفو: المحو، يقال: عفا الشئ إذا امتحي وذهب ودرس، وعفوته أنا إذا محوته، ومنه قوله عز وجل ﴿عفا الله عنك لم أذنت لهم﴾ أي محا الله عنك إذنك لهم. (الغفور) الغفور اسم مشتق من المغفرة، وهو الغافر الغفار، وأصله في اللغة التغطية والستر، تقول: غفرت الشئ إذا غطيته، ويقال: هذا أغفر من هذا أي أستر، وغفر الصوف والخز ما علا فوق الثوب منهما كالزئبر، سمي غفرا لأنه ستر الثوب، ويقال لجنة الرأس: مغفر لأنها تستر الرأس، والغفور: الساتر لعبده برحمته. (الغني) الغني معناه أنه الغني بنفسه عن غيره وعن الاستعانة بالآلات والأدوات وغيرها، والأشياء كلها سوى الله عز وجل متشابهة في الضعف والحاجة، لا يقوم بعضها إلا ببعض ولا يستغني بعضها عن بعض. (الغياث) الغياث معناه المغيث سمي به توسعا لأنه مصدر. (الفاطر) الفاطر معناه الخالق، فطر الخلق أي خلقهم وابتدأ صنعة الأشياء وابتدعها فهو فاطرها أي خالقها ومبدعها. (الفرد) الفرد معناه أنه المتفرد بالربوبية والأمر دون خلقه، ومعنى ثان: أنه موجود وحده لا موجود معه. (الفتاح) الفتاح معناه أنه الحاكم ومنه قوله عز وجل: ﴿وأنت خبير الفاتحين﴾ (١) وقوله عز وجل؟ (وهو الفتاح العليم) (٢). (الفالق) الفالق اسم مشتق من الفلق، ومعناه في أصل اللغة الشق، يقال: سمعت هذا من فلق فيه، وفلقت الفستقة فانفلقت، وخلق الله تبارك وتعالى كل شئ فانفلق عن جميع ما خلق، فلق الأرحام فانفلقت عن الحيوان، وفلق الحب والنوى فانفلقا عن النبات، وفلق الأرض فانفلقت عن كل ما أخرج منها، وهو كقوله عز وجل: ﴿والأرض ذات الصدع﴾ صدعها فانصدعت، وفلق الظلام فانفلق عن الاصباح، وفلق السماء فانفلقت عن القطر، وفلق البحر لموسى عليه السلام فانفلق فكان كل فرق منه كالطود العظيم. (القديم) القديم معناه أنه المتقدم للأشياء كلها، وكل متقدم لشئ يسمى قديما إذا بولغ في الوصف، ولكنه سبحانه قديم لنفسه بلا أول ولا نهاية، و سائر الأشياء لها أول ونهاية، ولم يكن لها هذا الاسم في بدئها، فهي قديمة من وجه و محدثه من وجه، وقد قيل: إن القديم معناه أنه الموجود لم يزل، وإذا قيل لغيره عز وجل: إنه قديم كان على المجاز لأن غيره محدث ليس بقديم. (الملك) الملك هو مالك الملك قد ملك كل شئ، والملكوت ملك الله عز وجل زيدت فيه التاء كما زيدت في رهبوت ورحموت، تقول العرب: رهبوت خير من رحموت أي لأن ترهب خير من أن ترحم. (القدوس) القدوس معناه الطاهر، والتقديس التطهير والتنزيه، وقوله عز وجل حكاية عن الملائكة: ﴿ونحن نسبح بحمدك ونقدس لك﴾ (١) أي ننسبك إلى الطهارة، ونسبحك ونقدس لك بمعنى واحد (٢)، وحظيرة القدس موضع الطهارة من الأدناس التي تكون في الدنيا والأوصاب والأوجاع وأشباه ذلك، وقد قيل: إن القدوس من أسماء الله عز وجل في الكتب. (القوي) القوي معناه معروف وهو القوي بلا معاناة ولا استعانة. (القريب) القريب معناه المجيب، ويؤيد ذلك قول عز وجل ﴿فإني قريب أجيب دعوة الداع إذا دعان﴾ (٣) ومعنى ثان: أنه عالم بوساوس القلوب لا حجاب بينه وبينها ولا مسافة، ويؤيد هذا المعنى قوله عز وجل: ﴿ولقد خلقنا الإنسان ونعلم ما توسوس به نفسه ونحن أقرب إليه من حبل الوريد﴾ . فهو قريب بغير مماسة، بائن من خلقه بغير طريق ولا مسافة، بل هو على المفارقة لهم في المخالطة، والمخالفة لهم في المشابهة، وكذلك التقرب إليه ليس من جهة الطرق والمسائف، إنما هو من جهة الطاعة وحسن العبادة، فالله تبارك وتعالى قريب دان دنوه من غير سفل، لأنه ليس باقتطاع المسائف يدنو، ولا باجتياز الهواء يعلو، كيف وقد كان قبل السفل والعلو وقبل أن يوصف بالعلو والدنو. (القيوم) القيوم والقيام هما فيعول وفيعال من قمت بالشئ إذا وليته بنفسك وتوليت حفظه وإصلاحه وتقديره، ونظيره قولهم: ما فيها من ديور ولا ديار. (القابض) القابض اسم مشتق من القبض، وللقبض معان، منها: الملك يقال: فلان في قبضي، هذه الضيعة في قبضي، ومنه قوله عز وجل: (والأرض جميعا قبضته يوم القيمة) (١) وهذا كقول الله عز وجل: ﴿وله الملك يوم ينفخ في الصور﴾ (٢) وقوله عز وجل: (والأمر يومئذ لله) (٣) وقوله عز وجل: ﴿مالك يوم الدين﴾ (٤) ومنها: إفناء الشئ، ومن ذلك قولهم للميت: قبضه الله إليه، ومنه قوله عز وجل: ﴿ثم جعلنا الشمس عليه دليلا ثم قبضناه إلينا قبضا يسيرا﴾ (٥) فالشمس لا تقبض بالبراجم، والله تبارك وتعالى قابضها ومطلقها، ومن هذا قوله عز وجل: ﴿والله يقبض ويبسط وإليه ترجعون﴾ (٦) فهو باسط على عباده فضله، وقابض ما يشاء من عائدته وأياديه، والقبض قبض البراجم أيضا وهو عن الله تعالى ذكره منفي، ولو كان القبض والبسط الذي ذكره الله عز وجل من قبل البراجم لما جاز أن يكون في وقت واحد قابضا وباسطا لاستحالة ذلك، والله تعالى ذكره في كل ساعة يقبض الأنفس ويبسط الرزق ويفعل ما يريد. (الباسط) الباسط معناه المنعم المفضل، قد بسط على عباده فضله وإحسانه، و أسبغ عليهم نعمه. (قاضي الحاجات) القاضي اسم مشتق من القضاء، ومعنى القضاء من الله عز وجل على ثلاثة أوجه: فوجه منها هو الحكم والالزام، يقال: قضي القاضي على فلان بكذا أي حكم عليه به وألزمه إياه، ومنه قوله عز وجل: ﴿وقضى ربك ألا تعبدوا إلا إياه﴾ (٧) ووجه منها هو الخبر، ومنه قوله عز وجل: ﴿وقضينا إلى بني إسرائيل في الكتاب﴾ (٨) أي أخبرناهم بذلك على لسان النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم، ووجه منها هو الاتمام، ومنه قوله عز وجل: ﴿فقضيهن سبع سماوات في يومين﴾ ومنه قول الناس: قضى فلان حاجتي، يريد أنه أتم حاجتي على ما سألته. (المجيد) المجيد معناه الكريم العزيز، ومنه قوله عز وجل: ﴿بل هو قرآن مجيد﴾ (١) أي كريم عزيز. والمجد في اللغة نيل الشرف، ومجد الرجل وأمجد لغتان وأمجده كرم فعاله، ومعنى ثان: أنه مجيد ممجد، مجده خلقه أي عظموه. (المولى) المولى معناه الناصر ينصر المؤمنين ويتولى نصرهم على عدوهم و يتولى ثوابهم وكرامتهم، وولي الطفل هو الذي يتولى إصلاح شأنه، والله ولي المؤمنين وهو مولاهم وناصرهم، والمولى في وجه آخر هو الأولى، ومنه قول النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: (من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه) وذلك على إثر كلام قد تقدمه وهو أن قال: (ألست أولى بكم منكم بأنفسكم (٢)، قالوا: بلى يا رسول الله، قال من كنت مولاه أي من كنت أولى به منه بنفسه فعلي مولاه) أي أولى به منه بنفسه. (المنان) المنان معناه المعطي المنعم، ومنه قوله عز وجل: (فامنن أو أمسك بغير حساب (٣)) وقوله عز وجل: ﴿ولا تمنن تستكثر﴾ . (المحيط) المحيط معناه أنه محيط بالأشياء عالم بها كلها، وكل من أخذ شيئا كله أو بلغ علمه أقصاه فقد أحاط به، وهذا على التوسع لأن الإحاطة في الحقيقة إحاطة الجسم الكبير بالجسم الصغير من جوانبه كإحاطة البيت بما فيه و إحاطة السور بالمدن، ولهذا المعنى سمي الحائط حائطا، ومعنى ثان يحتمل أن يكون نصبا على الظرف، معناه مستوليا مقتدرا، كقوله عز وجل: (وظنوا أنهم أحيط بهم ) فسماه إحاطة لهم لأن القوم إذا أحاطوا بعدوهم لم يقدر العدو على التخلص منهم. (المبين) المبين معناه الظاهر البين حكمته، المظهر لها بما أبان من بيناته وآثار قدرته، ويقال: بان الشئ وأبان واستبان بمعنى واحد. (المقيت) المقيت معناه الحافظ الرقيب، ويقال: بل هو القدير. (المصور) المصور هو اسم مشتق من التصوير، يصور الصور في الأرحام كيف يشاء، فهو مصور كل صورة، وخالق كل مصور في رحم ومدرك ببصر وممثل في نفس، وليس الله تبارك وتعالى بالصور والجوارح يوصف، ولا بالحدود والأبعاض يعرف، ولا في سعة الهواء بالأوهام يطلب، ولكن بالآيات يعرف، وبالعلامات و الدلالات يحقق، وبها يوقن، وبالقدرة والعظمة والجلال والكبرياء يوصف، لأنه ليس له في خلقه شبيه ولا في بريته عديل. (الكريم) الكريم معناه العزيز، يقال: فلان أكرم علي من فلان أي أعز منه، ومنه قوله عز وجل: ﴿إنه لقرآن كريم﴾ (١) وكذلك قوله عز وجل: ﴿ذق إنك أنت العزيز الكريم﴾ (٢)، ومعنى ثان: أنه الجواد المفضل، يقال: رجل كريم أي جواد، وقوم كرام أي أجواد، وكريم وكرم مثل أديم وأدم. (الكبير) الكبير السيد، يقال لسيد القوم: كبيرهم، والكبرياء اسم التكبر والتعظم. (الكافي) الكافي اسم مشتق من الكفاية، وكل من توكل عليه كفاه ولا يلجئه إلى غيره. (كاشف الضر) الكاشف معناه المفرج يجيب المضطر إذا دعاه ويكشف السوء، والكشف في اللغة رفعك شيئا عما يواريه ويغطيه. (الوتر) الوتر الفرد، وكل شئ كان فردا قيل: وتر. (النور) النور معناه المنير، ومنه قوله عز وجل: ﴿الله نور السماوات و الأرض﴾ أي منير لهم وآمرهم وهاديهم، فهم يهتدون به في مصالحهم كما يهتدون في النور والضياء (١) وهذا توسع إذا لنور الضياء والله عز وجل متعال عن ذلك علوا كبيرا، لأن الأنوار محدثة، ومحدثها قديم لا يشبهه شئ، وعلى سبيل التوسع قيل: إن القرآن نور لأن الناس يهتدون به في دينهم كما يهتدون بالضياء في مسالكهم، ولهذا المعنى كان النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم منيرا. (الوهاب) الوهاب معروف وهو من الهبة يهب لعباده ما يشاء ويمن عليهم بما يشاء، ومنه قوله عز وجل: ﴿يهب لمن يشاء إناثا ويهب لمن يشاء الذكور﴾ . (الناصر) الناصر والنصير بمعنى واحد، والنصرة حسن المعونة. (الواسع) الواسع الغني، والسعة الغنى، يقال: فلان يعطي من سعة أي من غنى، والوسع جدة الرجل وقدرة ذات يده، ويقال: أنفق على قدر وسعك. (الودود) الودود فعول بمعنى مفعول كما يقال: هيوب بمعنى مهيب، يراد به، أنه مودود ومحبوب، ويقال: بل فعول بمعنى فاعل كقولك: غفور بمعنى غافر أي يود عباده الصالحين ويحبهم، والود والوداد مصدر المودة، فلان ودك ووديدك أي حبك وحبيبك. (الهادي) الهادي معناه أنه عز وجل يهديهم للحق، والهدى من الله عز وجل على ثلاثة أوجه: فوجه هو الدلالة قد دلهم جميعا على الدين، والثاني هو الإيمان والإيمان هدى من الله عز وجل كما أنه نعمة من الله عز وجل، والثالث هو النجاة وقد بين الله عز وجل، أنه سيهدي المؤمنين بعد وفاتهم فقال: (والذين قتلوا في سبيل الله فلن يضل أعمالهم سيهديهم ويصلح بالهم) ولا يكون الهدى بعد الموت والقتل إلا الثواب والنجاة، وكذلك قوله عز وجل: (إن الذين آمنوا و عملوا الصالحات يهديهم ربهم بإيمانهم ( وهو ضد الضلال الذي هو عقوبة الكافر، وقال الله عز وجل: (ويضل الله الظالمين) أي يهلكهم ويعاقبهم، وهو كقوله عز وجل: (أضل أعمالهم) أي أهلك أعمالهم وأحبطها بكفرهم. (الوفي) الوفي معناه أنه يفي بعهدهم ويوفي بعهده، يقال: رجل وفي و موف، وقد وفيت بعهدك وأوفيت لغتان. (الوكيل) الوكيل معناه المتولي أي القائم بحفظنا، وهذا هو معنى الوكيل على المال منا، ومعنى ثان أنه المعتمد والملجأ، والتوكل الاعتماد عليه و الالتجاء إليه. (الوارث) الوارث معناه أن كل من ملكه الله شيئا يموت ويبقى ما كان في ملكه ولا يملكه إلا الله تبارك وتعالى. (البر) البر معناه الصادق، يقال: صدق فلان وبر، ويقال: برت يمين فلان إذا صدقت، وأبرها الله أي أمضاها على الصدق. (الباعث) الباعث معناه أنه يبعث من في القبور ويحييهم وينشرهم للجزاء والبقاء. (التواب) التواب معناه أنه يقبل التوبة ويعفو عن الحوبة إذا تاب منها العبد، يقال: تاب العبد إلى الله عز وجل فهو تائب إليه وتاب الله عليه أي قبل توبته فهو تواب عليه، والتوب التوبة، ويقال: اتأب فلان من كذا - مهموزا - إذا استحيى منه، ويقال: ما طعامك بطعام تؤبة أي لا يحتشم منه ولا يستحيى . (الجليل) الجليل معناه السيد، يقال لسيد القوم: جليلهم وعظيمهم، و جل جلال الله فهو الجليل ذو الجلال والاكرام، ويقال جل فلان في عيني أي عظم، وأجللته أي عظمته . (الجواد) الجواد معناه المحسن المنعم الكثير الإنعام والاحسان، يقال: جاد السخي من الناس يجود جودا، ورجل جواد، وقوم أجواد وجود أي أسخياء، ولا يقال لله عز وجل: سخي لأن أصل السخاوة راجع إلى اللين، يقال: أرض سخاوية وقرطاس سخاوي إذا كان لينا. وسمي السخي سخيا للينه عند الحوائج إليه. (الخبير) الخبير معناه العالم، والخبر والخبير في اللغة واحد، والخبر علمك بالشئ، يقال: لي به خبر أي علم. (الخالق) الخالق معناه الخلاق، خلق الخلائق خلقا وخليقة، والخليقة: الخلق، والجمع الخلائق، والخلق في اللغة تقديرك الشئ، يقال في المثل: إني إذا خلقت فريت لا كمن يخلق ولا يفري، وفي قول أئمتنا عليهم السلام: إن أفعال العباد مخلوقة خلق تقدير لا خلق تكوين، وخلق عيسى عليه السلام من الطين كهيئة الطير هو خلق تقدير أيضا، ومكون الطير وخالقه في الحقيقة هو الله عز وجل. (خير الناصرين) خير الناصرين وخير الراحمين معناه أن فاعل الخير إذا كثر ذلك منه سمي خيرا توسعا. (الديان) الديان هو الذي يدين العباد ويجزيهم بأعمالهم، والدين الجزاء، ولا يجمع لأنه مصدر، يقال: دان يدين دينا، ويقال في المثل: (كما تدين تدان) أي كما تجزي تجزى، قال الشاعر: كما يدين الفتى يوما يدان به * من يزرع الثوم لا يقلعه ريحانا (الشكور) الشكور والشاكر معناهما أنه يشكر للعبد عمله، وهذا توسع لأن الشكر في اللغة عرفان الاحسان، وهو المحسن إلى عباده المنعم عليهم، لكنه سبحانه لما كان مجازيا للمطيعين على طاعاتهم جعل مجازاته شكرا لهم على المجاز كما سميت مكافأة المنعم شكرا. (العظيم) العظيم معناه السيد، وسيد القوم عظيمهم وجليلهم، ومعنى ثان: أنه يوصف بالعظمة لغلبته على الأشياء وقدرته عليها ولذلك كان الواصف بذلك معظما، ومعنى ثالث: أنه عظيم لأن ما سواه كله له ذليل خاضع فهو عظيم السلطان، عظيم الشأن، ومعنى رابع: أنه المجيد يقال: عظم فلان في المجد عظامة، والعظامة مصدر: الأمر العظيم، والعظمة من التجبر، وليس معنى العظيم ضخم طويل عريض ثقيل لأن هذه المعاني معاني الخلق وآيات الصنع والحدث وهي عن الله تبارك وتعالى منفية، وقد روي في الخبر أنه سمي العظيم لأنه خالق الخلق العظيم ورب العرش العظيم وخالقه. (اللطيف) اللطيف معناه أنه لطيف بعباده فهو لطيف بهم، بار بهم، منعم عليهم واللطف البر والتكرمة، يقال: فلان لطيف بالناس بار بهم يبرهم ويلطفهم إلطافا، ومعنى ثان أنه لطيف في تدبيره وفعله يقال: فلان لطيف العمل، وقد روي في الخبر أن معنى اللطيف هو أنه الخالق للخلق اللطيف كما أنه سمي العظيم لأنه الخالق للخلق العظيم. (الشافي) الشافي معناه معروف وهو من الشفاء كما قال الله عز وجل حكاية عن إبراهيم عليه السلام: ﴿وإذا مرضت فهو يشفين﴾ (١) فجملة هذه الأسماء الحسنى تسعة و تسعون اسما. وأما (تبارك) (٢) فهو من البركة وهو عز وجل ذو بركة وهو فاعل البركة وخالقها وجاعلها في خلقه، وتبارك وتعالى عن الولد والصاحبة والشريك وعما يقول الظالمون علوا كبيرا، وقد قيل: إن معنى قول الله عز وجل: ﴿تبارك الذي نزل الفرقان على عبده ليكون للعالمين نذيرا﴾ إنما عنى به أن الله الذي يدوم بقاؤه وتبقى نعمه ويصير ذكره بركة على عباده واستدامة لنعم الله عندهم (هو الذي نزل الفرقان على عبده ليكون للعالمين نذيرا) والفرقان هو القرآن وإنما سماه فرقانا لأن الله عز وجل فرق به بين الحق والباطل، وعبده الذي أنزل عليه ذلك هو محمد صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم وسماه عبدا لئلا يتخذ ربا معبودا، وهذا رد على من يغلو فيه، وبين عز وجل أنه نزل عليه ذلك لينذر به العالمين وليخوفهم به من معاصي الله وأليم. عقابه، والعالمون: الناس (الذي له ملك السماوات والأرض ولم يتخذ ولدا) كما قالت النصارى إذ أضافوا إليه الولد كذبا عليه وخروجا من توحيده (ولم يكن له شريك في الملك وخلق كل شئ فقدره تقديرا) يعني: أنه خلق الأشياء كلها على مقدار يعرفه وأنه لم يخلق شيئا من ذلك على سبيل سهو ولا غفلة ولا على تنحيب ولا على مجازفة، بل على المقدار الذي يعلم أنه صواب من تدبيره وأنه استصلاح لعباده في أمر دينهم وأنه عدل منه على خلقه لأنه لو لم يخلق ذلك على مقدار يعرفه على سبيل ما وصفناه لوجد في ذلك التفاوت والظلم والخروج عن الحكمة وصواب التدبير إلى العبث والظلم والفساد كما يوجد مثل ذلك في فعل خلقه الذين ينحبون في أفعالهم ويفعلون من ذلك ما لا يعرفون مقداره، ولم يعن بذلك أنه خلق لذلك تقديرا يعرف به مقدار ما يفعله ثم فعل أفعاله بعد ذلك، لأن ذلك إنما يوجد من فعل من لا يعلم مقدار ما يفعله إلا بهذا التقدير وهذا التدبير، والله سبحانه لم يزل عالما بكل شئ، وإنما عنى بقوله: فقدره تقديرا أي فعل ذلك على مقدار يعرفه - على ما بيناه - وعلى أن يقدر أفعاله لعباده بأن يعرفهم مقدارها ووقت كونها و مكانها الذي يحدث فيه ليعرفوا ذلك، وهذا التقدير من الله عز وجل كتاب وخبر كتبه الله لملائكته وأخبرهم به ليعرفوه، فلما كان كلامه لم يوجد إلا على مقدار يعرفه لئلا يخرج عن حد الصدق إلى الكذب وعن حد الصواب إلى الخطأ، وعن حد البيان إلى التلبيس، كان ذلك دلالة على أن الله قد قدره على ما هو به وأحكمه وأحدثه فلهذا صار محكما لا خلل فيه ولا تفاوت ولا فساد.


9. Ahmad ibn Ziyad ibn Ja`far al-Hamdani (may Allah be pleased with him) said: `Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashim said on the authority of his father, on the authority of Abu al-Salt `Abd alSalam ibn Salih al-Harawi, on the authority of `Ali ibn Musa al-Rida (AS), on the authority of his father (AS), on the authority of his forefathers (AS), on the authority of `Ali (AS) that The Messenger of Allah (SA) said: “For Allah, the Mighty and High, are Ninety-Nine Names. Whoever calls Allah by them, He will grant him what he asks. And whoever enumerates them shall enter Paradise.” Muhammad ibn `Ali al-Husayn, the Compiler of this book explains: The meaning of the statement of the Prophet, praise and salutations of Allah be upon him and his Progeny, is that indeed Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, the has Ninety-Nine names. Whoever enumerates them will enter Paradise. Enumerating the names means to encompass them, and understand their meanings. The meaning of enumerating them is not simply to count them or to number them. All success depends upon Allah. Allah, God [Allah, al-Ilah], Allah and Ilah means the worthy of service, and no one has the right to be served but Him. You may say: He was One God in the sense that He had the right to be served. This is why, when the infidels went astray, and determined that the worshipping idols is mandatory, they names them gods [al-ihah]. Its origin is al-ilahah, that is service (worship). It is said: Its origin is al-ilah, it si said; aliha al-rajul ya’lahu ilayh i.e. he took refuge to it fro an affair that afflicted him. Alihahu i.e. he aided him. The explanation of the Imam’s (AS) statement is as follows: Then two `As’ [hamzahs] had combined in one word, due to a common use of the word, and its heavy pronunciation, the original `A’ [Hamzah] was omitted, because they found in the shortened word sounded similar to its full form. Then the two `Ls’ [lam] were combined, the first of the two did not contain a vowel, so they assimilated it into the second. Thus, it became a doubled letter in your word: Allah [Allah]. The One, the Alone [al-Wahid, al-Ahad], the meaning of al-Ahad is that He is One in His Essence, not possessing parts, components, and limbs. Nor is it permissible to number Him and ascribe change to Him, because change in things is evidence of His Oneness, which applies only to Him. It is said: Allah has always been One. The second meaning is that He is One, there is no equal to Him. Therefore, no one shares with Him the meaning of Oneness, because all those that have equals and likes are not one in reality. It is also said: he is one of a kind, i.e. there is no equal to him in what he is attributed with. Allah is One, but not numerically, because He, the Mighty and High, is not counted among the genus, but He is One, there is no equal to Him. Some of the philosophers have said about the One and the Alone: Verily, it has been said: He is One, because He is Solitary and He is the First, because He has no second. Then He originate all the creation in need of each other. The numerical “one” has nothing before it. In fact, it comes before all numbers. However way you perceive it or divide it, nothing increases or decreases the number one. When you say: one divided by one equals one, nothing increases it, and the word does not change from one. Therefore, the number one indicates that nothing came before Him. Thus, if it indicates that nothing came before Him, it indicates that He is the One that brought things about. If He is the One that brought things about, it indicates that He is the destroyer of Things. If He is the Destroyer of things, then it indicates that nothing is after Him. Hence, if there is nothing before Him, and nothing after Him, then He is the Solitary sempiternally. This is why it is said: the One, the Alone. There are certain characteristics of the Alone [al-Ahad] that are not present in the One [alWahid]. You may say: There is not any one [Wahid] in the house. It can mean that there is no animal, no bird, no beast, or no human in the house. Therefore, the number one can refer to people or other than people. However, when you say there is no one [Ahad] in the house, it is limited to human beings, and others are excluded. The Unique cannot be subject to multiplication, number, division, and calculation. It is Alone in Uniqueness. The number one, however, can be subject to the shortcomings of numbers, divisions, and calculations. You can say: one, two, three… and these are numbers. They number one, however, is the cause of numbers, is outside of numbers, and is not a number. For example, one can say: one multiplied by two or three, or any higher numerals. Thus, this is multiplication. And you may say: two divided by one… Hence, this is division. However, the Alone cannot be subjected to arithmetic. Hence, it cannot be said: along [Ahad], two, nor alone divided by one… It is neither said: alone divided by two… The Needless [al-Samad], its meaning is the Master. Whoever accepts this meaning then it is permissible for him to say: He has always been the Needless [Samad]. It is said that nobody administers the affairs of the nation but the ruling authority who is obeyed [Samad]. AS a poet has said: I lifted my sword (to take his life) then said to him Take it, O Hudhayfa, as you are the master who is obeyed [Samad] There is another meaning for the Samad and that is the objective in the needs. It is said: I seek him. However, whoever accepts this meaning, then it is not permissible for him to say: He has always been the Objectie [samad], because he has attributed Himj, the Mighty and High, with an attribute from the Attributes of Action. This meaning is also correct. Samad has neither a body nor an interior. I have explained other meanings of Samad in the Commentary of Chapter 112 of the Qur`an in this Book, which I do not wish to repeat in this chapter. The First, the Last [al-Awwal, al-Akhir], their meanings are that He is the First without a beginning, and the Last without an end. The All-Hearing [al-Sami`], the meaning of this is that if anything audible is found then He is its Hearer. The other meaning is that He is the Listener of the prayer i.e. answerer of the prayer. In order to be Hearing [Sami`], sound needs to exist. Hence, it is not permissible to say that Hearing is an attribute of His Essence, Mighty be His Name. The All-Seeing [al-Basir], the meaning of this is that if there is anything that can be seeing, then He perceives it. This is why it is permissible to say: He has always been All-Seeing. While it is not permissible to say: He has always been made to see [mubsir], because that is transitive, and requires existence. The word “perception” [basarah] is literally a root-word for All-Seeing [basir], and [basura]. Allah, the Mighty and High, is All-Seeing in His Essence. We have not attributed for Him, the Blessed and Exalted, that He is All-Hearing, and All-Seeing, as an attribute that He is All-Knowing (of the two), but what we have stated intends that He perceives. This is a characteristic of all living beings, and there is no calamity in it. The Omnipotent, the Subduer [al-Qadir, al-Qahir], the meaning of these two is that things are unable to refuse His Will. It is said: Verily, the Omnipotent is one from whom any action is possible, so long as it is not impossible. To subdue [qahr] is to overpower [ghalabah]. Omnipotence [qudrah] is a root-word in the statement: he possessed power i.e. controlled [malaka]. Therefore, He is the Omnipotent [qadir], the All-Powerful [qadir], and the Potent [muqtadir]. His Omnipotence extends even to what does not exist and His Potency is present at His Innovation, namely, His Power and His Sovereignty over it. He, Mighty be His Remembrance, has said: Master of the Day of Judgment. The Day of Judgment does not yet exist. It is said: Verily, He, the Mighty and High, has always been the Subduer. The meaning of this is that things do not have the capability of refusal to Him and to what He intends to execute in them. He has always been the Potent over them even when they did not exists, like it is said: Master of the Day of Judgment, while the Day of Judgment does not exist yet. The Most High, the Most Sublime [al--`Ali, al-A`la], the meaning of al-`Ali is the Subduer. Therefore, Allah is the Subduer, Possessor of Highness [dhu al-`Ula], Loftiness [al-`Ala] and Elevation [al-Ta`ali] i.e. Omnipotent. It is said: the king is exalted in might. It is also said for everything that is lofty: it was high, it will be elevated, it is lofty, it will be lofty… The word alMa`lat is derived from al-Ma`ali and literally means to acquire nobility. The `ilw of everything is its higher part: so and so is a prominent figure in people [`ilyat al-nas] and it is a noun. The meanings of elevating, ascending, and descending, do no apply to Allah, the Blessed and Exalted. The other meaning is that He, Exalted is He, is above resemblances, equals, whatever goes into a subject, whatever the ignorant image, and what spontaneous thought. Therefore, He, the elevated and Great, is More Lofty [Muta`alin] than what the oppressors say. As for the Most Sublime [al-`Ala], its meaning is the Most High, and the Subduer. The Word of the Mighty and High to Musa endorses this: Fear not, surely you shall be the uppermost, i.e. the subduer. Also the Word of the Mighty and High in inciting the Believers to combat: And be not infirm, and be not grieving, and you shall have the upper hand [al-a’lawn] if you are Believers. And the Word of the Mighty and High: Surely Fir’awn exalted himself in the land, i.e. overpowered them and captured them. A poet has said in this meaning: Thus, when we overpowered and captured them, We left them on the ground for the vultures and birds of prey. The second meaning is that He is Lofty i.e. unblemished from resemblances and equals, like He says: Exalted is He far above what they associate (with Him). The Ever-Remaining [al-Baqi], its meaning is the Being who has not come about, and who will never perish. Remaining is contrary to perishing… It is said: nothing remains of them, and Allah did not preserve anything of them. The Everlasting is one of His Attributes. He is also the Ever-Remaining, who does not become extinct, nor perish. The Originator [al-Badi`], its meaning is Creator of Original Creations, and Inventor of the Things without prior example and imitation. Grammatically, it belongs to the nominal type (on the scale of) fa`il in the meaning of active participle muf`il, like in the word of the Mighty and High: A painful chastisement [`adhabun alim], while the meaning is not receiving pain, but rather giving pain. The Arabs say: He hit (receiving pain), and he hit (causing pain) A poet said: Is he a good reader and listener? Who wakes me and my friends while we are peacefully sleeping? Therefore, the meaning of listening would be listener. The origin [bid`] of a thing is the first of it. As we read in the Word of the Mighty and High: Say: I am not the first [bid`an] of the messengers, i.e. not the first. Al-Bid`at also applies to first or innovations in matters of religion, etc. A poet said: Your palms are not created for generosity. And their miserliness is not something new. Hence, one fist is clenched from good Like it has decreased from a hundred to seven. Whereas the other one has three thousand And nine hundred as a habit. It is also said: You have come up with an original matter, i.e. amazing invention. The Maker [al-Bari’], its meaning is that He is the Maker of Creatures, i.e. the Creator of the Creations. He made them, i.e. He created the. The creature is creation. Most of the Arabs avoid the last vowel (the [`] sound at its end). It is an active participle with the sense of a passive participle, and some of them have said: it is taken from “shaping the wood,” some claim that it is form al-Bary, which is dust, i.e. He has created them from dust, and they say: This why it does not contain the vowel at its end. The Most Generous [al-Akram], its meaning is al-Karim. Sometimes the elative expresses the meaning of the nominal type, like the Word of the Mighty and High: And it is easier [ahwan] to Him, i.e. it is easy [hayyin] to Him. Like the Word of the Mighty and High: None shall enter it but the most unhappy [al-ashqa], and His Word: And away from it shall be kept the one who guards most [al-atqa] (against evil), what is meant by the most unhappy, and the one who guards against what is adverse [al-shaqi], and one who guards [al-taqi]. A poet has said: Verily, the One who created the heaven as a roof for us Created a house with taller, more powerful, pillars, for us. The Manifest [al-Zahir], its meaning is that He is manifest through His Signs, in which He has concealed witnesses of His Omnipotence, traces of His Wisdom, and evidence of His Clear Proof. The created are unable to create the most insignificant of it. Like Allah, the Mighty and High, says: Surely those whom you call upon besides Allah cannot create a fly, though they should al gather for it. Therefore, there is nothing in His Creation that does not profess His Unity. The Blessed and Exalted avoided describing His Essence. Hence, He is manifested through His signs and Witnesses of His Omnipotence. He is Predominant, and All-Powerful over whatever He wills. This is found in the Word of the Mighty and High: And they became uppermost, i.e. predominant over them. The Hidden [al-Batin], its meaning is that He is Hidden from Imagination. Therefore, He is Hidden without Encompassment. Nothing encompasses Him, because He has been there prior to the thoughts. Hence, thoughts are subject to Him. The Known has preceded everything and cannot be encompassed. Imaginations pas away; hence, they cannot explore Him. Therefore, He is the Hidden of all Hidden and the Covered of all Covered. He is Hidden in His Essence, and manifest and Lofty in His signs. Consequently, He is the Hidden without any cover and Manifest without any approximation. The other meaning of this is that He is the Interior [batin] of everything i.e. All-Aware and All-Seeing of what they keep secret and what they disclose, and of whatever is sowed and created. The entourage [batanat] of a man is composed of people he trusts with his personal affairs. The meaning is that He is All-Knowing of their secrets, not that He, the Mighty and High, hides in a thing disguising in it. The Ever-Living [al-Hai], its meaning is that He is the Mighty Doer [al-Fa``al] and the Director [al-Mudabbir]. He is Ever-Living by His Own Accord. Death and annihilation are impossible for Him. He does not need life in order to live. The All-Wise [al-Hakim], its meaning is that He is all-Knowing. The wisdom is literally the knowledge. As we read in the Word of the Mighty and High: He grants wisdom to whom He pleases, (i.e. He grants knowledge). The second meaning is that He is Precise [Muhkam], and His actions are firm and free from corruption. Hakamtuhu (I commanded him) and ahkamtuhu (I planned the action precisely) are two literal words. A part of horse’s bridle [Hakamah] is named by such, because it stops a sever blow, and it is what encompasses its mouth. The Omniscient [al-`Alim], its meaning is that He is All-Knowing by Himself. He is All-Knowing of secrets and All-Informed of minds. The littlest of the things is not hidden from Him, nor can the weight of an atom escape from Him. He knows things before they take pale and after He brings them about. He knows what they do in secret, and what they do in public. He knows what is apparent, and what is hidden. The Mighty and High’s knowledge of things is unlike the creatures’ knowledge. Thus, it stands to reason that He, the Blessed and Exalted, is dissimilar from them in every sense. Allah is omniscient in His Essence. The Omniscient is the Cause of Firm and Accurate Action. Therefore, it is not said: Verily, He knows things through knowledge; just as nothing eternal exist alongside Him. In fact, it is said: Verily, He is Omniscient by Essence. Thus, such is said in all of His Attributes of Essence. The Forbearing [al-Halim], the meaning of this is that He is Forbearing of whoever disobeys Him. He does not hasten in His Punishment. The Protector [al-Hafiz], al-hafiz is al-hafiz, that is nominal type of the active participle. Its meaning is that He protects things and averts from them tribulation. He cannot be attributed with protecting in the sense of learning, because we use `protecting’ (in the sense of learning) when we speak metaphorically of the Qur`an and other arts. The reason we do so is that when we learn something and memorize something, it does not leave us. Hence, we protect it. The Truth [al-Haqq], is an active participle, al-Muhiqq (in the right). He is attributed with it metaphorically because it is the infinitive. It is like their statement “aid of those who call for help” [ghiyath al-mustaghuthin]. The other meaning that is intended by it is that service of Allah is the truth, and service to other than Him is falsehood. The Word of the Mighty and High endorse this: That is because Allah is the Truth, and that what they call upon besides Him that is the falsehood, i.e. it becomes falsehood, leaves, and does not promise anyone reward or punishment. The Reckoner [al-Hasib], its meaning is that He accounts [al-Muhsi] for everything. He has knowledge of them and nothing is hidden from Him. The second meaning is that He is the One who Holds Account [al-Muhasib] for His Servants. He holds them accountable for their actions and rewards them for those actions. It is a nominal type of the active participle similar to jails and mujalis (sitting in someone’s company). The third meaning is that: He is Sufficient for us. This thing is enough for me, i.e. sufficient for me. I reckoned him i.e. I bestowed upon him until he said: “enough for me.” This is seen in the Word of the Mighty and High: A reward for your Lord, a gift according to a reckoning, i.e. a sufficiency. The Praiseworthy [al-Hamid], the meaning of this is the Praised one [al-Mahmud]; it is the nominal type of passive participle. Praise is opposite of censure. It is said: I praised so and so when I was pleased with his action, and spread it among the people. The Most Gracious [al-Hafi], its meaning is the All-Knowing. As we see in the Word of the Mighty and High: They ask you as if you were solicitous about it, i.e. they ask you about the hour (Day of Judgment) as if you know the time of its coming. The other meaning is that He is the Subtle. Al-higayah is the infinitive; al-Hafi is the Subtle, the One that honors you for your goodness and kindness. The Lord [al-Rabb], its meaning is the Master. Whoever possesses a thing is its lord. As we see in the Word of the Mighty and High: Go back to your lord, i.e. to your Master and Sovereign. Someone in the Battle of Hunayn said: “If a man from the Quraysh takes me in his lordship it is more beloved to me than if someone from the Hawazin taking me to his lordship.” He intends by it that “he owns me and becomes my lord and master.” It is not said for the creation: the Lord with “al” [al-Rabb], because “al” indicates universality. Verily, it is said regarding creation: lord of so and so (without the “al” or the “the”). Hence, it is recognized in subjection, because they do not possess other than what is in subjection to them. Therefore, they are referred by what they possess. The one pertaining to Lord [rabbaniyyun] are referred to becoming godly and serving the Lord in the meaning of divinity [al-rububiyyah] for Him. The worshippers of the Lord [al-ribbiyyun] are those who bear patience with the Prophets (AS). The Most Compassionate [al-Rahman], its meaning is the One who extends Mercy over His Servants, which is universal for them in sustenance and favor. It is said: it is one of the names of Allah, the Blessed and High, in the books, which no one else shares with Him. It is said for a person: merciful [Rahim] of heart, but it is not said: the Most Compassionate, because the Most Compassionate has the power to remove the calamities, while the most merciful from the creatures does not have the power. Some people have permitted for a person the use of “beneficent,” and have intended by it the utmost degree of mercy. This is a mistake. The Most Compassionate applies to the whole world, while the Most Merciful applies to the Believers specifically. The Most Merciful [al-Rahim], its meaning is that He is Merciful to the Believers. He will select them for His Mercy on the Day of Judgment. As Allah, the Mighty and High, has said: And He is Merciful to the Believers. The Most Compassionate [Rahman] and the Most Merciful [Rahim] are two nouns derived from mercy [rahmah] on the scale of nadman and nadim. The meaning of mercy is favor. The mercy giver is the favor giver. As Allah, the Mighty and High, says to His Messenger (SA): And We have not sent you but as a mercy to the worlds, i.e. as a favor upon them. It is said for the Qur`an: “guidance and mercy” and for rain that it is a “mercy” or favor. The meaning of mercy is not softness, because softness from Allah, the Mighty and High, is negative. Verily, the soft-hearted of the people is named merciful for the increased mercy that is found in him. It is said: “how close is so and so’s mercy.” It is said: “I had mercy on him.” The One that sows [al-Dhari’], its meaning is the Creator. It is said: Allah sowed the creation and made them i.e. created them. It has been said: that the noun of the descendants [aldhurriyah] has been derived from this, implying that Allah, the Mighty and High, has created the creatures from a man. Most of the Arabs leave out its vowel [`]. They certainly leave it out in this opinion due to its increased frequency in their language, like the omission of the vowel in the Maker [al-Bari’] and its like. There are others who claim that it is from dharwa or dharya (to scatter) together, intending that He increased and spread them in the Earth. Like Allah, the Exalted, says: And spread from these two, many men and women. The Sustainer [al-Razzaq], its meaning is that He, the Mighty and High, sustains His Servants, the good and the evil ones of them. Razq (with an `a’ sound after the `t’) is a narrative of the Arabs. If they intend the infinitive then they say: Rizq, with an `i’. It is said: `the army took their sustenance one sustenance,’ i.e. they took it once. The Watcher [al-Raqib], the meaning of this is protector. It is the Most Merciful [al-Rahim]. The affection [al-ra’fah] is mercy. The Observer [al-Ra’i], the meaning of this is the All-Knowing. The observation is knowledge. Another meaning is that He is the seeing. It is permissible in the meaning of knowledge to say that He has always been the Observer. However, this is not permissible in the meaning of seeing. The Giver of Peace [al-Salam], its meaning is an active participle, while it is a metaphor, because al-Salam is an infinitive. What is intended by it is that peace is obtained from Him. Salam and Salamah (intactness) are like Rida` and Rid`ah (sucking) and like Ladhadh and Ladhadhah (pleasure). The other meaning is that He is attributed with this attributes for His intactness from what overtakes the creatures from fault, defect, declination, transformation, mortality, and death. As we see in the Word of the Mighty and High: They shall have the abode of peace with their Lord. Thus, the peace is Allah, the Mighty and High, and the abode is Paradise. It is possible that He may have named Paradise “peace,” because the one that reaches it is intact from the sickness of the world, hardship, death, aging and so forth. Therefore it is the abode of peace from calamities and disease. As we see in the Word of the Mighty and High: Then peace to you from those on the fight hand. He is saying that: then peace to you from them i.e. you will be informed from them of peace. Al-Salamah literally means proper and appropriate as well. From this is His. Word, the Mighty and High: And when the ignorant address them, they say: Peace, i.e. appropriate and proper. It is “proper” is named from the statement peace, because it is secure from fault and sin. The Granter of Security [al-Mu’min], its meaning is the Believer. If you look up “faith” or “belief” in a dictionary, they will lead you to this definition. As we see in the Word of the Mighty and High with regards to the brothers of Yusuf (AS): And you will not believe us though we are truthful. Thus, a servant is a believer and confirmer in the Unity of Allah and His signs. And Allah is the One who Believes, and the One who Confirms, what He has promised, and He is the One who implements it. The second meaning is that He is the Implementer. In other words, He is the One who established His Unity by means of His Signs towards His Creation. As a result, the created can perceive His Signs, His Proofs, His Management, and the brilliance of His Decree. The third meaning is that He has secured them against oppression and tyranny. Al-Sadiq (AS) said: “The Maker, the Mighty and High, is named Mu’min, because He secures from His Punishment whoever obeys Him. The servant, moreover is named mu’min, because he believes in Allah, the Mighty and High. Hence, Allah rewards him His Security.” He (AS) also said: “The believer is he whose neighbor is safe from any harm.” He (AS) has also said: “The believer is he whom the Muslims trust with their lives and property.” The Guardian over all [al-Muhaymin], its meaning is the Witness. It is like His Word of the Mighty and High, And a guardian over it, i.e. witness over it. The other meaning is that it is an indeclinable noun grammatically from the word al-Amin. Al-Amin is one of the names of Allah, the Mighty and High. Then it was constructed like the construction of al-Mubaytir from alBaytar and al-Bayar (epicure). As if the original in it is Mu’ymin, the [`] was changed into `h.’ Just as it was changed in Araqat and Ayhat, hence, it is said: Harqat and Hayhat. Amin is one o the names of Allah, the Mighty and High. Whoever prolongs the `a’ intends `ya amin.’ Therefore, it is brought out in the phonetic of their statement: `Aa Zayad’ in the meaning of `Ya Zayd.’ It is said: al-Muhaymin is one the names of Allah, the Mighty and High in previous (divine) Books. The Honorable [al-`Azizi], its meaning is that He is not incapable of anything and nothing prevents Him from anything He intends. Thus, He is the Subduer over all things, and the Undefeated Victor. It is said in a proverb: “whoever has honor excels” i.e. whoever is victorious denies (others). The Word of the Mighty and High relating two enemies: And he has prevailed against me in discourse, i.e. he has overpowered me in answering the discourse. The other meaning is that He is the Sovereign and it is said for the Sovereign: `Aziz, like the brothers of Yusuf (AS) said to him: O `Aziz, and the intention by it is “O sovereign.” The Supreme [al-Jabbar], its meaning is the subduer who cannot be overcome. He demonstrates Power and Might, i.e. Pride and Majesty. It is said to the date tree which cannot be reached: jabbarah. Al-Jabr is to compel a human forcefully over what he dislikes. You may say: I compelled him to so and so. Al-Sadiq (AS) said: “Neither compulsion nor complete freewill, but rather something between the two.” He (AS) meant by it: Verily, Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, has neither compelled His Servants to disobey, nor has He delegated authority to them in the matters of religion so that they may express their own personal views and suppositions. For, verily, the Mighty and High has set bounds, assigned duties, prescribed laws determined obligations and recommendations, and has completed for them their religion. Therefore, there is no free-will within the set limits, assigned duties, prescribed laws, obligations, recommendations and the completion of religion. The Possessor of All-Greatness [al-Mutakabbir], is derived from al-kibriya’ (the pride), and that is the noun for pride [al-takabbur] and reverence [ta`azzum]. The Master [al-Sayyid], its meaning is the sovereign. It is said for the sovereign and the great of a nation: “their master.” He became their master, and will become their master. Qays ibn `Asim was asked: “How did you become the master your people?” He replied: “Through generosity, preventing suffering, and seeking help from the Lord.” The Prophet (SA) said: “`Ali is the Master of the Arabs.” Hence, `A’ishah asked, “O Messenger of Allah, are you not the Master of the Arabs?” He (SA) answered, “I am the Master of all the children of Adam (AS) and `Ali is the Master of all the Arabs.” She then asked, “O Messenger of Allah! What is the meaning of Master?” He (SA) responded, “The one to whom obedience is mandatory, like my obedience is mandatory.” I have mentioned this tradition with chain of transmission in the book Ma`ani al-Akhbar. Based on this tradition, the meaning of “the Master” is the sovereign whose obedience is mandatory. The Most Praised [al-Subbuh], it is grammatically an indeclinable noun from the nominal type scale fa``ul. There is no other word on this scale in the Arabic language except Subbuh and Quddus and their meaning is one. Subhan Allah (Glory be Allah) is used to deanthropomorphise Allah from everything that cannot be attributed to Him. Grammatically it is in the accusative case [mansub], because it is used in place of a verb in order to glorify Allah with the sense, that I glorified Allah with glory. It is possible that it may be accusative being an adverb, and its meaning is we glorify Allah or we do glorify Allah. The Witness[al-Shahid], the meaning of this is that He is the Witness over every space as Creator and Planner, and that the space is part of His Creation and Plan. That is not to say that space is a place for Him, because He, the Mighty and High, existed when there was no space. The Most Truthful [al-Sadiq], the meaning of this is that He is Truthful in His Promise. He does not diminish the reward of whoever keeps with His Promise. The Manufacturer [al-Sani`], its meaning is that He is the Manufacturer of everything which has ever been manufactured i.e. Creator of every created thing and the Inventor of all the invented. All of this is an indication that nothing from His Creation resembles Him. This is because no action resembles its agent and because bodies and their actions are non-entities. Allah is far above resembling His Actions. His Actions create flesh, bone, hair, blood, nerves, veins, organs, limbs, components, light, darkness, Earth, heaven, stone, trees, and other things from the categories of the creatures. All of these are the actions and creations of the Mighty and High. They are all proofs of His Unity, and witness that He is Solitary, is Different from His Creation, and that He has no partner. Some of the philosophers have expressed this meaning when describing the narcissus: The eyes with the eyelids and they come into view with contrast, The Sovereign has manufactured them with excellence. Eyes were aspiring with dalliance, As if the pupils of the eyes had gone cast On the branches of emerald, informing That Allah has no associate. The Pure [al-Tahir], its meaning is that He is deanthropomorphised from the resemblances, equals, opponents, likeness, bounds, declination, transformation, the implications of creatures like length, width, diameter, weightiness and lightness, softness and thickness, entering and exiting, adhering and parting, smell and taste, color and shape, roughness and smoothness, heat and cold, motion and stillness, joining and paring, and changing places, because all of these are accidental, created, incapable and weak fro all dimensions. Thus, it is proof over the One who brought them about and manufactured them. He is proof over the One who brought them about and manufactured them. He is Omnipotent, Powerful and Pure in their meanings that nothing resembles Him. Hence, they point to the Manufacturer that manufactured them and the One who brought them about. It has been made compulsory for them to point to their Manufacture. Exalted is Allah, the Elevated, the Great. The Just [al-`Adl], its meaning is to judge with justice and righteousness. He is named by it metaphorically, because it is the infinitive. The intention is “the Just.” The just person is the ne whose words, actions, and judgments are satisfactory. The Pardoning [al`Afuww], it is a derived noun from al-`afw on the scale of fa`ul. Al-`afw is to wipe out. It is said: something is pardoned when it is wiped out, left, or erased. I pardoned him when I left him. According to the Word of the Mighty and High: Allah pardon you! Why did you give them leave, i.e. Allah passed over you for your giving them leave. The Forgiving [al-Ghafur], it is a derived noun from al-maghfirah. He is al-Ghfir (the Forgiving) and al-Ghaffar (Much-Forgiving). Literally its origin is to cover and to shield. You may say: I forge a thing when I covered it. It is also said: “this is more forgiving than this” i.e. more covering. Ghafr of wool and silk fabric is what accumulates on top of cloth like lint. It is named ghafr, because it covers the cloth. It is also said for the head shield: mighfar, because it covers the head. Al-Ghafur is He who covers His Servant with His Mercy. The Self-Sufficient [al-Ghani], its meaning is that He is the Self-Sufficient. He is not in need of others. He does not rely on instruments or devices, etc. All things, except Allah, the Mighty and High, are similar in limitation and need. None of them rise without the help of each other, and none of them are self-sufficient of each other. The Aid [al-Ghiyath], the meaning of this is Deliverer from Distress [al-Maghith]. However, He is named this fro showing entirety, as this word is grammatically an infinitive. The Cleaver [al-Fatir], the meaning of this is the Creator. He cleaved the creation i.e. He created and originated the creation of things, and did it first. Therefore, He is its Cleaver i.e. its Creator and its Originator. The Peerless [al-Fard], the meaning of this is that He is the Possessor of Lordship and Command, Alone without need for His Creation. The second meaning is: He is the Sole Existent, and nothing coexists with Him. The Opener [al-Fattah], its meaning is that He is the Judge. According to the Word of the Mighty and High: And Thou art the Best of Deciders. And the word of the Mighty and High: And He is the greatest Judge, the All-knowing. The Splitter [al-Faliq], it is derived noun from al-falq, and literally means “to split.” It is said: “I heard this from the split of his mouth,” and “I split the pistachio and it opened.” Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, created everything. In other words, He split open everything that He created. He split the wombs; hence, animals were split from them, He split seeds and fruits kernels so that plants split from them. He split the Earth; everything that comes out of it split out. It is like the Word of the Mighty and High: And the Earth splitting, i.e. He split it so it split open. He split the darkness, and the morning split out. He “split” the clouds; hence, the rain split out. He split the ocean for Musa (AS), thus it split open and every part of it was like a huge mountain. The Eternal [al-Qadim], its meaning is that He was prior to all things. Everything that comes before another thing is called eternal when one exaggerates. However He, the Glorified, is Eternal in Himself without any beginning or an end. All other things have a beginning and an end, and they are not eternal in origin. Therefore, they are eternal in one dimension. And accidental in another dimension. It is said: Verily, the meaning of the Eternal is that He has always been existent, and when it is applied to other than the Mighty and high, the word “eternal” is used in a metaphorical sense, because everything other than Him is accidental, and not eternal. The Sovereign [al-Malik], He is the Master of the Kingdom. He possesses everything. Almalakut (the Realm) is the Kingdom of Allah, the Mighty and High. The “t” is added to it like in rahabut (fear) and rahamut (mercy). The Arabs say: “Fear is better than mercy” i.e. to frighten others is better than to receive mercy. The Most Holy [al-Quddus], its meaning is the Pure. Al-taqdis is purification and deanthropomorphism. As we see in the Word of the Mighty in High relating to the Angels: And we celebrate Thy Praise and extol Thy Holiness, i.e. we relate to you the purification. To praise and extol have the same meaning. Paradise [hazirat al-quds] is the place of purification from impurities, hardships, pains and their likes, which are in this world. It is said: Verily, alQuddus from the names of Allah, the Mighty and High, is found in the (divine) Books. The Powerful [al-Qawi], its meaning is know, and it refers to the One who is Powerful Independently, and who does not require nay help or assistance. The Near [al-Qarib], its meaning is the Answerer of Prayers. The Word of the Mighty and High endorse this interpretation: Then surely I am very near; I answer the prayer of the supplicant when he calls upon Me. The second meaning is that He is All-Knowing when it comes to the whispers of the heart. There is no veil or space between Him and them. This interpretation is endorsed by the Word of the Mighty and High: And certainly We created man, and We know what his mind suggests to him, and We are nearer to him than his life-vein. Therefore, He is near without contract, and evident from His Creation without trace and space. In fact, He is separate from them not by mingling among them, and He is different from them in appearance. Likewise, to be near to Him does not mean to be near to Him in terms of place and space. Rather, it refers to obedience and excellence in service. Thus, Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, is Near and Close in Proximity without lowering Himself, because He does not lower Himself through space just like He does not rise in the air. How could He, when he existed before there was anything low or anything high, and before He could be attributed with highness or lowness. The Self-Subsistent [al-Qayyum], al-Qayyum and al-Qayyam are on the scale of Fay`ul and Fay`al. They are form “I stood up for a thing” [qumtu] when one turns towards a thing by himself, and takes charge of protecting it, restoring it and assessing it. Its illustration is their statement: “There is no rotator in this, nor monk.” The Seizer (of Souls) [Qabid], it is a derived noun from al-qabd. There are a few meanings for qabd. Some of which are: “the kingdom,” it is said: “so and so is in my seizure” and “this domain is in my seizure.” As we see in the Word of the Mighty and High: And the whole Earth shall be in His Grip [qabdah] on the Day of Resurrection. This is like the Word of Allah, the Mighty and High: And His is the Kingdom on the Day when the trumpet shall be blown. The Word of the Mighty and High: And the Command on that day shall be entirely Allah’s. And the Word of the Mighty and High Master of the Day of Judgment. To seize also refers to death, as in the expression: “Allah seized him to Himself.” As we see in the Word of the Mighty and High: Then We have made the sun an indication of it. Then We take it [qabadna] to Ourselves, taking little by little. The sun is not seized by the fist. Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, is its Seizer and Releaser. As we see in the Word of the Mighty and High: And Allah straitens and amplifies, and you shall be returned to Him. Therefore, He is the Amplifier Excess over His Servants, and the Seizer of Whatever He wills from His bounties and Support. Seizure is also the grip of the first. However, it is not applicable to Allah, the Exalted. If the Seizure and release that Allah, the mighty and High, has mentioned applied to the fist, then it is not possible that they could be at one time seized and released. Allah, Exalted be His Remembrance, seizes the souls in every moment, releases their sustenance, and does what He wills. The Extender [Basit], Its meaning is the Benefactor [al-Mun`im], and the Granter [al-Mufdil]. He has released over His servants His Excess and Beneficence, and showered His Bounties upon them. The Provider of Needs [Qadi al-Hajat], is a derived noun from al-qada’. When applied to Allah, the meaning of al-qada’ has three meanings. The first meaning is command and compulsion.” It is said: “the Provider provided so and so with such and such.” i.e. he commanded him, and compelled him to it. As we see in the Word of the Mighty and High: And your Lord has commanded that you shall not serve (any) but Him. The second meaning is “to make known,” and from this are the Word of the Mighty and High: And We had made known to the children of Israel in the Book, i.e. We made it know to them through the tongue of the Prophet (SA). The third meaning is “to conclude,” and from it are the Word of the Mighty and High: So He concluded them seven heavens in two days. From it is the statement of the people: “so and so provided me with a need,” intending that he concluded my requirement with what I had asked him for. The All-Glorious [al-Majid], its meaning is the Generous, the Honorable. From this is the Word of the Mighty and High: Nay! It is a glorious Qur’an i.e. generous and honorable. Al-Majid literally is to obtain nobility. Majjad and Amjad are two different words (both may mean to honor). Amjada is to honor someone’s actions. The other meaning of Majid is “the Glorified” [Mumajjad], His Creation glorified Him, i.e. revered Him. The Guardian [al-Mawla], its meaning is the Helper. He helps the Believers and protects them from their enemies. He is responsible for rewarding them and honoring them. The guardian of a child is the one responsible for protecting his affairs. Allah is the Guardian of the Believers and their Helper. Another meaning of Al-Mawla is “more entitled.” From this is the tradition of the Prophet (SA): “To whoever I am the Guardian, `Ali is also his Guardian.” This came after a statement that he (SA) had made: “Am I not more entitled over you than yourselves?” They replied: “Of course, O Messenger of Allah!” He (SA) said: “To whomever I am the Guardian,” i.e. to whomever I am more entitled, “then `Ali (AS) is his Guardian,’ i.e. `Ali (AS) is more entitled over them than they themselves. The Granter [al-Mannan], its meaning is the Bestower, and the Benefactor. From it is the Word of the Mighty and High: Therefore, give freely or withhold, without reckoning. And the Word of the Mighty and High: And bestow not favor that you may receive again with increase. The One who Encompasses Everything [al-Muhit], its meaning is that He encompasses everything, and is All-Knowing of all of them. Whoever grasps something in its entirety the reaches the highest point of knowledge, and Allah encompasses that. This is metaphorical, because to encompass refers in reality to a large entity acquiring a small one in every dimension. For example, a house encompasses its contents, and the walls of a city encompass everything which is in the city. It is for this reason the wall are names ha’it in Arabic (as they encompass the house). The other possibility is that it is an adverb in the accusative. In that case, the meaning would be “overpowered” like the Word of the Mighty and High: And they become certain that they are encompassed about. This is the verb “to encompass” because when people encompass their enemies, their enemies cannot escape them. The Clear [Mubin], its meaning is the Manifested, whose Wisdom is evident. He is the One who demonstrates by means of His Clear Proofs and the Signs of His Omnipotence. It is said: bana abama and istabana all have the same meaning (to clarify or distinguish). The Nourisher [al-Maqit], its meaning is the Protector and the Watcher. It is said: rather, it refers to the Omnipotent. The Imager [al-Musawwir], it is a derived noun from al-taswir. He forms the images in the womsb how He wills. Therefore, He is the Imager of all Images and the creator of every image in the womb, and what is perceived by vision, and depicted in an individual. Allah the Blessed and Exalted, cannot be described as having an image or having limbs. He cannot be described with boundaries or part. Imagination cannot locate Him in space. However, He is recognized through signs, He is identified through symbols and indications. By these He is ascertained. He is given the attributes of Omnipotence, Reverence, Glory and Pride, because He does not resemble His Creation nor is He comparable to His Creatures. The Generous [al-Karim], its meaning is the honorable. It is said: so and so is more generous to me than so and so, i.e. more honorable than him. As we see in the Word of the Mighty and High: Most surely it is an honored Qur’an. And likewise the Word of the Mighty and High: Taste; you forsooth are the mighty, the honorable. The other meaning for this is that He is Generous, and He is the Granter. It is said: “A man who is a karim man” i.e. generous. People who are karim i.e generous men. Karim and karam are like admin and adam (skin). The Great [al-Kabir] is the Master. It is said for the master of a nation: the great one among them. Al-kibriya’ (the pride) is the noun for pride and reverence. The sufficient [al-Kafi], it is derived noun from al-kifayah (sufficiency), Whoever relies on Him, that suffices him, and he does not have to rely on others. The Remover of Harm [Kashif al-Dur], its meaning is the Reliever who Answers the Distressed One when he calls upon Him, and removes the evil. “Removal” literally means to take away a thing that it conceals and covers. The Singular [al-Watr], is the Peerless, and everything that is peerless is called: singular. The Light [al-Nur], its meaning is the Illuminator [al-Munir], As we see in the Word of the Mighty and High: Allah is the light of the Heavens and the Earth, i.e. the One who enlightens them, commands them, and guides them. Therefore, they are guided by Him in their interest, like they are guided by light and brightness. This is metaphorical as the light is a source of brightness, and Allah, the Mighty and High, is Exalted form being “Light,” because light is accidental, and the One who brought it into existence is Eternal. Nothing resembles Him. Similarly, it is said metaphorically that: “Verily, the Qur`an is light, because the people are guided by it in their religion, like they are guided b the brightness in their paths.” It can said in the same sense that the Prophet (SA) was the Light of Guidance. The Bestower [al-Wahhab], its meaning is known. It is derived from al-hibah (to grant). He grants to His Servants what He wills, and obliges them as He wills. As we see in the Word of the Mighty and High: He grants to who He pleases daughters, and grants to whom He pleases sons. The Helper [al-Nasir], al-Nasir and al-Nasir have the same meaning. To help is to proved good assistance. The Ample-Giving [al-Was`], is the Self-Sufficient, and giving is self-sufficiency. It is said: so and so bestows with ample-giving, i.e. with sufficiency. Ample-giving is the generosity of a man, and the power of what is in his control. It is said: “give away based upon the limit of your giving.” The Loving One [al-Wadud], is a nominal type of the passive participle, like it is said: hayub in the meaning of mahib (the feared). What is intended by it is that He is “the Loved One, and the Cherished One.” It has been said: it is rather a nominal type of the actie participle, like the word: ghafur in the meaning of ghafir i.e. He loves His servants and cherishes them. Al-wudd and al-widad are infinitives of al-mawaddah. So and so has wudd and wadid, i.e. loves you and is your lover. The Guide [al-Hadi], its meaning is that He, the Mighty and High, guides them to the truth. The guidance from Allah, the Mighty and High, has three meanings. The first meaning is “leading.” He leads them to the religion (of Islam). The second meaning is “faith.” Faith is guidance from Allah, the Mighty and High, like it is a bounty from Allah, the Mighty and High. The third meanng is “salvation.” Allah, the Mighty and High, has explained that He will guide the Believers after their death, and has said: And (as for) those who are slain in the way of Allah, He will by no means allow their deeds to perish. He will guide them and improve their condition. Guidance after being killed and dying cannot refer to anything else but salvation. Likewise, the Word of the Mighty and High: Surely (as for) those who believe and do good, their Lord will guide them by their faith. This is contrary to misguidance which is the punishment of an unbeliever Allah, the Mighty and High says: And Allah causes the unjust to go astray, i.e. He will destroy them and punish them and it is like the Word of the Mighty and High: He shall render their works ineffective, i.e. He will obliterate their actions, and confiscate them due to their disbelief. The Reliable [al-Wafi], its meaning is that He completes His Promise to them, and fulfils it. It is said: “A reliable man and one fulfilling his promise.” “Completing one’s promise” and “fulfilling it” are two different things. The Custodian [al-Wakil], its meaning is the Entrusted, i.e. the One who rises Up to Protect Us. This is the meaning of the Custodian over our Belongings. The second meaning is that He is the Dependable [al-Mu`tamad], and the Refuge [al-Malja`]. Reliance is to depend upon Him, and to seek refuge from Him. The Inheritor [al-Warith], its meaning is that the Kingdom of Allah remains even after He causes something to die. Therefore, no one possesses it except Allah, the Blessed and Exalted. The Righteous [al-Barr], its meaning is the Truthful. It is said: so and so told the truth and did the right thing. It is also said: so and so’s oath was righteous when he told the truth. And it is also said: Allah justified him, i.e. approved him from the truth. The Raiser [al-Ba`ith], its meaning is that He will raise the ones in the graves, bring them back to life, resurrect them to reward them, and grant them everlasting life. The Oft-Returning (in mercy) [al-Tawwab], its meaning is that He accepts the repentance of the repentant and forgives his sins. It is said that the servant repented to Allah, the Mighty and High; therefore, He returned to Him. Also Allah returned to him, i.e. accepted his repentance; therefore, He is the Oft-Returning to him. Al-Tub is repentance. It is said: “so and so much repented from such and such,” when he is ashamed of it. It is also said: “there is no repentance from food,” i.e. there is no timidity or shame in (consuming) it. The Sublime [al-Jalil], its meaning is the Master; it is said for the master of a nation: “their sublime and most great.” All glory belongs to Allah. He is the Sublime, the Lord of Glory and Honor. It is also said: “so and so is glorified in my sight,” i.e. he is great and “I sublimed him” i.e. revered him. The Generous [al-Jawad], its meaning is the Most Compassionate [al-Muhsin], the Benefactor, the Giver of favors and beneficence. It is said: “the open-handed [sakhi] from the people gives generously,” “a generous man” and “generous people.” Ajwad and Jud are the generous. The word [sakhi] is not used for Allah, the Mighty and High, because it related to “softness.” It is said: “soft Earth,“ and “soft paper” from the word [sakhawi]. The open-handed is called so due to his softness or tenderness towards the needy. The All-Aware [al-Khabir], the meaning of this is All-Knowing [al-`Alim]. Al-Khubr and al-Khabir are literally the same. Al-Khubr is the knowledge of something, it is said: I am aware of something i.e. I have knowledge of it. The Creator [al-Khaliq], its meaning is al-Khallaq. He created the creatures, and made a creation. Al-Khaliqah is creation, and its plural is al-Khala`iq. Al-Khalq is literally one’s estimation of a thing. It is said in a proverb: “Verily, if I estimate something then I cut it, not like the one who estimates, and does not cut.” It has come in the traditions of our Imams (AS): “Verily, the actions of the servants are created by means of an estimated creation, and not a constituted creation.” `Isa (AS) also created from clay the figure of a bird; that was also an estimated creation. The Constituent of a bird and its Creator is in reality Allah, the Mighty and High. The Best of the Helpers [Khayr al-Nasirin], and the Best of the Merciful, refers to the fact that when good is increased by the One who Grants it, it is called “the Best” in a metaphorical sense. The Rewarder [al-Dayyan] is the One who gives religion to the servants, and rewards them for their actions. Din is literally “reward.” It does not have a plural because it is infinitive. It is said: “he rewarded, will reward a rewarding.” It is also said in a proverb: “Like you reward, you will be rewarded,” i.e. what you give, you get. A poet said: The way a young man rewards, one day he will be rewarded the same way. He who sows garlic does not harvest sweet basil. The Thankful [al-Shakkur] and al-Shakir refers to the fact that He thans servants for their good deeds. The attribute is allegorical since thanking is literally recognition of beneficence. He is the Most Compassionate to His Servants, and their Benefactor. When the Glorified rewards those who obey Him, He rewards them by means of thanking them metaphorically, just like the reward of the benefactor is thanking. The Most Great [al-`Azim], its meaning is the Master, and the master of a nation is their sublime and the most great. The second meaning is that He is revered because He overpowers all things, and He is Omnipotent over them. This is why He is revered. The third meaning is that He is the Most Great, because all others are humble and submissive before Him. Therefore, He is the Greatest Ruler, and is the Highest in Rank. The fourth meaning is that He is the All-Glorious. It is said: “so and so is grate in the glory, grandeur” [`azamah]. Al`azamah is infinitive; its meaning is a great matter. Al-`azamah is to show power. The meaning of the Most Great is not dense, tall, wide and heavy, because these meanings apply to creation, are signs of created beings, and are accidental. These are negated from Allah, the Blessed and Exalted. It has been narrated in a tradition that He has been named “the Most Great,” because He is the Creator of the Greatest Creatures, and the Lord and Creator of the Greatest Throne. The Subtle [al-Latif], its meaning is that He is Kind with His Servants. Therefore, He is Kind and Benevolent towards them as He is their Benefactor. Kindness is benevolence and honor. It is said: so and so is king [latif] with the people, benevolent to them, and honors them with kindness. The second meaning is that He is Subtle in His Planning and action. It is said: so and so is subtle [latif] in action. It is narrated in a tradition that the meaning of al-Latif is that He is the Creator of Subtle Creations, in the same way that He is named the Most Great [al-`Azim] because He is the Creator of the Greatest Creation. The Cure [al-Shafi], its meaning is known. It is from cure [al-Shifa’] like Allah, the Mighty and High, has said reporting Ibrahim (AS): And when I am sick, then He restores me to health. Thus, the sum of these Most Beautiful Names is Ninety-Nine. The Blessed [Tabaraka], this is from the blessing [barakah]. He, the Mighty and High, is the Possessor, Perpetrator, Creator and Granter of Blessings upon His Creation. Blessed and Exalted is He from having a son, a partner, an associate, or anything else the oppressors may claim of the Elevated, and Great. As we see in the Word of Allah, the Mighty and High: Blessed is He who sent down the Furqan upon His Servant (Muhammad) that he may be a Warner to the nation. Verily, what is meant is that Allah’s existence is everlasting, His bounties are endless, and His Remembrance is a blessing for His Servants. The continuation of Allah’s blessings towards His Servants is that He sent them the Criterion as a Warner to the nations. The Furqan is the Qur`an and it has been certainly named the Furqan (the criterion), because Allah, the Mighty and High, differentiates by it between truth and falsehood. The servant upon whom He sent it down to is Muhammad (SA). He named him “servant” to prevent him from being taken as a Lord or Deity. This is a refutation of the exaggerators. The Mighty and High has clarified that He has revealed it to him so that he may warn with it the nations and frighten them by it from the disobedience of Allah and His Painful Chastisement. Al-`alamun (the nations) are the people. He, whose is the kingdom of heaven and the Earth, and who did not take to Himself a son, as the Christians claim falsely by adding a son to Him, and deviating fro the belief in Diving Unity. And who has no associate in the kingdom, and who created everything, then ordained for it a measure, i.e. He created all things in a measure that He knows. He did not create anything negligently, carelessly, with trouble or by means of speculation. In fact, He created everything in just measure according to His Plan. He created everything according to the best interest of His Servants and their religion. This is a manifestation of His Justice towards His Creation. Had He not created the world in jut measure, on the basis of what we have described, then incongruity and injustice would have been found within it. His Creation would not have been made in wisdom and correct planning, and would have been subject to uselessness, injustice, and corruption. Allah, glory be Him, has always been All-Knowing of all things. Verily, He meant by His word: then ordained for it a measure that He carried it out based on a measurement He Knows (as we have explained) and to ordain His Actions for His Servants to make them recognize its measurement, its time, and where it will take place. This planning from Allah, the Mighty and High, is written and reported. Allah has notified His Angels and informed of it so that they may know it. Therefore, when His Words are found in measurement He introduces them so that they may not go out of the limits of truth to falseness, from the limits of correctness to incorrectness, and from the limits of clarity to deception This is an indication that Allah ordained it, made it firm, and brought it about. Thus, it is perfect. There is no flow, incongruity or corruption in it.




10 - حدثنا غير واحد، قالوا: حدثنا محمد بن همام، عن علي بن الحسين . قال: حدثني جعفر بن يحيى الخزاعي، عن أبيه، قال: دخلت مع أبي عبد الله عليه السلام على بعض مواليه يعوده، فرأيت الرجل يكثر من قول آه، فقلت له: يا أخي اذكر ربك واستغث به، فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: إن آه اسم من أسماء الله عز وجل فمن قال: آه استغاث بالله تبارك وتعالى.


10. More than one have said: Muhammad ibn Hammam said, on the authority of `Ali ibn alHusayn that Ja`far ibn Yahya al-Khuza`I related to me, on the authority of his father that I entered in the presence of Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) and his followers when they were visiting a patient. Thus, I saw the man repeating “Oh” so I said to him: “O brother! Remember your Lord and call Him for help.” Then Abu `Abd Allah (AS) spoke, “Verily, `Oh’ is a name from the names of Allah, the Mighty and High. Therefore, whoever utters: `Oh’ has already called Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, for help”




11 - حدثنا أبو الحسن علي بن عبد الله بن أحمد الإصبهاني الأسواري قال: حدثنا مكي بن أحمد بن سعدويه البرذعي، قال: أخبرنا أبو إسحاق إبراهيم بن عبد الرحمن القرشي بدمشق وأنا أسمع، قال: حدثنا أبو عامر موسى بن عامر المري قال: حدثنا الوليد بن مسلم، قال: حدثنا زهير بن محمد، عن موسى بن عقبة، عن الأعرج، عن أبي هريرة أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله قال: إن لله تبارك وتعالى تسعة وتسعين اسما مائة إلا واحدا، إنه وتر يحب الوتر، من أحصاها دخل الجنة، فبلغنا أن غير واحد من أهل العلم قال: إن أولها يفتتح بلا إله إلا الله الله وحده لا شريك له، له الملك وله الحمد، بيده الخير، وهو على كل شي قدير، لا إله إلا الله له الأسماء الحسنى، الله، الواحد، الصمد، الأول، الآخر، الظاهر، الباطن، الخالق، البارئ، المصور، الملك، القدوس، السلام، المؤمن، المهيمن، العزيز، الجبار، المتكبر، الرحمن، الرحيم، اللطيف، الخبير، السميع، البصير، العلي، العظيم، البارئ، (كذا) المتعالي، الجليل، الجميل، الحي، القيوم، القادر، القاهر، الحكيم، القريب، المجيب، الغني، الوهاب، الودود، الشكور، الماجد، الأحد، الولي، الرشيد، الغفور، الكريم، الحليم، التواب، الرب، المجيد، الحميد، الوفي، الشهيد، المبين، البرهان، الرؤوف، المبدئ، المعيد، الباعث الوارث، القوي، الشديد، الضار، النافع، الوافي، الحافظ، الرافع، القابض، الباسط، المعز، المذل، الرازق، ذو القوة المتين، القائم، الوكيل، العادل، الجامع، المعطي، المجتبي، المحيي، المميت، الكافي، الهادي، الأبد، الصادق، النور، القديم، الحق، الفرد، الوتر، الواسع، المحصي، المقتدر، المقدم، المؤخر، المنتقم، البديع .


11. Abu al-Hasan `Ali ibn `Abd Allah ibn Ahmad al-Isbahani al-Aswari said: Makki ibn Ahmad ibn Sa`dawayh al-Burdha`I said: Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn `Abd al-Rahman al-Qarashi reported to us in Damascus and I was listening that Abu `Amir Musa ibn `Amir al-Mirri said: al-Walid ibn Muslim said: Zuhayr ibn Muhammad said, on the authority of Musa ibn `Uqbah, on the authority of al-A`raj, on the authority of Abu Hurayrah that The Messenger of Allah (SAS) said: Verily, Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, has NinetyNine names: one hundred minus one. He is Single and loves odd numbers. Whoever counts them will enter Paradise. Thus, it has reached us that more than one scholar has said that the first one of them starts with: There is no god but Allah, He Alone, He has no associates. To Him belongs all Sovereignty, and to Him is the Praise. In His hand is all goodness, and He has power over all things. There is no god but Allah, His are the Best Names: Allah, the One, the Needless, the First, the Last, the Manifested, the Hidden, the Creator, the Maker, the Imager, the Sovereign, the Most Holy, the Giver of Peace, the Granter of Security, the Guarding Over All, the Honorable, the Supreme, the Possessor of all Greatness, the Beneficent, the Most Merciful, the Subtle, the All-Aware, the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing, the Most High, the Most Great, the Maker, the High, the Sublime the Beautiful [al-Jamil], the Ever-Living, the Self-Subsistent, the All-Powerful, the Subduer, the All-Wise, the Near, the Granter [al-Majib], the Self-Sufficient, the Bestower, the Loving one, the Thankful, the Glorified [al-Majid], the Unique, the Guardian [al-Wali], the Rightly Directing [al-Rashid], the Forgiving, the Generous, the Forbearing, the Oft-Returning (in mercy), the Lord, the All-Glorious, the Praiseworthy, the Reliable, the Witness, the Clear, the Evidence [al-Burhan], the Affectionate, the First to do [al-Mubdi’] the Resorter [al-Mu`id], the Raiser, the Inheritor, the Powerful, the Severe in punishment [alShadid], the Punisher [al-Dar], the Beneficial [al-Naf`], the Sufficient [al-Wafi], the Protector [alHafiz], the Exalter [al-Rafi`], the Seizer (of souls), the Extender, the Honor-Bestower [alMu`izz], the One who abases [al-Mudhill], the Sustainer, the Lord of unbreakable strength [Dhul-Quwat al-Matin], the Riser, the Custodian, the Just, the Assembler [al-Jami`], the Giver [al-Mu`ti], the Selecter [al-Mujtabi], the Reviver [al-Muhyi], the One who makes to dies [alMumit], the Sufficient, the Guide, the Everlasting [al-Abad], the Most Truthful, the Light, the Eternal, the Truth, the Peerless, the Singly, the All-Embracing [al-Was`], the Counter [al-Muhsi], the Powerful, the One who precedes all [al-Muqaddam], the One who comes last [alMu`akhkhar], the Avenger [al-Muntaqim], the Originator.




12 - حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد رضي الله عنه، قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسن الصفار، عن محمد بن عيسى بن عبيد، عن الحسن بن محبوب، عن علي بن رئاب، عن غير واحد، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: من عبد الله بالتوهم فقد كفر، ومن عبد الاسم ولم يعبد المعنى فقد كفر، ومن عبد الاسم والمعنى فقد أشرك، ومن عبد المعنى بإيقاع الأسماء عليه بصفاته التي وصف بها نفسه فعقد عليه قلبه و نطق به لسانه في سرائره وعلانيته فأولئك أصحاب أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام. وفي حديث آخر: (أولئك هم المؤمنون حقا).


12. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Walid (RA) said: Muhammad ibn al-Hasan alSaffar said, on the authority of Muhammad ibn `Isa ibn `Ubayd, on the authority of al-Hasan ibn Mahbub, on the authority of `Ali ibn Ri’ab, on the authority of more than one person that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) said: Whoever serves Allah with his imagination, disbelieves (in Allah). Whoever serves His name without (understanding) the meaning, disbelieves in Allah. Whoever serves both His name and its meaning, has given a partner to Allah. Whoever serves Allah by means of the meanings of the Names of Allah has attributed Himself with, has faith in Allah, which his tongue utters in private and in public. Such are the followers of the Commander of the Faithful. In another version, the last sentence of the tradition is: “These are the true Believes.”




13 - حدثنا محمد بن محمد بن عصام الكليني، وعلي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق رحمهما الله، قالا: حدثنا محمد بن يعقوب الكليني، عن علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن النضر بن سويد، عن هشام بن الحكم أنه سأل أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن أسماء الله عز وجل واشتقاقها، فقال: الله مشتق من إله، وإله يقتضي مألوها، والاسم غير المسمى، فمن عبد الاسم دون المعنى فقد كفر ولم يعبد شيئا، ومن عبد الاسم والمعنى فقد أشرك وعبد الاثنين، ومن عبد المعنى دون الاسم فذاك التوحيد، أفهمت يا هشام، قال: قلت: زدني، قال: لله عز وجل تسعة وتسعون اسما، فلو كان الاسم هو المسمى لكان كل اسم منها هو إلها، ولكن الله عز وجل معنى، يدل عليه بهذه الأسماء وكلها غيره، يا هشام الخبز اسم للمأكول والماء اسم للمشروب والثوب اسم للملبوس والنار اسم للمحرق، أفهمت يا هشام فهما تدفع به وتنافر أعداءنا والملحدين في الله والمشركين مع الله عز وجل غيره؟ قلت: نعم، فقال: نفعك الله به وثبتك يا هشام، قال هشام: فوالله ما قهرني أحد في التوحيد حينئذ حتى قمت مقامي هذا.


13. Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn `Isam al-Kulayni and `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al=Daqqaq ( may Allah have mercy on them both) both said: Muhammad ibn Ya`qub al-Kulayni said, on the authority of `Ali ibn Ibrahim, on the authority of his father, on the authority of al-Nadr ibn Suwayd, on the authority of Hisham ibn al-Hakam that I asked Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) about the names of Allah, the Mighty and High, and their derivations. Hence, he replied, Allah is derived from Ilah (God). The word Ilah requires a server [Ma’luh], The name is other than the named. Therefore, whoever serves the name without the meaning then he disbelieves, and has not served anything. Whoever serves the name, and the meaning, he has associated, and has served both of them. Whoever serves the meaning without he name has embraced Divine Unity. Have you understood, O Hisham? He says, I said: “Elaborate for me.” He (AS) responded, For Allah, the Mighty and High, are Ninety Nine Names. If the name was the named then every name would have been a god. However Allah, the Mighty and High, has a meaning for all of these names which apply to Him, and all of them are other than Him. O Hisham! “Bread” is a name of a food; “water” is a name of a drink; “cloth is a name of a material, and “fire” is a name of ignition. Do you understand, O Hisham? Do you understand in such a way that you can defend us, and defeat our enemies, the apostates of Allah, and the one who associate other with Allah, the Mighty and High? I replied, “Yes.” He (AS) then said: “May Allah benefit you by it and secure you, O Hisham!” Hisham says, “I swear by Allah, no one could defeat me in debate on the subject of Divine Unity after I stood up from that place.”




14 - حدثنا أبو الحسن علي بن عبد الله بن أحمد الأسواري، قال: حدثنا مكي ابن أحمد بن سعدويه البرذعي، قال: أخبرنا إسماعيل بن محمد بن الفضل بن محمد بن المسيب البيهقي قال: حدثني جدي، قال: حدثنا ابن أبي أويس، قال: حدثني أحمد بن محمد بن داود بن قيس الصنعاني، قال: حدثني أفلح بن كثير، عن ابن جريج، عن عمرو بن شعيب، عن أبيه، عن جده عن النبي صلى الله عليه وآله أن جبرئيل نزل عليه بهذا الدعاء من السماء ونزل عليه ضاحكا مستبشرا، فقال: السلام عليك يا محمد، قال: وعليك السلام يا جبرئيل فقال: إن الله بعث إليك بهدية، فقال: وما تلك الهدية يا جبرئيل؟ فقال: كلمات من كنوز العرش أكرمك الله بها، قال: وما هن يا جبرئيل؟ قال: قل: (يا من أظهر الجميل وستر القبيح، يا من لم يؤاخذ بالجريرة ولم يهتك الستر، يا عظيم العفو، يا حسن التجاوز، يا واسع المغفرة، يا باسط اليدين بالرحمة، يا صاحب كل نجوى، ويا منتهى كل شكوى (يا مقيل العثرات ) يا كريم الصفح، يا عظيم المن يا مبتدئا بالنعم قبل استحقاقها يا ربنا ويا سيدنا ويا مولانا ويا غاية رغبتنا أسألك يا الله أن لا تشوه خلقي بالنار) فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: يا جبرئيل فما ثواب هذه الكلمات؟ قال: هيهات هيهات، انقطع العلم، لو اجتمع ملائكة سبع سماوات وسبع أرضين على أن يصفوا ثواب ذلك إلى يوم القيامة ما وصفوا من ألف جزء جزءا واحدا، فإذا قال العبد: (يا من أظهر الجميل وستر القبيح) ستره الله برحمته في الدنيا وجملة في الآخرة وستر الله عليه ألف ستر في الدنيا والآخرة، وإذا قال: (يا من لم يؤاخذ بالجريرة ولم يهتك الستر) لم يحاسبه الله يوم القيامة ولم يهتك ستره يوم يهتك الستور، وإذا قال: (يا عظيم العفو) غفر الله له ذنوبه ولو كانت خطيئته مثل زبد البحر، وإذا قال: (يا حسن التجاوز) تجاوز الله عنه حتى السرقة وشرب الخمر وأهاويل الدنيا، وغير ذلك من الكبائر، وإذا قال: (يا واسع المغفرة) فتح الله عز وجل له سبعين بابا من الرحمة فهو يخوض في رحمة الله عز وجل حتى يخرج من الدنيا، وإذا قال: (يا باسط اليدين بالرحمة) بسط الله يده عليه بالرحمة، وإذا قال: (يا صاحب كل نجوى و (يا) منتهى كل شكوى) أعطاه الله عز وجل من الآجر ثواب كل مصاب وكل سالم وكل مريض وكل ضرير وكل مسكين وكل فقير إلى يوم القيامة، وإذا قال: (يا كريم الصفح) أكرمه الله كرامة الأنبياء، وإذا قال: (يا عظيم المن) أعطاه الله يوم القيامة أمنيته وأمنية الخلائق، وإذا قال: (يا مبتدئا بالنعم قبل استحقاقها) أعطاه الله من الأجر بعدد من شكر نعماءه، وإذا قال: (يا ربنا ويا سيدنا ويا مولانا) قال الله تبارك وتعالى: اشهدوا ملائكتي أني غفرت له وأعطيته من الأجر بعدد من خلقته في الجنة والنار والسماوات السبع والأرضين السبع الشمس والقمر والنجوم وقطر الأمطار وأنواع الخلق والجبال والحصى والثرى وغير ذلك والعرش والكرسي، وإذا قال: (يا مولانا) ملأ الله قلبه من الإيمان، وإذا قال: (يا غاية رغبتنا) أعطاه الله يوم القيامة رغبته ومثل رغبة الخلائق، وإذا قال: (أسألك يا الله أن لا تشوه خلقي بالنار) قال الجبار جل جلاله: استعتقني عبدي من النار، اشهدوا ملائكتي أني قد أعتقته من النار وأعتقت أبويه وأخواته وأخوانه وأهله و ولده وجيرانه، وشفعته في ألف رجل ممن وجب لهم النار، وآجرته من النار، فعلمهن يا محمد المتقين ولا تعلمهن المنافقين فإنها دعوة مستجابة لقائليهن إن شاء الله، وهو دعاء أهل البيت المعمور حوله إذا كانوا يطوفون به. قال مصنف هذا الكتاب: الدليل على أن الله تعالى عز وجل عالم حي قادر لنفسه لا بعلم وقدرة وحياة هو غيره أنه لو كان عالما بعلم لم يخل علمه من أحد أمرين أما أن يكون قديما أو حادثا، فإن كان حادثا فهو جل ثناؤه قبل حدوث العلم غير عالم، وهذا من صفات النقص، وكل منقوص محدث بما قدمنا، وإن كان قديما وجب أن يكون غير الله عز وجل قديما وهذا كفر بالاجماع، فكذلك القول في القادر وقدرته والحي وحياته، والدليل على أنه تعالى لم يزل قادرا عالما حيا أنه قد ثبت أنه عالم قادر حي لنفسه وصح بالدليل أنه عز وجل قديم وإذا كان كذلك كان عالما لم يزل إذ نفسه التي لها علم لم تزل، وهذا يدل على أنه قادر حي لم يزل . باب القرآن ما هو؟


14. Abu al-Hasan `Ali ibn `Abd Allah ibn Ahmad al-Aswari said: Makki ibn Ahmad ibn Sa`dawayh al-Burdha`I that Isma`il ibn Muhammad ibn al-Fadl ibn Muhammad ibn alMusayyib al-Bayaqi reported to us that My grandfather related to me that Ibn Abu Uways said: Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Dawud ibn Qays al-San`ani related to me that Aflah ibn Kathir related to me, on the authority of Ibn Jurayj, on the authority of `Amr ibn Shu`ayb, on the authority of his father that Jibra’il descended to the Prophet (SA) from heaven, smiling and rejoicing, and greeted him with the words: “Peace be with you, O Muhammad!” He (SA) replied, “And peace be with you, O Jibra’il!” Then he said: “Verily, Allah has sent a gift to you.” Hence, he (SA) asked, “What is that gift, O Jibra’il?” He answered, “Words from the Treasures of the Throne. Allah honors you by them.” The Prophet (SA) enquired, “What are they, O Jibra’il?” He said: Say: O One who reveals beauty, and hides ugliness! O One who does not punish the offender, and who does not ear the veil (from sins)! O Most Great in pardoning! O Best of the Overlookers! O All-Embracing in Forgiveness! O One who Opens His Hands in Mercy! O Hearer of all Whispers! O One whom all complaints are made! (O Last Resort of the Fallen!). O Noble One! O Possessor of Great Favor! O One who Blessed before anyone deserves it! O our Lord! O our Master! O our Guardian! O Goal of our Desires! I beseech You, O Allah, not to make me ugly by means of the Fire. The Messenger of Allah (SA) asked, “O Jibra’il! What are the virtues of these words?” Jibra’il replied, So great! So great! The virtues of these words are impossible to describe. Even if the angels from the seven heavens and the seven earths joined together to describe the virtues of these words until the Day of Judgment, they would not be able to describe even a thousandth part of them. Therefore, when a man says: “O One who reveals beauty, and hides ugliness,” Allah covers him up with His Mercy in this world, and makes him beautiful in the Hereafter. Allah covers his defects with a thousand veils in this world, and the Hereafter. When he says: “O One who does not punish the offender, and does not tear the veil (from sins),” Allah will not hold him accountable on the Day of Judgment, and on the Day all Veils are Torn, He will not tear his veil. And when he says: “O Most Great in Pardoning,” Allah will forgive his sins even if they are as much as the foam from the sea. When he says: “O Best of the Overlookers,” Allah will forgive him even sins such as theft, drinking wine, worldly frights, and other major sins. And when he says: “O All-Embracing in Forgiveness,” Allah, the Mighty and High, will open seventy gates of Mercy to him in a way that he will be overwhelmed by Allah, the Mighty and High’s Mercy till he parts this world. When he says: “O One who Opens His Hands in Mercy,” Allah opens His Hands of Mercy to him. And when he says: “O Hearer of all Whispers, O One to who all Complaints are made,” Allah will bestow upon him the reward of every afflicted, unaffiliated, sick, blind, destitute, and poor person till the Day of Judgment. When he says: “O Noble One,” Allah will make him noble like the prophets. When he says: “O Possessor of Great Favor,” Allah will bestow upon him His Protection, and the protection of the created on the Day of Judgment. And when he says: “O One who gives blessings before anyone deserves it,” Allah will grant him rewards equal to the number of those who thanked Him for His Blessings. When he says: “O our Lord, O our Master,” Allah will say: “My angels! Bear witness that I forgave him, and I will give him rewards similar to the numbers of those who are in Paradise, and Hell, the seven heavens and the seven earths, the sun, the moon, the stars, rain drops, creatures, mountains, pebbles, soil, and other than these, as well as the Empyrean and the Throne. And when he says: “O our Guardian,” Allah will fill his heart with faith. When he says: “O Goal of our Desires,” Allah will fulfill his desire, and give him the reward equal to the reward of all the creatures on the Day of Judgment. And when he says: “I beseech You, O Allah, not to make my being ugly by means of Fire,” the Supreme, may His glory be glorified, will say: My Servant has asked Me to free him from Fire. O My angels! Bear witness that I set him, his parents, his brothers, his sisters, his household, his children, and his neighbors free from the Fire, and accepted his intercession for a thousand others who deserved punishment by fire, and saved them from it. O Muhammad! Teach this supplication to the pious, and do not teach it to the hypocrites. For it is supplication which will be granted to the ones that pronounce it, by the will of Allah. This is the supplication of the inhabitants of the Flourishing House [al-Bayt alMa’mur], when they circumambulate it. The Compiler of this book says: The proof that Allah – the Exalted, the Mighty, and the Most High – is All-Knowing, Ever-Living, and All-Powerful in and of Himself – not by knowledge, power, and life, that is other than Him – is that if He were All-Knowing by means of knowledge, then His Knowledge could only be two things: eternal or created. If His Knowledge is created then He, glorified be His Praise, was without knowledge before it creation. This is an imperfect attribute, and every imperfection is caused, as we explained previously. If His Knowledge is eternal, then it becomes necessary for other than Allah, the Mighty and High, to be eternal. This is infidelity by consensus. The same argument can be applied to the AllPowerful and His Omnipotence and the Ever-Living and His Life. The proof that He, the Exalted, has always been All-Powerful, All-Knowing and Ever-Living is that it has been proved that He is All-Knowing, All-Powerful, and Ever-Living, in and of Himself. Hence, it is correct by evidence that He, the Mighty and High, is Eternal. Therefore, He has always been All-Knowing as Knowledge is part of His Essence, Which has always been. This indicates that He has always been All-Powerful, and Ever-Living.