2. Divine Unity and‬‬ Negation of Anthropomorphism

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1 - حدثنا أبي رضي الله عنه، قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، قال: حدثنا أحمد بن أبي عبد الله، عن أبيه محمد بن خالد البرقي، عن أحمد بن النضر، وغيره، عن عمرو بن ثابت، عن رجل - سماه - عن أبي إسحاق السبيعي، عن الحارث الأعور قال: خطب أمير المؤمنين علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام يوما خطبة بعد العصر، فعجب الناس من حسن صفته وما ذكر من تعظيم الله جل جلاله، قال: أبو إسحاق: فقلت للحارث: أوما حفظتها؟ قال: قد كتبتها، فأملاها علينا من كتابه: الحمد لله الذي لا يموت، ولا تنقضي عجائبه، لأنه كل يوم في شأن من إحداث بديع لم يكن الذي لم يولد فيكون في العز مشاركا، ولم يلد فيكون موروثا هالكا، ولم يقع عليه الأوهام فتقدره شبحا ماثلا ولم تدركه الأبصار فيكون بعد انتقالها، حائلا الذي ليست له في أوليته نهاية، ولا في آخريته حد ولا غاية، الذي لم يسبقه وقت، ولم يتقدمه زمان، ولم يتعاوره زيادة ولا نقصان، ولم يوصف بأين ولا بمكان الذي بطن من خفيات الأمور، وظهر في العقول بما يرى في خلقه من علامات التدبير، الذي سئلت الأنبياء عنه فلم تصفه بحد ولا بنقص بل وصفته بأفعاله، ودلت عليه بآياته ولا تستطيع عقول المتفكرين جحده، لأن من كانت السماوات والأرض فطرته وما فيهن وما بينهن وهو الصانع لهن، فلا مدفع لقدرته الذي بان من الخلق فلا شئ كمثله، الذي خلق الخلق لعبادته وأقدرهم على طاعته بما جعل فيهم، وقطع عذرهم بالحجج، فعن بينة هلك من هلك وعن بينة نجا من نجا، ولله الفضل مبدئا ومعيدا. ثم إن الله وله الحمد افتتح الكتاب بالحمد لنفسه، وختم أمر الدنيا ومجئ الآخرة بالحمد لنفسه، فقال: ﴿وقضي بينهم بالحق وقيل الحمد لله رب العالمين﴾ . الحمد لله اللابس الكبرياء بلا تجسد، والمرتدي بالجلال بلا تمثل، والمستوي على العرش بلا زوال، والمتعالي عن الخلق بلا تباعد منهم، القريب منهم بلا ملامسة منه لهم، ليس له حد ينتهي إلى حده، ولا له مثل فيعرف بمثله، ذل من تجبر غيره، وصغر من تكبر دونه، وتواضعت الأشياء لعظمته، وانقادت لسلطانه و عزته، وكلت عن إدراكه طروف العيون، وقصرت دون بلوغ صفته أوهام الخلائق، الأول قبل كل شئ والآخر بعد كل شئ، ولا يعد له شئ، الظاهر على كل شئ بالقهر له، والمشاهد لجميع الأماكن بلا انتقال إليها، ولا تلمسه لامسة ولا تحسه حاسة، وهو الذي في السماء إله وفي الأرض إله، وهو الحكيم العليم، أتقن ما أراد خلقه من الأشياء كلها بلا مثال سبق إليه، ولا لغوب دخل عليه في خلق ما خلق لديه، ابتدأ ما أراد ابتداءه، وأنشأ ما أراد إنشاءه على ما أراده من الثقلين الجن والإنس لتعرف بذلك ربوبيته، وتمكن فيهم طواعيته. نحمده بجميع محامده كلها على جميع نعمائه كلها، ونستهديه لمراشد أمورنا ونعوذ به من سيئات أعمالنا، ونستغفره للذنوب التي سلفت منا، ونشهد أن لا إله إلا الله، وأن محمدا عبده ورسوله، بعثه بالحق دالا عليه وهاديا إليه، فهدانا به من الضلالة، واستنقذنا به من الجهالة، من يطع الله ورسوله فقد فاز فوزا عظيما، ونال ثوابا كريما، ومن يعص الله ورسوله فقد خسر خسرانا مبينا، واستحق عذابا أليما، فانجعوا بما يحق عليكم من السمع والطاعة وإخلاص النصحية وحسن المؤازرة وأعينوا أنفسكم بلزوم الطريقة المستقيمة، وهجر الأمور المكروهة، وتعاطوا الحق بينكم، وتعانوا عليه، وخذوا على يدي الظالم السفيه، مروا بالمعروف، وانهو عن المنكر، واعرفوا لذوي الفضل فضلهم، عصمنا الله وإياكم بالهدي، و ثبتنا وإياكم على التقوى، وأستغفر الله لي ولكم.


1. My father (RA) said: Sa`d ibn `Abd Allah said: Ahmad ibn Abu `Abd Allah on the‬‬ ‫‪authority of his father Muhammad Khalid Barqi; on the authority of Ahmad ibn Nadr and‬‬ ‫‪others; on the authority fo `Amr ibn Thabit; on the authority of a man who he named on the‬‬ ‫‪authority of Abu Ishaq Safi`i; on the authority of al-Harith al –A`war who said‬‬ One day, the Commander of the Faithful `Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS) gave a sermon after `Asr (afternoon) prayer. The people were astonished by the beautiful words with which he praised Allah, Exalted be His Majesty. Abu Ishaq said: I asked Harith, “Did you not memorize it?” He answered, “I wrote it down.” So he dictated it to us from his script: All praise belongs to Allah for Who does not die, and Whose wonders shall never come to an end. He exercises His (Universal) Power everyday, creating things that did not exist before; Who does not beget any who could claim to share in His Glory and Might; and Who is not begotten to die so that He could leave an heir behind. He is beyond all imagination; hence, He cannot be regarded as a visible shape. He is too far beyond the reach of sight to leave any mental impression of Him. His Beginning has no beginning, and His End has no end. Time does not outlast Him. Excess and loss cannot affect Him. He cannot be described in terms of when, what and where. He is Hidden among the hidden. He is Manifest in the mind through His Signs, and through His Wisdom in His Creation. When questioned about Him, the prophets did not describe Him in terms of any limit, scope, extent or in terms of constituents. Rather, they described Him in terms of His Functions, and they led people towards Him through His Signs. The minds of the intellectuals do not dare deny His Existence. There can be no denying the Might of the Creator of the heavens and the Earth, and all that is between them. He is totally distinct from His Creation. Nothing resembles Him. He brought His Creation into existence so that He would be obeyed and worshipped. He gave human beings the strength to serve Him, and he rebutted their excuses through the best of arguments. Thus, whoever meets his doom does so knowingly and justifiably. It is through His Grace that redemption is secured by the redeemed, and it is Allah’s Grace that prevails in this life and the life to come. Then, Allah to Whom all praise is due, inaugurated the function of this worldly life with His Own Praise, and wound up the function of this worldly life, and the next life, whit His Own Praise. As He Himself says: And judgment shall be given between them with justice, and it shall be said: All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. All praise is due to Allah Who, despite having no body, has adorned Himself with the Robes of Greatness and Grandeur, and has covered Himself with the Mantle of Awe and Reverence, without having any corporal form. He occupies the Celestial Throne unceasingly. He is far above His Creation, without being far, and without being in mutual contact with them. Neither has He any limit which may end in any limit, nor is there anything like Him through which He can be recognized. Whoever claims to be holy, except Him, is bound to be humiliated. Whoever magnifies himself is bound to be humbled. All thins bow before His Greatness and are obedient to His Lordship and Might. The function of the eyes becomes tired in searching for Him. The imagination is unable to reach His Attributes. He existed before any beginning, and nothing preceded Him. He is the Last of All, and there is no last for Him at all. With His Might He holds sway over all things. He observes all places without making any movement. No touch can ever touch Him nor can any sense ever sense Him. And He it is Who is Allah in Heavens and Allah in the Earth; and He is the Wise, the knowing.1 Whatever He intended to create He planned for it soundly and correctly without there being any example of it before, and without being tired thereby (in creating whatever He wanted to create). He started whatever He needed to start, and made whatever He wanted to make. He intended to create two weights, the jinn and humankind, so that they should recognize His Lordship on the basis of all these means (of revealed wisdom in His Creation referred to above), and be able to obey Him (consciously). We glorify Allah with all words of praise for the bounties He has bestowed. And we seek guidance from Him in our righteous affairs. Furthermore, we seek refuge from Him against our misdeeds. We solicit His Forgiveness for our past sins. We bear witness that there is no god but Allah, and that Muhammad (SA) in His Servant and Messenger whom Allah raised with truth, who leads to Allah, and who guides towards Him. Thus, He rescued us from misguidance through him, guiding us to the right path, and through him freed us from ignorance. Hence, whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, he indeed achieves a mighty success,2 and has secured divine blessings in abundance. And whosoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger surely suffers a manifest loss, and deserves a humbling chastisement. Hence, strive to listen, obey counsel with sincerity, and share the burden with others effectively and gracefully. Help yourself by sticking to the right path, and in avoiding wicked deeds. Give to others what is right, and take from others what is right. Cooperate with me (the Imam) by means of these tasks. Seize the idiotic oppressor, tie him, and bind him. Promote the good, and prohibit the evil. Learn to appreciate the worth of illustrious people. May Allah keep us secure and steady on the right path, and keep us constant in abstaining from evil! I beg Allah for our forgiveness!




2 - حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد رضي الله عنه، قال: حدثنا محمد بن عمر والكاتب، عن محمد بن زياد القلزمي ، عن محمد بن أبي زياد الجدي صاحب الصلاة بجدة، قال: حدثني محمد بن يحيى بن عمر بن علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام قال: سمعت أبا الحسن الرضا عليه السلام يتكلم بهذا الكلام عند المأمون في التوحيد، قال ابن أبي زياد: ورواه لي أيضا أحمد بن عبد الله العلوي مولى لهم وخالا (*) لبعضهم عن القاسم بن أيوب العلوي أن المأمون لما أراد أن يستعمل الرضا عليه السلام على هذا الأمر جمع بني هاشم فقال: إني أريد أن أستعمل الرضا على هذا الأمر من بعدي، فحسده بنو هاشم، وقالوا: أتولي رجلا جاهلا ليس له بصر بتدبير الخلافة؟! فابعث إليه رجلا يأتنا فترى من جهله ما يستدل به عليه، فبعث إليه فأتاه، فقال له بنو هاشم: يا أبا الحسن اصعد المنبر وانصب لنا علما نعبد الله عليه، فصعد عليه السلام المنبر، فقعد مليا لا يتكلم مطرقا، ثم انتفض انتفاضة . واستوى قائما، وحمد الله وأثنى عليه، وصلى على نبيه وأهل بيته. ثم قال: أول عبادة الله معرفته، وأصل معرفة الله توحيده، ونظام توحيد - الله تفي الصفات عنه لشهادة العقول أن كل صفة وموصوف مخلوق وشهادة كل مخلوق أن له خالقا ليس بصفة ولا موصوف، وشهادة كل صفة وموصوف بالاقتران، وشهادة الاقتران بالحدث، وشهادة الحدث بالامتناع من الأزل الممتنع من الحدث، فليس الله عرف من عرف بالتشبيه ذاته، ولا إياه وحده من اكتنهه ولا حقيقة أصاب من مثله، ولا به صدق من نهاه ولا صمد صمده من أشار إليه ولا إياه عنى من شبهه، ولا له تذلل من بعضه، ولا إياه أراد من توهمه، كل معروف بنفسه مصنوع وكل قائم في سواه معلول، بصنع الله يستدل عليه و بالعقول يعتقد معرفته، وبالفطرة تثبت حجته . خلق الله حجاب بينه وبينهم ومباينته إياهم مفارقته إنيتهم، وابتداؤه إياهم دليلهم على أن لا ابتداء له لعجز كل مبتدء عن ابتداء غيره، وأدوه إياهم دليل على أن لا أداة فيه لشهادة الأدوات بفاقة المتأدين وأسماؤه تعبير، وأفعاله تفهيم، وذاته حقيقة، وكنهه تفريق بينه وبين خلقه، وغبوره تحديد لما سواه فقد جهل الله من استوصفه، وقد تعداه من اشتمله وقد أخطأه من اكتنهه، ومن قال: كيف فقد شبهه، و من قال: لم فقد علله، ومن قال: متى فقد وقته، ومن قال: فيم فقد ضمنه، ومن قال: إلى م فقد نهاه، ومن قال. حتى م فقد غياه ومن غياه فقد غاياه، ومن غاياه فقد جزأه، ومن جزأه فقد وصفه، ومن وصفه فقد ألحد فيه، لا يتغير الله بانغيار المخلوق، كما لا يتحدد بتحديد المحدود، أحد لا بتأويل عدد، ظاهر لا بتأويل المباشرة، متجل لا باستهلال رؤية، باطن لا بمزايلة، مبائن لا بمسافة، قريب لا بمداناة، لطيف لا بتجسم، موجود لا بعد عدم، فاعل لا باضطرار، مقدر لا بحول فكرة مدبر لا بحركة، مريد لا بهمامة، شاء لا بهمة، مدرك لا بمجسة سميع لا بآلة، بصير لا بأداة. لا تصحبه الأوقات، ولا تضمنه الأماكن، ولا تأخذه السنات ولا تحده الصفات، ولا تقيده الأدوات سبق الأوقات كونه. والعدم وجوده، والابتداء أزاله، بتشعيره المشاعر عرف أن لا مشعر له وبتجهيره الجواهر عرف أن لا جوهر له، وبمضادته بين الأشياء عرف أن لا ضد له، وبمقارنته بين الأمور عرف أن لا قرين له ضاد النور بالظلمة، والجلاية بالبهم، والجسو بالبلل ، والصرد بالحرور، مؤلف بين متعادياتها، مفرق بين متدانياتها، دالة بتفريقها على مفرقها، وبتأليفها على مؤلفها، ذلك قوله عز وجل: (ومن كل شئ خلقنا زوجين لعلكم تذكرون) ففرق بها بين قبل وبعد ليعلم أن لا قبل له ولا بعد، شاهدة بغرائزها أن لا غريزة لمغرزها، دالة بتفاوتها أن لا تفاوت لمفاوتها ، مخبرة بتوقيتها أن لا وقت لموقتها، حجب بعضها عن بعض ليعلم أن لا حجاب بينه وبينها غيرها له معنى الربوبية إذ لا مربوب وحقيقة الإلهية إذ لا مألوه ومعنى العالم ولا معلوم، ومعنى الخالق ولا مخلوق، وتأويل السمع ولا مسموع ليس منذ خلق استحق معنى الخالق، ولا باحداثه البرايا استفاد معنى البارئية كيف ولا تغيبه مذ، ولا تدنيه قد، ولا تحجبه لعل، ولا توقته متى، ولا تشمله حين، ولا تقارنه مع، إنما تحد الأدوات أنفسها، وتشير الآلة إلى نظائرها وفي الأشياء يوجد فعالها منعتها منذ القدمة، وحمتها قد الأزلية، وجبتها لولا التكملة افترقت فدلت على مفرقها، وتباينت فأعربت من مباينها لما تجلى صانعها للعقول وبها احتجب عن الرؤية، وإليها تحاكم الأوهام، وفيها أثبت غيره ومنها أنيط الدليل وبها عرفها الاقرار، وبالعقول يعتقد التصديق بالله، وبالاقرار يكمل الإيمان به، ولا ديانة إلا بعد المعرفة ولا معرفة إلا بالاخلاص، ولا إخلاص مع التشبيه، ولا نفي مع إثبات الصفات للتشبيه فكل ما في الخلق لا يوجد في خالقه، وكل ما يمكن فيه يمتنع من صانعه، لا تجري عليه الحركة والسكون، وكيف يجري عليه ما هو أجراه، أو يعود إليه ما هو ابتدأه إذا لتفاوتت ذاته، ولتجز أكنهه، ولامتنع من الأزل معناه، ولما كان للبارئ معنى غير المبروء، و لوحد له وراء إذا حد له أمام، ولو التمس له التمام إذا لزمه النقصان، كيف يستحق الأزل من لا يمتنع من الحدث، وكيف ينشئ الأشياء من لا يمتنع من الانشاء، إذا لقامت فيه آية المصنوع، ولتحول دليلا بعد ما كان مدلولا عليه، ليس في محال القول حجة ولا في المسألة عنه جواب، ولا في معناه له تعظيم، ولا في إبانته عن الخلق ضيم، إلا بامتناع الأزلي أن يثنى وما لا بدأ له أن يبدأ ، لا إله إلا الله العلي العظيم، كذب العادلون بالله، وضلوا ضلالا بعيدا، وخسروا خسرانا مبينا، وصلى الله على محمد النبي وآله الطيبين الطاهرين.


2. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Walid (May Allah be pleased with him) said:‬‬ ‫‪Muhammad ibn `Amr al-Katib, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Ziyad al-Qalzumi, on the‬‬ ‫‪authority of Muhammad ibn Abu Ziyad al-Jiddi, the one who lead the prayers at Jiddah,‬‬ ‫‪that Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn `Umar ibn `Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS) related to me that I heard‬‬ ‫‪Abu al-Hasan al-Rida (AS) say this about the Unity (of Allah) in the presence of alMa`mum, Ibn Abu Ziyad said: their freed slave and maternal uncle to some of them,‬‬ ‫‪Ahmad ibn `Abd Allah al- `Alawi also related it to me, on the authority of al-Qasim ibn‬‬ ‫‪Ayyub al- `Alawi that‬‬ When al-Ma`mum wanted to appoint al-Rida (AS) to the Caliphate, he gathered the Hashimites and said: `I want to appoint al-Rida as the Caliph after me.” The Hashimites envied him because of this and said: “Are you going to hand over political and religious authority to an ignorant man who has no idea of how to run the Caliphate? Have him summoned before us so that you can see his ignorance, and then you can judge what we affirm.” Therefore, he sent someone to summon him. The Hashimites said to him (AS): “O Abu al-Hasan! Go up to the pulpit, and give us an example of how we should serve Allah.” Hence he (AS) climbed up the pulpit, sat down, and lowered his head for some time without saying anything. He (AS) then rose up, stood up straight, praised Allah and extolled Him, and sent blessings on the Prophet and his Household (AS). He (AS) then said: The best of service is to acknowledge the existence of Allah. The foundation of acknowledgement of Allah is to process His unity. Allah’s Unity is established through the denial of descriptions, since all intellects bear witness that descriptions are created, and whatever is created requires a Creator, who is neither identifier or identified. Every identifier and identified is connected, and connection is evidence of occurrence. Whatever occurs cannot be eternal. Hence, anyone who describes Allah in anthropomorphic terms has not described Allah’s Essence. Furthermore, anyone who describes Allah by means of reason has not described Him. Anyone who equates Him with anything has not described the Reality. Anyone who limits Allah has not recognized Him. Anyone who seeks to point Him out has not approached Him. Anyone who describes Allah in human terms has not described Him. Anyone who divides Allah into parts has not drawn near Him. And anyone who imagines Allah has intended other than Him. Everything which is known is in itself created. Every existence other than Him is caused. The existence of Allah is inferred through His Creation. The existence of Allah is acknowledged by means of the intellect. The existence of Allah is proven through nature. Allah placed the creation as a veil between the Creator and the created. Allah differs from creation by means of His Distinction. He gave a beginning to everything so that everything would know that He ha no beginning, and so that everything would know that those who have a beginning are incapable of giving a beginning to others. He gave movement to everything so that everything would know that He is devoid of movement, because movement is a manifestation of need. His Names are interpretations. His Actions are instructions. His Essence is a fact. The Core of His Essence is a distinction between Him and His Creation. And His Elapses [ghubur] are limitations for all but Him. Verily, whoever describes Allah is ignorant of Him. Anyone who attempts to encompass Him has totally missed Him. And anyone who thinks that He can be grasped in His Entirety has totally mistaken Him. Anyone who asks, “How is He?” has compared Him. Anyone who asks, “Why does He exist?” implies that He is caused. Anyone who asks, “How long has He existed?” has subjected Him to the limits of time. He who asks, “In what is He?” implies that He is contained. He who asks, “What is His Extent?” has limited Him. He who asks, “How far does He reach?” has raised Him, and whoever raises Him, implies that He has a limit. Whoever gives Allah an extent implies that He has parts. Whoever claims that Allah has parts has described Him. Whoever describes Him has disbelieved in Him. Allah is not subject to change like creation is subject to change. In the same way, He is not limited like the limitations of the limited. He is One, but not in the sense of a number. He is Apparent, but not in the sense of pursuit. He is Evident, but not in the sense of sight. He is Hidden, but not in the sense of pursuit. He is Far, but not in the sense of distance. He is Near, but not in the sense of closeness. He is Subtle, but not in the sense that He has a body. He is Existent, but not in the sense that He comes from non-existence. He is a Doer, but not by means of compulsion. He is the Appraiser, but not by means of thought. He is the Controller (of the Universe), buy not by means of movement. He is the One who Wills, but not by means of soliciting. He is the One who Wills, but not in the sense that He is eager. He is the Perceiver, but not by means of touch. He is All-Hearing, but not by means of any instrument. He is All-Seeing, but not by means of any tool. Time cannot be associated with Him. Space does not contain Him. Slumber does not seize Him. Attributes do not limit Him. Tools do not bind Him. His Essence supersedes time. His Existence supersedes non-existence. His Eternity supersedes beginning. By giving senses to other, He proves that He is devoid of sense. By creating substance, He proves that He is not a substance. By giving contrasts, He proves that He has no contrast. By establishing pairs in creation, He proves that He has not partner. Light is the opposite of darkness like certainty is the opposite of uncertainty. Dryness is the opposite of wetness as cold is the opposite of heat. By creating similarity, Allah points out that He is the Creator. By creating difference, Allah points out that He is the Differentiator. As the Might and High has said: And of everything We have created pairs that you may be mindful.1 Therefore, He differentiated between the prior and the subsequent to prove that nothing precedes Him, and that nothing succeeds Him. Everything that has an instinct bears witness that the One who gave them their instinct ha no instinct. Everything that is different bears witness that the One who made the different is devoid of differences. Everything that is subjected to time bears witness the One who subjected them to time is not subject to time. Everything that is veiled bears witness that the only veil which exists between them and the One who veiled them is themselves. Allah was Lord even when there were no subjects. He was the One and Only True God even when no creation existed. He was All-Knowing even when there was nothing to be known. He was the Creator even before the creation existed. He was the All-Hearing even when there was nothing to be heard. He did not earn the title of Creator merely because of creation. He did not earn the title of Creator merely because he gave the created a beginning. And how could it be otherwise when the conjunction `since’ [mudh] does not make Him obscure? The word `may’ [qad] does not approach Him. The expression `perhaps’ [la`alla] does not veil Him. The conjunction `when’ [mata] does not set a time limit for Him. The expression `at the time when’ [hina] does not comprise Him. The word `with’ [ma`a] does not unite Him with anything. Verily, particles bind together, and tools point to things similar to themselves to show their effectiveness. The conjunction since’ prevents Him from being without beginning. The word `may’ prevents Him from being eternal. The conjuction `if not’ [law la] prevents Him from being Complete; thus indicating division. Difference is manifest through opposition, making its Creator evident to the intellect while being concealed fro sight. When Allah is imagined, other than Him is imagined. Difference points to Him. Through difference, verification is introduced, and through difference, the intellect confirms the belief in Allah Through verification faith is complete. There is no profession of faith without recognition, and no recognition without sincerity. There is no sincerity in anthropomorphism. And there is no negation (of Truth) through the affirmation of anthropomorphism. Hence, whatever is found in creation is not found in the Creator, and whatever is possible in creation is impossible to the Creator. Motion and stillness do not occur in Him. And how can something He executed occur in Him? And how can something He originated return to Him? If this were the case, His Essence would have contrast, His Essential Being would be divided into parts, and He could not be called “without beginning.” And since the creator differs from the created, if He is restricted with the word `behind’ then He will be restricted with the word `in front.’ If you seek to complete Him, then you imply that He is deficient. How can He be Eternal if it is implied that He has a beginning? How can He give existence if He has been created? If any sign of creation exists in Him that would deny Him. If any sign of creation existed in Him, He would surely be subject to change. However, there is no evidence that He is subject to change. There are no answers to questions about Him. No reverence for Him can be found in meaning. There was no injustice in manifesting Himself to creation. The Eternal cannot be divided into “two” and the One without a Beginning cannot have a beginning. There is no god but Allah, the Greatest, and the Most High. Whoever gives partner to Allah is a liar, who is lead far astray, and who is in manifest loss. May Allah bless the Prophet Muhammad and His Noble and Pure Progeny!




3 - حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق - رحمه الله - قال: حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله الكوفي، وأحمد بن يحيى بن زكريا القطان، عن بكر بن عبد الله ابن حبيب، عن تميم بن بهلول، عن أبيه، عن أبي معاوية، عن الحصين بن عبد الرحمن، عن أبيه، عن أبي عبد الله، عن أبيه، عن جده عليهم السلام، أن أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام استنهض الناس في حرب معاوية في حرب معاوية في المرة الثانية فلما حشد الناس قام خطيبا فقال: الحمد لله الواحد الأحد الصمد المتفرد، الذي لا من شئ كان، ولا من شئ خلق ما كان، قدرته بان بها من الأشياء، وبانت الأشياء منه، فليست له صفة تنال، ولا حد يضرب له الأمثال، كل دون صفاته تعبير اللغات وضل هنالك تصاريف الصفات، وحار في ملكوته عميقات مذاهب التفكير، وانقطع دون الرسوخ في علمه جوامع التفسير، وحال دون غيبه المكنون حجب من الغيوب، وتاهت في أدني أدانيها طامحات العقول في لطيفات الأمور فتبارك الله الذي لا يبلغه بعد الهمم، ولا يناله غوص الفطن، وتعالى الله الذي ليس له وقت معدود، ولا أجل ممدود، ولا نعت محدود، وسبحان الذي ليس له أول مبتدء، ولا غاية منتهى، ولا آخر يفنى، سبحانه، هو كما وصف نفسه، والواصفون لا يبلغون نعته، حد الأشياء كلها عند خلقه إياها إبانة لها من شبهه وإبانة له من شبهها، فلم يحلل فيها فيقال: هو فيها كائن ولم ينأ عنها فيقال: هو منها بائن، ولم يخل منها فيقال له: أين، لكنه سبحانه أحاط بها علمه، وأتقنها صنعه، وأحصاها حفظه، لم يعزب عنه خفيات غيوب الهوى لا غوامض مكنون ظلم الدجى، ولا ما في السماوات العلى والأرضين السفلى، لكل شئ منها حافظ ورقيب، وكل شئ منها بشئ محيط والمحيط بما أحاط منها الله الواحد الأحد الصمد الذي لم تغيره صروف الأزمان ولم يتكاده صنع شئ كان، إنما قال لما شاء أن يكون: كن فكان، ابتدع ما خلق بلا مثال سبق، ولا تعب ولا نصب، وكل صانع شئ فمن شئ صنع، والله لا من شئ صنع ما خلق، وكل عالم فمن بعد جهل تعلم، والله لم يجهل ولم يتعلم، أحاط بالأشياء علما قبل كونها فلم يزدد بكونها علما، علمه بها قبل أن يكونها كعلمه بعد تكوينها، لم يكونها لشدة سلطان، ولا خوف من زوال ولا نقصان، ولا استعانة على ضد مثاور ولا ند مكاثر، ولا شريك مكائد لكن خلائق مربوبون، وعباد داخرون، فسبحان الذي لا يؤده خلق ما ابتدأ، ولا تدبير ما برأ، ولا من عجز ولا من فترة بما خلق اكتفى، علم ما خلق وخلق ما علم لا بالتفكر، ولا بعلم حادث أصاب ما خلق، ولا شبهة دخلت عليه فيما لم يخلق، لكن قضاء مبرم، وعلم محكم، وأمر متقن، توحد بالربوبية، وخص نفسه بالوحدانية، واستخلص المجد والثناء، فتمجد بالتمجيد، وتحمد بالتحميد، وعلا عن اتخاذ الأبناء، وتطهر وتقدس عن ملامسة النساء وعز وجل عن مجاورة الشركاء، فليس له فيما خلق ضد، ولا فيما ملك ند، ولم يشرك في ملكه أحد الواحد الأحد الصمد المبيد للأبد، و الوارث، للأمد الذي لم يزل ولا يزال وحدانيا أزليا قبل بدء الدهور وبعد صرف الأمور، الذي لا يبيد ولا يفقد بذلك أصف ربي، فلا إله إلا الله من عظيم ما أعظمه، وجليل ما أجله، وعزيز ما أعزه، وتعالى عما يقول الظالمون علوا كبيرا. وحدثنا بهذه الخطبة أحمد بن محمد بن الصقر الصائغ، قال: حدثنا محمد بن العباس بن بسام، قال: حدثني أبو زيد سعيد بن محمد البصري، قال: حدثتني عمرة بنت أوس قالت: حدثني جدي الحصين بن عبد الرحمن، عن أبيه، عن أبي - عبد الله جعفر بن محمد، عن أبيه، عن جده عليهم السلام، أن أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام خطب بهذه الخطبة لما استنهض الناس في حرب معاوية في المرة الثانية.


3. `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al-Daqqaq (may Allah have mercy on him) said: Muhammad ibn Abu `Abd Allah al-Kufi said; and (also) Ahmad ibn Yahya ibn Zakariyya al-Qittan, on the authority of Bakr ibn `Abd Allah ibn Habib, on the authority of Tamim ibn Buhlul, on the authority of his father, on the authority of Abu Mu`awiyah, on the authority of al-Hasan ibn Abd al-Rahman, on the authority of his father, on the authority of Abu `Abd Allah (AS) on the authority of his father, on the authority of his grandfather (AS) that The Commander of the Faithful (AS) roused the people to was with Mu`awiyah for the second time. When the people gathered around him, he stood up and addressed them in the following terms: All praise be to Allah, the One and Only who is sought by all, the Unique and the One Who was not created out of anything nor created anything out of pre-existing matter. On the contrary, He created everything through His Might which is manifest in all things. And verily, everything came into existence because of Him. He has no attribute which can be comprehended, nor has He any limit which can be established. In linguistic embellishment, the tongue is crippled when it comes to describing His Attributes. And circumlocution with respect to His Attributes leads to a blind alley. The sharpest of intellects are unable to comprehend His Kingdom. All comprehensive explanation is rendered ineffective in delving deep into His Kingdom. Unseen veils impede even the lowest level of understanding of His Hidden Knowledge. The keenest insights are at a loss when attempting to comprehend the most superficial layer of His Subtleties. Thus, hallowed be Allah who can neither be reached by the most intrepid intellect nor conceived by the deepest insight. Exalted be He who is not subject to time, length, or limit. Purified be He whose Beginning has not beginning, whose End has no end, and who will never be annihilated. Glorified be He! He is as He has described Himself, and the describers cannot reach His Descriptions. He delineated the boundaries of all things at the time of their creation, and completely eradicated the possibility of Him resembling things or of things resembling Him. He cannot be contained by things which could describe Him. He has never been separate from things that can describe Him. He has never bin distant from things which could raise questions as to His whereabouts. Rather, He, the Glorified, has encompassed all the things through His Knowledge, strengthened them, and enumerated them in His Memory. Nothing is hidden from Him behind the veils of the atmosphere, the deep slumber which occurs in darkness, and whatever exists in the highest Heavens, and the lowest Earth. Everything that exists has a custodian and a keeper. All things are surrounded by other things. And He encompasses them all. He is the One, the Unique, and the Besought. He is not subject to time. He does not tire from creating thins. Whatever He willed, He said: “Be” and it was. He created everything without precedent, without fatigue, and without planning. Anything which makes something makes it out of something. Allah, however, made His Creation out of nothing. Every scholar acquired knowledge after being ignorant while Allah was never ignorant, and never acquired knowledge. He encompassed all things through His Knowledge even before they were created. Hence, His Knowledge did not increase through their creation. After they came into existence, He knew as much about them as He knew before they came into existence. He never created anything to strengthen His Control. He never created anything out of fear of decay or loss. He never created anything to oppose an adversary. He never created anything to match an equal. He never created anything to become the equal of a dominating partner. He never did anything of the like because all of creation is nurtured by Him, and all things that exist are His Humble Slaves and Servants. Glorified be He who never feels weary from creating, and sustaining. And glorified be He who was not prevented from creating more out of inability or laziness. He knew what He created, and created what He knew. Whatever He created was not the result of deliberation or based on new knowledge. Nor does any doubt arise in Him regarding the things He has not created. What He created, and what He did not create, was the result of His Inviolable Decision. His Firm Knowledge, and His Exact Command. He made Himself Unique in His Lordship, and Specific in (His) Oneness. He earmarked glory and praise for Himself, made Himself Peerless in Unity, Grandeur and Sublimity. He remains Matchless in Praise, and Exalted in His Glory. He is far above parenthood. And he is purified and sanctified against the feminine touch (i.e. sexual relations). He is far too Great and too Mighty to seek the proximity of any participant. Thus, nothing He has created can oppose Him. There is no equal to Him in His Possessions, and there is no partner for Him in His Kingdom. He is the One, the Unique, and the Besought of all. He is the Eternal, the Everlasting, and the Lord of Space. He has always been, and always will be. He is Unique in Eternity. He existed before time and will exist after the end of all affairs. He will never come to an end nor be exhausted. This is how I describe my Lord. Thus, there is no god but Allah. He is the Greatest of the Great. Glorified and Exalted be He. He is the Mightiest of the Mighty. He is far, far, above what the unjust claim about Him. And Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Saqar al-Sa`igh also said this sermon that Muhammad ibn al- `Abbas ibn Bassam said: Abu Zayd Sa`id ibn Muhammad al-Basri related to me that `Umrah bint Aws related to me that My grandfather al-Husayn ibn `Abd al-Rahman related to me on the authority of his father, on the authority of Abu `Ad Allah Ja’’far ibn Muhammad (AS), on the authority of his father on the authority of his grandfather (AS) that the Commander of the Faithful (AS) addressed this sermon when he roused the people to the war with Mu`awiyah for the second time.




4 - حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد رضي الله عنه، قال: حدثنا محمد ابن الحسن الصفار، وسعد بن عبد الله جميعا، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، والهيثم بن أبي مسروق النهدي، ومحمد بن الحسين بن أبي الخطاب كلهم، عن الحسن بن محبوب، عن عمرو بن أبي المقدام، عن إسحاق بن غالب، عن أبي عبد الله، عن أبيه عليهما السلام، قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله في بعض خطبه: الحمد لله الذي كان في أوليته وحدانيا، وفي أزليته متعظما بالإلهية، متكبرا بكبريائه وجبروته ابتدأ ما ابتدع، وأنشأ ما خلق على غير مثال كان سبق بشئ مما خلق، ربنا القديم بلط ف ربوبيته وبعلم خبره فتق وبإحكام قدرته خلق جميع ما خلق، وبنور الاصباح فلق، فلا مبدل لخلقه، ولا مغير لصنعه، ولا معقب لحكمه، ولا راد لأمره، ولا مستراح عن دعوته ولا زوال لملكه، ولا انقطاع لمدته، وهو الكينون أولا والديموم أبدا، المحتجب بنوره دون خلقه في الأفق الطامح، والعز الشامخ والملك الباذخ، فوق كل شئ علا، و من كل شئ دنا، فتجلى لخلقه من غير أن يكون يرى. وهو بالمنظر الأعلى، فأحب الاختصاص بالتوحيد إذ احتجب بنوره، وسما في علوه، واستتر عن خلقه، و بعث إليهم الرسل لتكون له الحجة البالغة على خلقه ويكون رسله إليهم شهداء عليهم، وابتعث فيهم النبيين مبشرين ومنذرين ليهلك من هلك عن بينة ويحيى من حي عن بينة، وليعقل العباد عن ربهم ما جهلوه فيعرفوه بربوبيته، بعد ما أنكروا ويوحدوه بالإلهية بعد ما عضدوا .


4. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Walid (may Allah be pleased with him) said: Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Saffar; and Sa`d ibn `Abd Allah all said on the authority of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Isa; and al-Haytham ibn Abu Masruq al-Nahdi; and Muhammad ibn al-Husayn ibn Abu al-Khattab all of whom on the authority of al-Hasan ibn Mahbub; on the authority of `Umar ibn Abu al-Miqdam; on the authority of Ishaq ibn Ghalib; on the authority of Abu `Abd Allah (AS); on the authority of his father (AS) that The Messenger of Allah (SA) said in some of his sermons: All praise is due to the Allah Who is Unique in His Beginning, and is Greatest in Divinity in His Eternity. He is the Great Absolute with Grandeur and Might. He innovated what He instigated. And He originated what He created without example prior to creating anything. The One without a Beginning raised us through the benevolence of His Lordship. With His knowledge He rendered. Due to the judgment of His Omnipotence He created all of creation. With the light of morning He made the dawn. Therefore, there is no substitute for His Creation, and none can modify what He makes. There is no hastening his Judgement, and no resting from His Call. There is no decline to His Realm, not an interruption to His Time. He is the First Existence, and is Forever Permanent. He is covered by His light, not by His Creation, in the high-aspiring horizon, the lofty might, and the high realm. He is far from everything, yet He is close to everything. Hence, He is Evident to His creation without being seen. He is the Highest Prospect. He liked to be qualified with Oneness so He covered Himself with His own Light. He is Distinctive in His Sublimity, and is Hidden from His Creation. He sent Messengers to His Creation as His Decisive Argument and Witnesses over them. Between the Messengers, He sent Prophets to His Creation, to give glad tidings (to the believers) who would be granted eternal life after having received the Evidence from Allah. He also sent Prophets to His Creation as warners of impeding doom to those who would be destroyed after having received the Evidence (from Allah). He did all of this so that servants may know their Lord. As a result, they recognized His Lordship after having denied it. They professed the Unity of His Divinity as a result of Diving Guidance.




5 - حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد رضي الله عنه، قال: حدثنا محمد بن يحيى العطار، وأحمد بن إدريس جميعا، قالا: حدثنا محمد بن أحمد بن يحيى، عن بعض أصحابنا رفعه، قال: جاء رجل إلى الحسن بن علي عليهما السلام فقال له: يا ابن رسول الله صف لي ربك حتى كأني أنظر إليه، فأطرق الحسن بن علي عليهما السلام مليا، ثم رفع رأسه، فقال: الحمد لله الذي لم يكن له أول معلوم ولا آخر متناه، ولا قبل مدرك، ولا بعد محدود، ولا أمد بحتى ولا شخص فيتجزأ، ولا اختلاف صفة فيتناهى فلا تدرك العقول وأوهامها، ولا الفكر وخطراتها، و لا الألباب وأذهانها صفته فتقول: متى؟ (١) ولا بدئ مما، ولا ظاهر على ما، ولا باطن فيما، ولا تارك فهلا (٢) خلق الخلق فكان بديئا بديعا، ابتدأ ما ابتدع، و ابتدع ما ابتدأ، وفعل ما أراد وأراد ما استزاد، ذلكم الله رب العالمين.


5. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Walid (may Allah be pleased with him) said: Muhammad ibn Yahya al- `Attar, and Ahmad ibn Idris both said: Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Yahya said on the authority of some our scholars hurrying the transmission that A man came to al-Hasan ibn `Ali (AS) and said to him: “O son of the Messenger of Allah! Describe your Lord to me so that I can understand Him better.” Therefore, al-Hasan ibn `Ali (AS) bowed his head in silence for quite a while, before lifting it up and saying: All praise is for Allah, who has no beginning, nor end. He neither has a face through which He may be perceived, nor a back that He may be restricted. He cannot be limited with (the word) `till what,’ nor with an appearance so that He may have parts. He cannot be described with variation so that He may have an extent. He can neither be perceived by intellects and imaginations, nor by thoughts and concepts. Reason and intellect cannot describe Him by means of the questions: `when,’ `from what did He begin,’ `on what’ does He reveal or `in what’ does He conceal? We cannot say `why not’ as He does not shun (His Creation). He created the creations; therefore, He was Original and unprecedented. He originated what He unprecedented and unprecedented what He originated. He did what He intended, and intended what He extended. Such is Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.




6 - حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد رضي الله عنه، قال: حدثنا محمد ابن الحسن الصفار، عن عباد بن سليمان، عن سعد بن سعد، قال: سألت أبا الحسن الرضا عليه السلام عن التوحيد، فقال: هو الذي أنتم عليه (٣).


6. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Walid (may Allah be pleased with him) said: Muhammad ibn al-Husayn al-Saffar said on the authority of Ubbad ibn Sulayman, on the authority of Sa`d ibn Sa`d that I asked Abu al-Hasan (`Ali) al-Rida (AS) about Divine Unity. He responded: “It is what you already follow.”




7 - أبي رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، عن إبراهيم بن هاشم، و يعقوب بن يزيد جميعا، عن ابن فضال، عن ابن بكير، عن زرارة، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام، قال: سمعته يقول في قوله عز وجل: ﴿وله أسلم من في السماوات والأرض طوعا وكرها﴾ قال: هو توحيدهم لله عز وجل.


7. My Father (may Allah have mercy on him) that Sa`d ibn `Abd Allah said on the authority of Ibrahim ibn Hashim; ad Ya`qub ibn Yazid both of them on the authority of Ibn Fuddal, on the authority of Ibn Bukayr, on the authority of Zurarah that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) was asked to interpret the Word of the Mighty and High: And to Him submits whoever is in heavens and the Earth, willingly or unwillingly.1 He said: “They are bound to the belief in the Unity of Allah, the Mighty and High.”




8 - أبي رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسين عن محمد بن سنان، عن إسحاق بن الحارث، عن أبي بصير، قال: أخرج أبو عبد الله عليه السلام حقا، فأخرج منه ورقة، فإذا فيها: سبحان الواحد الذي لا إله غيره، القديم المبدئ الذي لا بدئ له الدائم الذي لا نفاد له، الحي الذي لا يموت، الخالق ما يرى، وما لا يرى، العالم كل شئ بغير تعليم، ذلك الله الذي لا شريك له.


8. My father (may Allah have mercy on him) that Sa`d ibn `Abd Allah said: Muhammad ibn al-Husayn said on the authority of Muhammad ibn Sinan, on the authority of Ishaq ibn alHarith, on the authority of Abu Basir that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) took out a small box and took out from it a piece of paper, which had the following written on it: Praise be to the One! There is no god but He. He is the Eternal, and the Originator without beginning. He is the Eternal, who does not tire. He is the Living, who does not die. He is the Creator of the seen and the unseen. He is the Knower of Everything without being taught. Such is Allah who has no associate.




9 - حدثنا محمد بن القاسم المفسر رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا يوسف بن محمد بن زياد، وعلي بن محمد بن سيار، عن أبويهما، عن الحسن بن علي بن محمد بن علي الرضا، عن أبيه، عن جده عليهم السلام، قال: قام رجل إلى الرضا عليه السلام فقال له: يا ابن رسول الله صف لنا ربك فإن من قبلنا قد اختلفوا علينا، فقال الرضا عليه السلام: إنه من يصف ربه بالقياس لا يزال الدهر في الالتباس، مائلا عن المنهاج ظاعنا في الاعوجاج، ضالا عن السبيل، قائلا غير الجميل، أعرفه بما عرف به نفسه من غير رؤية، وأصفه بما وصف به نفسه من غير صورة، لا يدرك بالحواس، ولا يقاس بالناس، معروف بغير تشبيه، ومتدان في بعده لا بنظير، لا يمثل بخليقته، ولا يجور في قضيته، الخلق إلى ما علم منقادون، وعلى ما سطر في المكنون من كتابه ماضون، ولا يعملون خلاف ما علم منهم، ولا غيره يريدون، فهو قريب غير ملتزق وبعيد غير متقص، يحقق ولا يمثل، ويوحد ولا يبعض، يعرف بالآيات، ويثبت بالعلامات، فلا إله غيره، الكبير المتعال.


9. Muhammad ibn al-Qasim the Commentator (may Allah have mercy on him) said: Yusuf ibn Muhammad ibn Ziyad, and `Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Sayyar said on the authority of their fathers, on the authority of al-Hasan ibn `Ali ibn Muhammad ibn `Ali al-Rida (AS), on the authority of his father (AS), on the authority of his grandfather AS) that A man stood up in the presence of (`Ali) al-Rida (AS) and said to him: “O son of the Messenger of Allah! Describe your Lord for us as there are some people who differ with us.” Hence, al-Rida (AS) said: Verily, he who describes his Lord by analogy is still ambiguous in the world. He is straying from the straight path. He is transient in the deviation (from that which is right). He is lead astray from the way. And he says things that are not proper. I am describing Him the way He described Himself, without relying on images. It is possible to describe Him without recurring to anthropomorphism. He is Close in His Farness, and is without an equivalent. He cannot be compared to His Creation. He does not oppress anyone in His Judgment. The creation is critical of what they know. And they pursue what He has embedded in His Book. He is Aware of everything they do. They do not intend anyone but Him. He is Near, but He is not attached. He is Far, but not cut off. He is Ascertained, ut is not exemplified. He is United, and not divided into parts. He is Known by His Signs, and is proved by His Symbols. Hence, there is no god but He, the Great, and the Most High.




10 - ثم قال عليه السلام: بعد كلام آخر تكلم به: حدثني أبي، عن أبيه، عن جده، عن أبيه عليهم السلام، عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله، أنه قال: ما عرف الله من شبهه بخلقه، ولا وصفه بالعدل من نسب إليه ذنوب عباده. والحديث طويل، أخذنا منه موضع الحاجة، وقد أخرجته بتمامه في تفسير القرآن.


10. He (AS) then said: He spoke another word after this: My father related to me on the authority of father, on the authority of his grandfather, on the authority of his father (AS) that The messenger of Allah (SA) said: “Anyone who attributes Him with the shortcomings of His Servants had done Him an injustice. The Compiler of this book says: The tradition is long. We have taken from it the required passage. I have transmitted al of it in the commentary of the Qur`an.




11 - حدثنا محمد بن موسى بن المتوكل رضي الله عنه، عن محمد بن يحيى العطار عن محمد بن أحمد، عن عبد الله بن محمد، عن علي بن مهزيار، قال: كتب أبو جعفر عليه السلام إلى رجل بخطه وقرأته في دعاء كتب به أن يقول: (يا ذا الذي كان قبل كل شئ، ثم خلق كل شئ، ثم يبقى ويفنى كل شئ، ويا ذا الذي ليس في السماوات العلى ولا في الأرضين السفلى ولا فوقهن ولا بينهن ولا تحتهن إله يعبد غيره) .


11. Muhammad ibn Musa ibn al-Mutawakkil (may Allah be pleased with him) said on the authority of Muhammad ibn Yahya al- `Attar on the authority of Muhammad ibn Ahmad, on the authority of `Abd Allah ibn Muhammad, on the authority of `Ali ibn Mihazyar that Abu Ja`far al-Baqir (AS) wrote a letter to a man in his own handwriting. I read the supplication it contained, and it said: O He Who existed before anything existed! O He Who created everything! O He Who will remain after everything perishes! O He besides Whom there is no god! O He Who is served in the highest of the heaves! O He Who is served in the lowest of the Earths! And O He Who is served between them, and below them!




12 - حدثنا محمد بن علي ماجيلويه رحمه الله، عن عمه محمد بن أبي القاسم، عن أحمد بن أبي عبد الله البرقي، عن محمد بن عيسى اليقطيني، عن سليمان بن راشد. عن أبيه، عن المفضل بن عمر، قال: سمعت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام يقول: الحمد لله الذي لم يلد فيورث، ولم يولد فيشارك.


12. Muhammad ibn `Ali Majilwayh (may Allah have mercy on him) said on the authority of his paternal uncle Muhammad ibn Abul al-Qasin, on the authority of Ahmad ibn Abu `Abd Allah al-Barqi, on the authority of Muhammad ibn `Isa al-Yaqtini, on the authority of Sulayman ibn Rashid, on the authority of his father, on the authority of al-Mufaddal ibn `Umar that I heard Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) say “Praise be Allah who begets not so He may be inherited, nor is He begotten so He may be associated.”




13 - حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله الكوفي قال: حدثنا محمد بن إسماعيل البرمكي، قال: حدثني علي بن العباس، قال: حدثني إسماعيل بن مهران الكوفي، عن إسماعيل بن إسحاق الجهني، عن فرج بن فروة، عن مسعدة بن صدقة، قال: سمعت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام يقول: بينما أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام يخطب على المنبر بالكوفة إذ قام إليه رجل فقال: يا أمير المؤمنين صف لنا ربك تبارك وتعالى لنزداد له حبا وبه معرفة، فغضب أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام، ونادى الصلاة جامعة فاجتمع الناس حتى غص المسجد بأهله، ثم قام متغير اللون فقال: الحمد لله الذي لا يفره المنع، ولا يكديه الاعطاء إذ كل معط منتقص سواه، الملئ بفوائد النعم وعوائد المزيد، وبجوده ضمن عيالة الخلق، فأنهج سبيل الطلب للراغبين إليه، فليس بما سئل أجود منه بما لم يسأل، وما اختلف عليه دهر فيختلف منه الحال، ولو وهب ما تنفست عنه معادن الجبال وضحكت عنه أصداف البحار من فلذ اللجين وسبائك العقيان ونضائد المرجان لبعض عبيده، لما أثر ذلك في وجوده ولا أنفد سعة ما عنده، ولكان عنده من ذخائر الافضال ما لا ينفذه مطالب السؤال ولا يخطر لكثرته على بال، لأنه الجواد الذي لا تنقصه المواهب، ولا ينحله إلحاح الملحين (وإنما أمره إذا أراد شيئا أن يقول له كن فيكون) الذي عجزت الملائكة على قربهم من كرسي كرامته، وطول ولههم إليه وتعظيم جلال عزه، وقربهم من غيب ملكوته أن يعلموا من أمره إلا ما أعلمهم، وهم من ملكوت القدس بحيث هم من معرفته على ما فطرهم عليه أن قالوا: (سبحانك لا علم لنا إلا ما علمتنا إنك أنت العليم الحكيم) . فما ظنك أيها السائل بمن هو هكذا، سبحانه وبحمده، لم يحدث فيمكن فيه التغير والانتقال، ولم يتصرف في ذاته بكرور الأحوال ولم يختلف عليه حقب الليالي والأيام الذي ابتدع الخلق على غير مثال امتثله ولا مقدار احتذى عليه من معبود كان قبله ولم تحط به الصفات فيكون بإدراكها إياه بالحدود متناهيا، وما زال - ليس كمثله شئ - عن صفة المخلوقين متعاليا وانحسرت الأبصار عن أن تناله فيكون بالعيان موصوفا وبالذات التي لا يعلمها إلا هو عند خلقه معروفا، وفات لعلوه على أعلى الأشياء مواقع رجم المتوهمين وارتفع عن أن تحوي كنه عظمته فهاهة رويات المتفكرين، فليس له مثل فيكون ما يخلق مشبها به وما زال عند أهل المعرفة به عن الأشباه والأضداد منزها، كذب العادلون بالله إذ شبهوه بمثل أصنافهم وحلوه حلية المخلوقين بأوهامهم، وجزوه بتقدير منتج خواطرهم وقدروه على الخلق المختلفة القوى بقرائح عقولهم وكيف يكون من لا يقدر قدره مقدرا في رويات الأوهام، وقد ضلت في إدراك كنهه هواجس الأحلام لأنه أجل من أن يحده ألباب البشر بالتفكير، أو يحيط به الملائكة على قربهم من ملكوت عزته بتقدير، تعالى عن أن يكون له كفو فيشبه به لأنه اللطيف الذي إذا أرادت الأوهام أن تقع عليه في عميقات غيوب ملكه، وحاولت الفكر المبرأة من خطر الوسواس إدراك علم ذاته وتولهت القلوب إليه لتحوي منه مكيفا في صفاته وغمضت مداخل العقول من حيث لا تبلغه الصفات لتنال علم إلهيته ردعت خاسئة وهي تجوب مهاوي سدف الغيوب متخلصة إليه سبحانه، رجعت إذ جبهت معترفة بأنه لا ينال بجوب الاعتساف كنه معرفته ولا يخطر ببال أولي الرويات خاطرة من تقدير جلال عزته لبعده من أن يكون في قوى المحدودين لأنه خلاف خلقه، فلا شبه له من المخلوقين وإنما يشبه الشئ بعديله، فأما ما لا عديل له فكيف يشبه بغير مثاله، وهو البدئ الذي لم يكن شئ قبله، والآخر الذي ليس شئ بعده، لا تناله الأبصار من مجد جبروته إذ حجبها بحجب لا تنفذ في ثخن كثافته ولا تخرق إلى ذي العرش متانة خصائص ستراته الذي صدرت الأمور عن مشيته، وتصاغرت عزة المتجبرين دون جلال عظمته، وخضعت له الرقاب، وعنت الوجوه من مخافته وظهرت في بدائع الذي أحدثها آثار حكمته وصار كل شئ خلق حجة له ومنتسبا إليه فإن كان خلقا صامتها فحجته بالتدبير ناطقة فيه، فقدر ما خلق، فأحكم تقديره، ووضع كل شئ بلطف تدبيره موضعه، ووجهه بجهة فلم يبلغ منه شئ حدود منزلته ولم يقصر دون الانتهاء إلى مشيته، ولم يستعصب إذ أمره بالمضي إلى أرادته، بلا معاناة للغوب مسه ولا مكائدة لمخالف له على أمره فتم خلقه، وأذعن لطاعته، ووافى الوقت الذي أخرجه إليه إجابة لم يعترض دونها ريث المبطئ ولا أناة المتلكئ فأقام من الأشياء أودها (١) ونهى معالم حدودها، ولأم بقدرته بين متضادتها (٢) ووصل أسباب قرائنها (٣) وخالف بين ألوانها، وفرقها أجناسا مختلفات في الأقدار والغرائز والهيئات، بدايا خلائق أحكم صنعها، وفطرها على ما أراد إذ ابتدعها، انتظم علمه صنوف ذرئها، وأدرك تدبيره حسن تقديرها. أيها السائل إعلم من شبه ربنا الجليل بتباين أعضاء خلقه وبتلاحم أحقاق مفاصلهم المحتجبة بتدبير حكمته أنه لم يعقد غيب ضميره على معرفته (٤) ولم يشاهد قلبه اليقين بأنه لا ند له، وكأنه لم يسمع بتبري التابعين من المتبوعين وهم يقولون: ﴿تالله أن كنا لفي ضلال مبين إذ نسويكم برب العالمين﴾ فمن ساوى ربنا بشئ فقد عدل به، والعادل به كافر بما نزلت به محكمات آياته، ونطقت به شواهد حجج بيناته، لأنه الله الذي لم يتناه في العقول فيكون في مهب فكرها مكيفا، وفي حواصل رويات همم النفوس محدودا مصرفا المنشئ أصناف الأشياء بلا روية احتاج إليها، ولا قريحة غريزة أضمر عليها، ولا تجربة أفادها من مر حوادث الدهور (١) ولا شريك أعانه على ابتداع عجائب الأمور، الذي لما شبهه العادلون بالخلق المبعض المحدود في صفاته، ذي الأقطار والنواحي المختلفة فطبقاته، و كان عز وجل الموجود بنفسه لا بأداته، انتفى أن يكون قدروه حق قدره (٢) فقال تنزيها لنفسه عن مشاركة الأنداد وارتفاعا عن قياس المقدرين له بالحدود من كفرة العباد: ﴿وما قدروا الله حق قدره والأرض جميعا قبضته يوم القيمة والسماوات مطويات بيمينه سبحانه وتعالى عما يشركون﴾ ما دلك القرآن عليه من صفته فاتبعه ليوصل بينك وبين معرفته وأتم به واستضئ بنور هدايته، فإنها نعمة وحكمة أوتيتهما فخذ ما أوتيت وكن من الشاكرين، وما دلك الشيطان عليه مما ليس في القرآن عليك فرضه ولا في سنة الرسول وأئمة الهدى أثره فكل علمه إلى الله عز وجل، فإن ذلك منتهى حق الله عليك. واعلم أن الراسخين في العلم هم الذين أغناهم الله عن الاقتحام في السدد المضروبة دون الغيوب فلزموا الاقرار بجملة ما جهلوا تفسيره من الغيب المحجوب فقالوا: (آمنا به كل من عند ربنا) فمدح الله عز وجل اعترافهم بالعجز عن تناول ما لم يحيطوا به علما، وسمى تركهم التعمق في ما لم يكلفهم البحث عنه منهم رسوخا، فاقتصر على ذلك، ولا تقدر عظمة الله (سبحانه) على قدر عقلك فتكون من الهالكين.


13. `Ali Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al-Daqqaq (may Allah have mercy on him) said: Muhammad ibn Abu `Abd Allah al-Kufi said: Muhammad ibn Ismai`il al-Barmaki said: `Ali ibn al- `Abbas related to me that Isma`il ibn Mihran al-Kufi related to me on the authority of Isma`il ibn Ishaq al-Juhani, on the authority of Faraj ibn Farwah, on the authority of Mas`adah ibn Sadaqah, on the authority of Abu `Abd Allah that While the Commander of the Faithful (AS) was preaching from his pulpit in (the Mosque of) al-Kufah, a man stood up and said: “O Commander of the Faithful! Describe for us your Lord, Blessed and Exalted be He, so that we can increase our love and understanding of Him.” Hence, the Commander of the Faithful (AS) became angry, and called all to attend. Thus, the people gathered until the mosque was packed. Then he stood up, with his face flushed, and addressed the congregation as such: All praise be to Allah for Whom refusal to give does not enrich, and for Whom munificence does not make poor! All who give lose, expect He. He is full of beneficial bounties and plentiful gifts. All of creation depends on His Generosity for their sustenance. He has prepared the way for those who seek Him. He is as Generous when He is asked, as He is when He is not asked. Time does not affect Him as this would imply that He is subject to change. His Essence would not be affected, and His Wealth would not be diminished, even if He gave away all of the silver and all of the gold found in the mines in the mountains, and all of the pearls which the shells of the ocean produce for His Servants. His Wealth would remain great and unaffected, even if He answered the demands of every beggar because He is the Most Generous. Giving does not decrease His Wealth, not do the request of His Supplicants make Him miserly. His Command, when He intends anything, is only to say to it: Be, so it is.1 The Angels are incapable of approaching the nobility of His Throne. They are confused when they attempt to understand Him and the greatness of His Might and Majesty. Although they are close to His Realm, they know nothing about His Affair except what He informs them. They are so close to the sanctity of His Realm, that they recognize the limitations with which they were created saying: Glory be to Thee! We have no knowledge but that which Thou hast taught us; surely Thou art the Knowing, the Wise. Then what is your opinion, O questioner, about the One I have described in such terms? Praise and glory be to Him. He has no beginning, and is not subject to change. His Essence does not change states. Long stretches of day and night have no affect on Him. He originated the creation without any example which He could follow, and without any specimen prepared by any deity that was before Him. Attributes do no encompass Him so that we can comprehend Him, much less comprehend Him by means of limitations. He is Still. There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him. Exalted is He from the attributes of the created. Eyes cannot perceive Him so that He may be described by sight. His Essence is only known to Himself and cannot be recognized by His Creation. His Greatness surpasses the greatest conjectures of the most imaginative. He is Higher than anything that could be conceived by the feeble minds who seek to understand His Inner Greatness. He does not have a likeness. Nothing He creates is similar to Him. To the ones that recognize Him, He is above compeers and opponents. The ones who give partners to Allah are liars as they compare Him to their own kind. They embellish Him through their imaginations with the ornaments of creation. They divided Him in parts through speculation. They use their intellects to assess Him on the basis of creation, giving Him different strengths. How can this be done when it is impossible for the intellect to measure His Extent? Misleading dreams have gone astray in perceiving His Essence; because He is higher than the limits of human reasoning. Even the Angels, who are close to His Realm of Glory, cannot encompass Him. Exalted is He from having a parallel with which He may be resembled. He is the Subtle [al-Latif]. He prevents the imagination from finding Him in the depth of His Realm. He prevents the minds which are free from evil thoughts from comprehending His Being. He prevents the hearts who long to embrace His Attributes from going beyond description, and securing knowledge of His Divinity. He turns back those who cross the dark pitfalls of the unknown in their search for Him. Glorified be He! All those who seek to comprehend him return defeated, admitting that His Knowledge cannot be understood through such random efforts. They admit that not an iota of His Honor can enter the intellect of the greatest thinkers. They admit that He is far from the most powerful strengths of limited beings because He is other than His Creation. Therefore, He has no peer in His Creation. Verily, things are compared to their equal. However, if something has no equal, how can it be compared with something which is completely different from it? He is the Originator who had nothing before Him, and He is the Last who has nothing after Him. Eyes cannot perceive Him due to the magnificence of His Power. Eyes are concealed with veils, and cannot penetrate their density. Eyes cannot penetrate the Veils of the Possessor of the Throne, and they cannot reach the One who Governs Everything through His Will. The pride of all tyrants cringes except the Majesty of His Greatness. All slaves surrender to Him, and all faces fear His Wrath. The signs of His Wisdom are apparent from everything He has created. Everything He created is His Proof, and is linked to Him. It is a silent creation, it is His Proof that speaks through planning. He has fixed limits for everything He has created and has set everything firm. He has put everything in its place through the gracefulness of His Planning. He has fixed the direction for everything. Nothing surpasses or falls shorts of the position He has willed. Nothing disobeys His Command to move, when He intends it to move. He does so without effort, and without challenge to His Order. Thus was completed the creation, and it bowed in obedience to Him. It was time for His creation to respond to Him. The laziness of any slug or the inertness of any excusefinder did not prevent them from doing so. So He straightened the curves of things, and completed the traces of their limits. With His Power He created coherence n their contradictory parts, and joined together the factors of similarity. Then He distinguished their colors, and separated them in varieties which differ in quantities, properties, and shapes. All of this was a new creation. He made them firm, shaped them as He intended, and invented them. Through His Knowledge He organized everything into species. His Planning perceives the splendor of its destiny. O questioner! Know that he who describes our Sublime Lord by means of limbs and extremities knows nothing about His Nature. Verily, his heart did not profess with certainty that He is devoid of partners. It is as though he has not heard people renouncing their false gods by saying: By Allah! We were certainly in manifest error, when we made you equal to the Lord of the worlds.1 Whoever equates our Lord with anything has given Him a partner. Whoever gives Him a partner is an unbeliever as is stated in His Unambiguous verses, and as is indicated by His Clear Arguments. This is because Allah cannot be conceived by the limits of human intelligence. If He could be, He would be subject to change. Nor can Allah be conceived by means of intellectual efforts. If He could be, he would be limited, and an object subject t alteration. He is the Producer [al-Munshi’] who created everything without a need for imagination, without the urge of a hidden impulse, without any past experiment, and without the assistance of any partner who may have helped Him in creating wonderful things. Those who compare Him to His Creation divided Him into parts: some are limited, some vary in size, and others fall into different categories. He, the Mighty and High, Exists on His Own Accord, and is not dependent. People have not honored Him with the honor that He deserves. In order to demonstrate that He cannot be compared to His Creation, that He has no equals, and that He is far above the analogies of the unbelievers who give him limitations, He said: Any they have not honored Allah with the honor that is due to Him; and the whole Earth shall be in His grip on the Day of Resurrection and heavens rolled up in His right hand; glory be to Him, and may He be exalted above what they associate (with Him).2 When describing Allah, limit your selves to the Divine Attributes which the Qur`an has provided, and seek light from the effulgence of its guidance. Leave to Allah that knowledge which Satan has prompted you to seek, and which neither the Qur`an enjoins you to seek, nor is there any trace of it in the actions or sayings of the Prophet and other Imams of Guidance. This is the extreme limit of Allah’s claim upon you. Know that those who are firm in knowledge refrain from opening through the veils of the unseen. The firm in knowledge, acknowledge their ignorance, and refuse to seek justification for their belief by means of the unseen. Hence, they say: We believe in it, it is all from our Lord.3 Allah, the Mighty and High praises them for admitting that they cannot obtain forbidden knowledge. They do not engage in deep discussions regarding the knowledge which is hidden from them and remain firm in their faith. Be content with this, and do not limit the Greatness of Allah on the basis of the limits of your own intelligence; otherwise, you will be destroyed.




14 - حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله الكوفي، قال: حدثنا محمد بن إسماعيل البرمكي، قال: حدثني علي بن العباس، قال: حدثني جعفر بن محمد الأشعري، عن فتح بن يزيد الجرجاني، قال: كتبت إلى أبي الحسن الرضا عليه السلام أسأله عن شئ من التوحيد فكتب إلي بخطه - قال جعفر: وإن فتحا أخرج إلى الكتاب فقرأته بخط أبي - الحسن عليه السلام: بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم الحمد لله الملهم عباده الحمد، وفاطرهم على معرفة ربوبيته، الدال على وجوده بخلقه، وبحدوث خلقه على أزله، وبأشباههم على أن لا شبه له، المستشهد آياته على قدرته، الممتنع من الصفات ذاته ومن الأبصار رؤيته، ومن الأوهام الإحاطة به لا أمد لكونه ولا غاية لبقائه لا يشمله المشاعر و لا يحجبه الحجاب فالحجاب بينه وبين خلقه لامتناعه مما يمكن في ذواتهم ولا مكان ذواتهم مما يمتنع منه ذاته، ولافتراق الصانع والمصنوع والرب والمربوب، والحاد والمحدود، أحد لا بتأويل عدد، الخالق لا بمعنى حركة السميع لا بأداة، البصير لا بتفريق آلة، الشاهد لا بمماسة، البائن لا ببراح مسافة الباطن لابا جتنان، الظاهر لا بمحاذ، الذي قد حسرت دون كنهه نواقد الأبصار وامتنع وجوده جوائل الأوهام . أول الديانة معرفته، وكمال المعرفة توحيده، وكمال التوحيد نفي الصفات عنه، لشهادة كل صفة أنها غير الموصوف، وشهادة الموصوف أنه غير الصفة، و شهادتهما جميعا على أنفسهما بالبينة الممتنع منها الأزل فمن وصف الله فقد حده ومن حده فقد عده، ومن عده فقد أبطل أزله، ومن قال: كيف فقد استوصفه، و من قال: على م فقد حمله، ومن قال: أين فقد أخلى منه، ومن قال: إلى م فقد وقته، عالم إذ لا معلوم، وخالق إذ لا مخلوق، ورب إذ لا مربوب، وإله إذ لا مألوه وكذلك يوصف ربنا، وهو فوق ما يصفه الواصفون.


14. `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al-Daqqaq (may Allah have mercy on him) said: Muhammad ibn Abu `Abd Allah al-Kufi said: Muhammad ibn Isma`il al-Barmaki said: `Ali ibn al- `Abbas related to me that Ja`far ibn Muhammad al-Ash`ari related to me, on the authority of Fath ibn Yazid al-Jurjani that I wrote to Abu Al-Hasan (`Ali) al-Rida (AS) asking him about Divine Unity. Therefore, he replied to me in his own writing. Ja`far says: Verily, Fath took out the letter for me so I read it myself in Abu al-Hasan’s (AS) writing: In the name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful. All praise be to Allah, who gave human beings a natural predisposition to recognize their Lord and to praise Him. Allah guides humankind towards Himself through His Creation, and who proves that He is Eternal by bringing creatures into existence. He has made them resemble each other to prove that there is nothing that resembles Him. He has made His Signs as witnesses to His Might. His Essence is independent from His Attributes. Eyes are prevented from seeing Him. Imagination is incapable of encompassing Him. There is no duration for His Being, nor is there any limit for His Continuation. Human senses do not encompass Him. No screen (of non-understandability) can conceive Him. The only screen between the Creator and the created is creation itself. The reason why the created have been screened from the Creator is to prevent the created from conceiving of their Creator in terms which are unworthy. This is because the adjectives which apply to the created are not suitable for the Creator. The other reason (that Allah cannot be understood) is that there is a world of difference between the Creator and the created, the Sustainer and the sustained (the Ruler and the ruled), and the Confiner and the confined. He is One, but not in a numerical sense. He is the Creator, but not in the sense of movement or action. He is the All-Hearing, but not through any auditory organ. And He is the All-Seeing, but not by visual means. He is a Witness, but without mutual contact. He is Manifest, but not in the sense of being distant. He is Hidden, but not in the sense of being behind a curtain. He is Apparent, but not in the sense of being in front of anything. Penetrating eyes have called miserable trying to perceive the truth about Him. His Existence dwarfs and cripples the imagination (in its attempt to grasp Him). The first step in accepting faith is acknowledging the existence of Allah. And the most perfect way of acknowledging Him lies in recognizing His Unity. And the peak of His Unity lies in negating that His Attributes are part of His Essence, since attributes are separate from the entity they describe in the same way that the entity is independent of and separate from the attributes which describe it. If united, the entity and its attributes produce plurality (as opposed to unity). Plurality nullifies eternity. Hence, whoever ascribes attributes to Allah has actually measure Him. And whoever measures Him has actually nullified His Eternity. Whoever asks how He is, seeks to describe and explain Him. Whoever asks what He is, actually induces Him. Whoever asks where He is, actually vacates Him (from other places). Whoever asks how long He will exist, actually confines Him (to a limited time). He was the Knower before there was anything to know. He was the Creator when there was no creation. He was the Lord when there was nothing over which to rule. He was the One God when there was nothing to serve. Such is a description of our Lord. And He is far above what the narrators have said about Him.




15 - حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله الكوفي، قال: حدثنا محمد بن إسماعيل البرمكي، قال حدثنا علي بن العباس، قال: حدثنا الحسن بن محبوب، عن حماد بن عمرو النصيبي، قال: سألت جعفر بن محمد عليهما السلام عن التوحيد، فقال: واحد، صمد، أزلي، صمدي لا ظل له يمسكه، وهو يمسك الأشياء بأظلتها عارف بالمجهول، معروف عند كل جاهل فرداني، لا خلقه فيه ولا هو في خلقه، غير محسوس ولا مجسوس ولا تدركه الأبصار، علا فقرب، ودنا فبعد، وعصى فغفر، وأطيع فشكر، لا تحويه أرضه، ولا تقله سماواته، وإنه حامل الأشياء بقدرته، ديمومي، أزلي، لا ينسى، ولا يلهو ولا يغلط، ولا يلعب، ولا لإرادته فصل وفصله جزاء، و أمره واقع، لم يلد فيورث، ولم يولد فيشارك، ولم يكن له كفوا أحد.


15. `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al-Daqqaq (May Allah have mercy on him) said: Muhammad ibn Abu `Abd Allah al-Kufi said: Muhammad ibn Isma`il al-Barmake said: `Ali ibn al- `Abbas said: al-Hasan ibn Mahbub said on the authority of Hammad ibn `Amr alNasibi that: I asked Ja`far ibn Muhammad (AS) regarding Diving Unity; hence, he said: He is the One, the Needless, the Eternal, and the Independent. He has no protection to which He may adhere, But he is the Protector of All things. He is the Knower of the unknown. He is known (even) to the ignorant. He is related to uniqueness. His Creation is not in Him, nor is He in His Creation. He is not sensed nor felt, and eyes cannot perceive Him. He is Elevated, yet He is Near. He is close, yet He is far. He is disobeyed, yet He forgives. He is obeyed, so He rewards. The Earth does not encompass Him. His Heavens do not carry Him. Verily, He carries all things by means of His Omnipotence. He is related to perpetuity and eternity. He does not forget nor waste time. He does not make mistakes or play. There is no separation for His Intent. His Judgment is His Reward, and His Command is accomplished. He does not beget to be inherited, not is He begotten to have an associate. And there is none like unto Him.




16 - وبهذا الإسناد، عن علي بن العباس، قال: حدثنا يزيد بن عبد الله عن الحسين بن سعيد الخزاز، عن رجاله، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام، قال: الله غاية من غياه، والمغيى، غير الغاية، توحد بالربوبية، ووصف نفسه بغير محدودية، فالذاكر الله غير الله، والله غير أسمائه وكل شئ وقع عليه اسم شئ سواه فهو مخلوق (١) ألا ترى قوله: (العزة لله، العظمة لله)، وقال: ﴿ولله الأسماء الحسنى فادعوه بها﴾ (٢) وقال: ﴿قل ادعوا الله أو ادعوا الرحمن أياما تدعوا فله الأسماء الحسنى﴾ فالأسماء مضافة إليه، وهو التوحيد الخالص .


16. With the same chain of narration on the authority of `Ali ibn al- `Abbas that Yazid ibn `Abd Allah said on the authority of al-Husayn ibn Sa`id al-Khazzaz, on the authority of the ones he relates from, that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) said: Allah is the Goal of those who seek to reach him, and the seeker differs from the Goal. He is United in His Lordship. He described Himself as Limitless. Hence, the one remembering Allah is other than Allah. And Allah is other than His Names. Every identifier differs from the identified, and is thus a creation. Do you not see what His Word says: the might belongs to Allah, the reverence belongs to Allah, and He said: And Allah’s are the best names; therefore, call on Him thereby.1 And He said: Say: Call upon Allah or call upon, the Most Compassionate Allah; whichever you call upon, He has the best names.2 Therefore, the names of Allah are subjoined to Him, and this is the purest expression of Divine Unity.




17 - حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله الكوفي أبو الحسين ، قال: حدثني موسى بن عمران، عن الحسين ابن يزيد، عن إبراهيم بن الحكم بن ظهير، عن عبد الله بن جرير العبدي، عن جعفر بن محمد عليهما السلام أنه كان يقول: الحمد لله الذي لا يحس، ولا يجس، ولا يمس لا يدرك بالحواس الخمس، ولا يقع عليه الوهم، ولا تصفه الألسن، فكل شئ حسته الحواس أو جسته الجواس أو لمسته الأيدي فهو مخلوق، والله هو العلي حيث ما يبتغى يوجد، والحمد لله الذي كان قبل أن يكون كان لم يوجد لوصفه كان بل كان أولا كائنا لم يكونه مكون، جل ثناؤه، بل كون الأشياء قبل كونها فكانت كما كونها، علم ما كان وما هو كائن، كان إذ لم يكن شئ ولم ينطق فيه ناطق فكان إذ لا كان.


17. `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al-Daqqaq (may Allah have mercy on him) said: Muhammad ibn Abu `Abd Allah al-Kufi Abu al-Husayn said: Musa ibn `Imran related to me on the authority of al-Husayn ibn Yazid, on the authority of Ibrahim ibn al-Hakam ibn Zuhayr, on the authority of `Abd Allah ibn Jarir al- `Abdi that All praise is for Allah who is neither sense, nor felt, nor touched, and who cannot be perceived with the five senses. He cannot be imagined. He cannot be described by tongues. Everything that can be sensed is created. And Allah is the Most High. Wherever He is searched He is found. All praise is for Allah who was before the ward `was’ (was created). The word `was’ was not there to describe Him. In fact, He was the First Being. No creator has made Him. Exalted be His Praise! Rather, He created things before they existed; therefore, they were as He made them. He knows what has existed, and what will exist. He was there when nothing was there, and when nothing could be heard. Thus, He existed when there was no existence.




18 - حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله الكوفي، قال: حدثنا محمد بن إسماعيل البرمكي، قال: حدثنا الحسين بن الحسن بن بردة ، قال: حدثني العباس بن عمرو الفقيمي، عن أبي القاسم إبراهيم بن محمد العلوي، عن الفتح بن يزيد الجرجاني، قال: لقيته عليه السلام على الطريق عند منصرفي من مكة إلى خراسان وهو سائر إلى العراق فسمعته يقول: من اتقى الله يتقى، ومن أطاع الله يطاع. فتلطفت في الوصول إليه فوصلت فسلمت فرد علي السلام ثم قال: يا فتح من أرضى الخالق لم يبال بسخط المخلوق، ومن أسخط الخالق فقمن أن يسلط عليه سخط المخلوق، وإن الخالق لا يوصف إلا بما وصف به نفسه وأنى يوصف الذي تعجز الحواس أن تدركه، والأوهام أن تناله، والخطرات أن تحده، والأبصار عن الإحاطة به؟ جل عما وصفه الواصفون، وتعالى عما ينعته الناعتون، نأى في قربه، وقرب في نأيه، فهو في بعده قريب، وفي قربه بعيد، كيف الكيف فلا يقال له: كيف وأين الأين فلا يقال له أين، إذ هو مبدع الكيفوفية والأينونية يا فتح كل جسم مغذي بغذاء إلا الخالق الرزاق، فإنه جسم الأجسام، وهو ليس بجسم ولا صورة، لم يتجزأ، ولم يتناه، ولم يتزايد، ولم يتناقص، مبرء من ذات ما ركب في ذات من جسمه وهو اللطيف الخبير السميع البصير الواحد الأحد الصمد، لم يلد ولم يولد، ولم يكن له كفوا أحد، منشئ الأشياء ومجسم الأجسام، و مصور الصور، لو كان كما يقول المشبهة لم يعرف الخالق من المخلوق، ولا الرازق من المرزوق، ولا المنشئ من المنشأ لكنه المنشئ، فرق بين من جسمه وصوره و شيئه وبينه إذ كان لا يشبهه شئ. قلت: فالله واحد والإنسان واحد، فليس قد تشابهت الوحدانية؟ فقال: أحلت ثبتك الله إنما التشبيه في المعاني فأما في الأسماء فهي واحدة وهي دلالة على المسمى وذلك أن الإنسان وإن قيل واحد فإنه يخبر أنه جثة واحدة وليس باثنين، والإنسان نفسه ليس بواحد، لأن أعضاءه مختلفة، وألوانه مختلفة غير واحدة، وهو أجزاء مجزأة ليس سواء دمه غير لحمه، ولحمه غير دمه، وعصبه غير عروقه، وشعره غير بشره. وسواده غير بياضه، وكذلك سائر جميع الخلق، فالإنسان واحد في الاسم، لا واحد في المعنى والله جل جلاله واحد لا واحد غيره، ولا اختلاف فيه، ولا تفاوت، ولا زيادة، ولا نقصان، فأما الإنسان المخلوق المصنوع المؤلف فمن أجزاء مختلفة وجواهر شتى غير أنه بالاجتماع شئ واحد. قلت: فقولك: اللطيف فسره لي، فإني أعلم أن لطفه خلاف لطف غيره للفصل، غير أني أحب أن تشرح لي، فقال: يا فتح إنما قلت: اللطيف للخلق اللطيف ولعلمه بالشئ اللطيف، ألا ترى إلى أثر صنعه في النبات اللطيف وغير اللطيف، وفي الخلق اللطيف من أجسام الحيوان من الجرجس والبعوض وما هو أصغر منهما مما لا يكاد تستبينه العيون، بل لا يكاد يستبان لصغره الذكر من الأنثى، والمولود من القديم، فلما رأينا صغر ذلك في لطفه واهتدائه للسفاد والهرب من الموت والجمع لما يصلحه بما في لجج البحار (١) وما في لحاء الأشجار والمفاوز والقفار و إفهام بعضها عن بعض منطقها (٢) وما تفهم به أولادها عنها، ونقلها الغذاء إليها، ثم تأليف ألوانها حمرة مع صفرة وبياض مع حمرة علمنا أن خالق هذا الخلق لطيف، وأن كل صانع شئ فمن شئ صنع (٣) والله الخالق اللطيف الجليل خلق وصنع لا من شئ. قلت: جعلت فداك وغير الخالق الجليل خالق؟ قال: إن الله تبارك وتعالى يقول: ﴿تبارك الله أحسن الخالقين﴾ فقد أخبر أن في عباده خالقين منهم عيسى ابن مريم، خلق من الطين كهيئة الطير بإذن الله فنفخ فيه فصار طائرا بإذن الله، والسامري خلق لهم عجلا جسدا له خوار، قلت: إن عيسى خلق من الطين طيرا دليلا على نبوته، والسامري خلق عجلا جسدا لنقض نبوة موسى عليه السلام، وشاء الله أن يكون ذلك كذلك؟ إن هذا لهو العجب، فقال: ويحك يا فتح إن لله إرادتين ومشيتين إرادة حتم وإرادة عزم ينهى وهو يشاء، ويأمر وهو لا يشاء، أوما رأيت أنه نهى آدم وزوجته عن أن يأكلا من الشجرة وهو شاء ذلك، ولو لم يشأ لم يأكلا ولو أكلا لغلبت مشيتهما مشية الله وأمر إبراهيم بذبح ابنه إسماعيل عليهما السلام، و شاء أن لا يذبحه، ولو لم يشأ أن لا يذبحه لغلبت مشية إبراهيم مشيئة الله عز وجل قلت: فرجت عني فرج الله عنك، غير أنك قلت: السميع البصير، سميع بالأذن وبصير بالعين؟ فقال: إنه يسمع بما يبصر، ويرى بما يسمع، بصير لا بعين مثل عين المخلوقين، وسميع لا بمثل سمع السامعين، لكن لما لم يخف عليه خافية من أثر الذرة السوداء على الصخرة الصماء في الليلة الظلماء تحت الثرى والبحار قلنا: بصير، لا بمثل عين المخلوقين، ولما لم يشتبه عليه ضروب اللغات ولم يشغله سمع عن سمع قلنا: سميع، لا مثل سمع السامعين. قلت: جعلت فداك قد بقيت مسألة، قال: هات لله أبوك. قلت: يعلم القديم الشئ الذي لم يكن أن لو كان كيف كان يكون؟ (١) قال: ويحك إن مسائلك لصعبة، أما سمعت الله يقول: ﴿لو كان فيهما آلهة إلا الله لفسدتا﴾ (٢) وقوله: ﴿ولعلا بعضهم على بعض﴾ (٣) وقال يحكي قول أهل النار: ﴿أخرجنا نعمل صالحا غير الذي كنا نعمل﴾ (٤) وقال: ﴿ولو ردوا لعادوا لما نهوا عنه﴾ فقد علم الشئ الذي لم يكن أن لو كان كيف كان يكون. فقمت لا قبل يده ورجله، فأدنى رأسه فقبلت وجهه ورأسه، وخرجت و بي من السرور والفرح ما أعجز عن وصفه لما تبينت من الخير والحظ. قال مصنف هذا الكتاب رضي الله عنه: إن الله تبارك وتعالى نهى آدم وزوجته عن أن يأكلا من الشجرة، وقد علم أنهما يأكلان منها، لكنه عز وجل شاء أن لا يحول بينهما وبين الأكل منها بالجبر والقدرة كما منعهما من الأكل منها بالنهي والزجر، فهذا معنى مشيته فيهما، ولو شاء عز وجل منعهما من الأكل بالجبر ثم أكلا منها لكانت مشيتهما قد غلبت مشيته كما قال العالم عليه السلام، تعالى الله عن العجز علوا كبيرا.


18. `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al-Daqqaq (may Allah have mercy on him) said: Muhammad ibn Abu `Abd Allah al-Kufi said: Muhammad ibn `Isma`il al-Barmaki said: alHusayn ibn al-Hasan ibn Burdah said: al- `Abbas ibn `Amr al-Fuqami said on the authority of Abu al-Qasim Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al- `Alawi, on the authority of al-Fath ibn Yazid alJurjani that I met him (AS) on my return from Mecca to Khurasan and he was going to Iraq. I heard him say that “Whoever fears Allah is feared, and whoever obeys Allah is obeyed.” So I politely went over to him and greeted him. Hence, he (AS) returned my greetings and then added: O Fath, he who pleases the Creator does not consider the displeasure of the creation. And he who displeases the Creator deserves that that displeasure of creation overpowers him. Verily, the Creator can only be described by means of the attributes He has given Himself. And how could He be described when he made the senses incapable of conceiving Him, the concepts incapable of describing Him, and the eyes incapable of perceiving Him? He is far above the attributes of the attributers and the descriptions of the describers. He is distant in His Closeness and close in His Distance. Thus, He is near in His Farness and Far in His Nearness. Since He created conditions, the question `how’ cannot apply to Him. He ionized space; therefore, the question `where’ cannot apply to Him. IN doing so He is the Inventor [Mubdi’] of conditions and space. O Fath! Everybody is nourished with food except the Creator, the Sustainer. Verily, He created bodies, yet He has neither body nor image. He does not have parts, not does He have an end. He does not increase or decrease. He is not composed of any substance that would be found in a body. He is the Subtle, the All-Knowing, the All-Listening, and the All-Hearing. He is the One, the Unique, and the Needless. He begets not, nor is He begotten, and there is nothing equal unto Him. He is the Producer of All things. He gave shape to all bodies and made all images. IF it were as the anthropomorphist say, then the Creator could not be distinguished from the created, the Sustainer from the sustained, or the Originator from the originated. However, He is the Producer. He differs from created bodies, images and things in that He resembles nothing. I asked: “if Allah is One and humankind is one, do they not resemble each other in oneness?” Hence, he (AS) replied: You have said something impossible. May Allah secure you! Verily, the resemblance is limited to meaning. Names are one, and they indicate what is named. When it is said that the human being is one, it means that he is one as opposed to two. But, in fact, the human being is not truly one because his body parts are different and his colors are different. He is composed of many parts which are not the same. His blood is other than his flesh. His flesh is other than his blood. His nerves are other than his veins. His hair is other than his skin. His darkness is other than his paleness. Likewise is the rest of creation. Thus, the human being in only “one” in name but not “one” in meaning. Allah, Exalted be His Majesty, is One and there is none other than Him. There is no variation, contrast, increase, or decrease in Him. As for the human being, he is created from different parts and different substances. He is only “one” in combination. I enquired: As for your statement regarding “the Subtle,” kindly explain it to me, I know, of course, that His Subtlety differs from that of others. However, I would appreciate it if you could explain it to me in greater detail. Therefore, he (AS) answered: O Fath! I said: He is Subtle in subtleness of His Creation and in His Knowledge of microscopic matter. Do you not see His Stamp on the various types of plants, both soft and rough? And do you not contemplate the subtle creation of creatures like the gnat and the mosquito and those insects which are even smaller than these two and are almost invisible to the naked eye? In fact, they are almost invisible due to their tiny size, making it virtually impossible to differentiate the male from the female, and the young from the old. Thus, when we see the smallness of creatures in their refinement, their instinct to reproduce, and their fear of death; when we see the creatures that exist in the depths of the oceans, and in the branches of trees; when we see what exists in deserts and wastelands, and that each species has a means of communication through which they are understood by their offspring; when we see how creatures feed their offspring, and how creatures are distinguished by color, red with yellow, and white with red; then, and only then do we come to appreciate the subtlety of the Creator. Verily, everything has a precursor. Allah, the Creator, the Subtle, and the Sublime created everything out of nothing. I asked: “May I be your ransom! Is there a creator other than the Sublime Creator?” He (AS) replied: Verily, Allah, the Blessed and High says: Blessed be Allah, the best of creators.1 He has certainly acknowledged that there are creators among His Servants, including Jesus, the son of Mary [Isa ibn Maryam] (AS). He created from clay a figure of a bird by the will of Allah. Then he breathed into it, and it became a bird, by the will of Allah. And Samiri made for them the body of a calf that mooed. I enquired: “Undoubtedly `Isa created from clay a bird as a proof of his Prophethood, while Samiri made the body of calf to refute Musa’s (AS) Prophethood. Was that Allah’s will? Certainly this is astonishing.” He answered: Woe unto you, O Fath! Verily, Allah has two intents or two wills; the definite [hatm] intent, and the determined [`azm] intent. He forbids with desire, and orders without desire. Have you not seen that He banned Adam (AS) and his wife from eating from the tree while He wanted them to. Had he not willed it, they would not have eaten it, and if they had not eaten it, they would have defied Allah’s will. He ordered Ibrahim (AS) to slaughter his son Isma`il (AS) and desired him not to slaughter him. If He did not will for him to slaughter him, then Ibrahim (AS) would have defied Allah’s will, the Mighty and High. I said: “You have relieved me. May Allah relieve you! Except that you asked: `The All-Hearing and the All-Seeing, does He hear with an ear and see with an eye?” Consequently, He (AS) replied: Most certainly He hears what He sees and sees what He hears. He sees, but not with an eye like the eyes of the created. He hears, but not like the listeners listen. He hears in the sense that nothing is hidden from Him, not even the movement of a black particle on a hard rock in the dark of the night, in the depth of the Earth or in the depth of the oceans. We say: He is Seeing but not like the created. And when He comprehends all languages, and does not confuse one from another. We say: He hear, but not like others hear. I commented: “May I be your ransom! I still have one last question.” He (AS) said: “Proceed for the sake of Allah, for the good deeds of your father!” I asked: “Would He know the things that He has not made; that if He did make them, how would they be?” He answered: Woe to you! Your questions are defiantly difficult. Have you not heard Allah say? If there had been in them any gods except Allah, they would both have certainly been in a state of disorder. And His Word: And some of them would certainly have overpowered others. And He said relating an account of the people of Hell: Take us out; we will do good deeds other than those which we used to do.4 And He said: And if they were sent back, they would certainly go back to that which they are forbidden. He certainly knew what would have happened if other things had happened. I then got up to kiss his hand and feet, but he (AS) brought his head nearer: hence I kissed his face and head. I left with so much contentment and joy that I am incapable of describing what was clarified for me of virtue and fortune. The Compiler (may Allah be pleased with him) of this book says: Verily, Allah, the Blessed, the High, forbade Adam and his wife from eating from the tree while knowing that they would both eat from it. However He, the Mighty and High, decided that He would not prevent them fro eating from the tree through determination [jabr] and power [qudrah], in the same fashion that He had prohibited them from eating by order and rebuke [zajr]. Thus, this is the meaning of His Will in these two case. If He, the Mighty and High, prohibited fthem from eating by determination, and thenthey ate from it, they would have defied His will, as al- ‘Alim1 (the Learned (AS) has said. “Exalted is Allah, the Most High, from inability.




19 - حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله الكوفي، قال: حدثني محمد بن جعفر البغدادي، عن سهل بن زياد، عن أبي الحسن علي بن محمد عليهما السلام، أنه قال: (إلهي تاهت أوهام المتوهمين وقصر طرف الطارفين، وتلاشت أوصاف الواصفين، واضمحلت أقاويل المبطلين عن الدرك لعجيب شأنك، أو الوقوع بالبلوغ إلى علوك فأنت في المكان الذي لا يتناهى ولم تقع عليك عيون بإشارة ولا عبارة هيهات ثم هيهات، يا أولي، يا وحداني، يا فرداني شمخت في العلو بعز الكبر، وارتفعت من وراء كل غورة ونهاية بجبروت الفخر).


19. `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al-Daqqaq (RA) said: Muhammad ibn Abu `Abd Allah al-Kufi said: Muhammad ibn Ja`far al-Baghdadi related to me on the authority of Sahl ibn Ziyad that Abu al-Hasan `Ali ibn Muhammad al-Taqi (AS) said: O Allah! The imaginations of the imaginative are astonished; the curiosity of the curious has failed; the descriptions of the describers are ruined; and the words of the vain doers have faded in their attempts to perceive You. The eyes cannot reach You with indication or perception. They are far from the mark, so far from the mark! O First One, O Unique, O Incomparable! You are Exalted above everything in Might and Pride! And You are Lofty behind every depth and end with Power and Pride.




20 - حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق رحمه الله، قال: حدثني محمد بن أبي عبد الله الكوفي، عن محمد بن إسماعيل البرمكي، عن الحسين بن الحسن، قال: حدثني أبو سمينة، عن إسماعيل بن أبان، عن زيد بن جبير، عن جابر الجعفي، قال: جاء رجل من علماء أهل الشام إلى أبي جعفر عليه السلام، فقال: جئت أسألك عن مسألة لم أجد أحدا يفسرها لي، وقد سألت ثلاثة أصناف من الناس، فقال كل صنف غير ما قال الآخر، فقال أبو جعفر عليه السلام: وما ذلك؟ فقال: أسألك، ما أول ما خلق الله عز وجل من خلقه؟ فإن بعض من سألته قال: القدرة، وقال بعضهم: العلم، وقال بعضهم: الروح، فقال أبو جعفر عليه السلام: ما قالوا شيئا، أخبرك أن الله علا ذكره كان ولا شئ غيره، وكان عزيزا ولا عز لأنه كان قبل عزه (١) وذلك قوله: ﴿سبحان ربك رب العزة عما يصفون﴾ وكان خالقا ولا مخلوق فأول شئ خلقه من خلقه الشئ الذي جميع الأشياء منه، وهو الماء فقال السائل: فالشئ خلقه من شئ أو من لا شئ؟ فقال: خلق الشئ لا من شئ كان قبله، ولو خلق الشئ من شئ إذا لم يكن له انقطاع أبدا، ولم يزل الله إذا ومعه شئ ولكن كان الله ولا شئ معه، فخلق الشئ الذي جميع الأشياء، منه، وهو الماء.


20. `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al-Daqqaq (RA) said: Muhammad ibn Abu `Abd Allah al-Kufi related to me on the authority of Muhammad ibn Isma`il al-Barmaki, on the authority of al-Husayn ibn al-Hasan that Abu Sumaynah related to me on the authority of Isma`il ibn Aban, on the authority of Zayd ibn Jubayr, on the authority of Jabir al-Ju`fi who said A man from the learned natives of Sham (Greater Syria) came to Abu Ja`far al-Baqir (AS) and said: “I have come to you concerning an issue that nobody could explain to me. I have asked three different persons, and each of them gave me a different answer.” Abu Ja`far (AS) said: “What is it?” Hence he explained: “What is the first thing that Allah, the Mighty and High, created from His Creation? Some of those whom I asked said: `Omnipotence.’ Some said: `Knowledge.’ And others said: `the Spirit.” Therefore, Abu Ja`far (AS) replied: They have said nothing! Let it be known that Allah, may His Remembrance be Exalted, was there when nothing but Him was there. He was Honorable when there was no honor, because He was there before His Honor and this is His Word: Glory be to your Lord, the Lord of Honor, above what they describe.1 He was the Creator when there was no creation. Thus, the first thing He created in creation was water, the element from which all things are form. So the questioner enquired: “Did He crate the (first) thing from something or from nothing?” Consequently, He (AS) answered: He created the thing from nothing which existed before it. And if He had created the thing from something, then nothing would be discontinuous. Thus, other that Allah would have existed along with Him. In fact, Allah was there, and there was nothing with Him. Hence, He created the thing from which all things originate, and that is water.




21 - أبي رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسين ابن أبي الخطاب، عن محمد بن إسماعيل بن بزيع، عن إبراهيم بن عبد الحميد، قال: سمعت أبا الحسن عليه السلام يقول في سجوده: (يا من علا فلا شئ فوقه، يا من دنا فلا شئ دونه، اغفر لي ولأصحابي).


21. My father (may Allah have mercy on him) that Sa`d ibn `Abd Allah said: Muhammad ibn AlHusayn ibn Abu al-Khattab said on the authority of Muhammad ibn Isma`il ibn Bazi, on the authority of Ibrahim ibn `Abd al-Hamid that I heard Abu al-Hasan al-Kazim (AS) saying the following prayer while he was in prostration: “O He who is so High that nothing is above Him! O He who is so near that nothing is without Him! Forgive me and my Companions!”




22 - أبي رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا أحمد بن إدريس، عن محمد بن أحمد، عن سهل ابن زياد، عن أحمد بن بشر عن محمد بن جمهور العمي، عن محمد بن الفضيل بن يسار، عن عبد الله بن سنان، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام، قال: قال في الربوبية العظمى والإلهية الكبرى: لا يكون الشئ لا من شئ إلا الله، ولا ينقل الشئ من جوهريته إلى جوهر آخر إلا الله، ولا ينقل الشئ من الوجود إلى العدم إلا الله .


22. My father (may Allah have mercy on him) that Ahmad ibn Idris said on the authority of Muhammad ibn Ahmad, on the authority of Sahl ibn Ziyad, on the authority of Ahmad ibn Bishr, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Jamhur al- `Ammi, on the authority of Muhammad ibn al-Fudayl ibn Yasar, on the authority of `Abd Allah ibn Sinan that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) said the following regarding the Great Lord and God: “None but Allah can create something out of nothing. None but Allah can transfer one substance into another. None but Allah can transfer existence into non-existence.”




23 - حدثنا محمد بن موسى بن المتوكل رضي الله عنه قال: حدثنا علي بن إبراهيم بن هاشم، قال: حدثنا أبي، عن الريان بن الصلت، عن علي بن موسى الرضا عليهما السلام، عن أبيه، عن آبائه، عن أمير المؤمنين عليهم السلام، قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: قال الله جل جلاله، ما آمن بي من فسر برأيه كلامي، وما عرفني من شبهني بخلقي، وما على ديني من استعمل القياس في ديني.


23. Muhammad ibn Musa ibn al-Mutawakkil (may Allah be pleased with him) said: `Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashim said: My father said on the authority of al-Rayyan ibn al-Salt, on the authority of `Ali ibn Musa al-Riza (AS) on the authority of his father, on the authority of his forefather, on the authority of Commander of the Faithfuly (AS) that The Messenger of Allah (SA) said: Allah, Exalted be His Sublimity, said: He who interprets My Words on the basis of his own personal opinion does not believe in Me. He who compares Me to My Creation does not believe in Me. And he who uses analogy [qiyas] in religion is not of My Religion.




24 - حدثنا أبو عبد الله الحسين بن محمد الأشناني الرازي العدل ببلخ، قال: حدثنا علي بن مهرويه القزويني، عن داود بن سليمان الفراء عن علي بن موسى الرضا، عن أبيه، عن آبائه، عن علي عليهم السلام، قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: التوحيد نصف الدين، واستنزلوا الرزق بالصدقة .


24. Abu `Abd Allah al-Husayn ibn Muhammad al-Ushnani al-Razi the jurist in Balkh said tha `Ali ibn Mihrawayh al-Quzwini said on the authority of Dawud ibn Sulayman al-Farra’, on the authority of `Ali ibn Musa al-Rida (AS) on the authority of his father, on the authority of his forefathers (AS), on the authority of `Ali (AS) that The Messenger of Allah (SA) said: “Divine unity is half of faith And increase your sustenance by means of charity.”




25 - حدثنا محمد بن موسى بن المتوكل رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا علي بن الحسين السعدآبادي، قال: حدثنا أحمد بن أبي عبد الله البرقي، عن داود بن القاسم، قال: سمعت علي بن موسى الرضا عليهما السلام، يقول: من شبه الله بخلقه فهو مشرك، ومن وصفه بالمكان فهو كافر، ومن نسب إليه ما نهى عنه فهو كاذب، ثم تلا هذه الآية: ﴿إنما يفتري الكذب الذين لا يؤمنون بآيات الله وأولئك هم الكاذبون﴾ .


25. Muhammad ibn Musa ibn al-Mutawakkil (may Allah have mercy on him) said: `Ali ibn alHusayn al-Sa`dabadi said: Ahmad ibn Abu `Abd Allah al-Barqi said on the authority of dawud ibn al-Qasim that I heard `Ali ibn Musa al-Rida (AS) that “He who compares Allah with His creation is an infidel and he who limits Him spatially is an unbeliever. And he who attributes to Him what is forbidden is a liar.” Then he (AS) recited this verse: Only they forge the lie who do not believe in Allah’s communications, and these are the liars.




26 - حدثنا أبو العباس محمد بن إبراهيم بن إسحاق الطالقاني رضي الله عنه، قال: حدثنا أبو سعيد الحسن بن علي العدوي، قال: حدثنا الهيثم بن عبد الله الرماني، قال: حدثنا علي بن موسى الرضا، عن أبيه موسى بن جعفر، عن أبيه جعفر بن محمد، عن أبيه محمد بن علي، عن أبيه علي بن الحسين، عن أبيه الحسين بن علي عليهم السلام، قال: خطب أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام الناس في مسجد الكوفة، فقال: الحمد لله الذي لا من شئ كان، ولا من شئ كون ما قد كان، مستشهد بحدوث الأشياء على أزليته وبما وسمها به من العجز على قدرته، وبما اضطرها إليه من الفناء على دوامه، لم يخل منه مكان فيدرك بأينية، ولا له شبه مثال فيوصف بكيفية ولم يغب عن علمه شئ فيعلم بحيثية مبائن لجميع ما أحدث في الصفات، وممتنع عن الادراك بما ابتدع من تصريف الذوات وخارج بالكبرياء والعظمة من جميع تصرف الحالات، محرم على بوارع ثاقبات الفطن تحديده و على عوامق ناقبات الفكر تكييفه، وعلى غوائص سابحات الفطر تصويرة لا تحويه الأماكن لعظمته، ولا تذرعه المقادير لجلاله، ولا تقطعه المقائيس لكبريائه، ممتنع عن الأوهام أن تكتنهه، وعن الأفهام أن تستغرقه وعن الأذهان أن تمثله، قد يئست من استنباط الإحاطة به طوامح العقول، ونضبت عن الإشارة إليه بالاكتناه بحار العلوم، ورجعت بالصغر عن السمو إلى وصف قدرته لطائف الخصوم واحد لا من عدد، ودائم لا بأمد، وقائم لا بعمد، ليس بجنس فتعادله الأجناس، ولا بشبح فتضارعه الأشباح، ولا كالأشياء فتقع عليه الصفات، قد ضلت العقول في أمواج تيار إدراكه، وتحيرت الأوهام عن إحاطة ذكر أزليته وحصرت الأفهام عن استشعار وصف قدرته، وغرقت الأذهان في لجج أفلاك ملكوته مقتدر بالآلاء وممتنع بالكبرياء ومتملك على الأشياء فلا دهر يخلقه ولا وصف يحيط به، قد خضعت له ثوابت الصعاب في محل تخوم قرارها، وأذعنت له رواصن الأسباب في منتهى شواهق أقطارها مستشهد بكلية الأجناس على ربوبيته وبعجزها على قدرته، وبفطورها على قدمته، وبزوالها على بقائه، فلا لها محيص عن إدراكه إياها، ولا خروج من إحاطته بها، ولا احتجاب عن إحصائه لها ولا امتناع من قدرته عليها، كفى بإتقان الصنع لها آية، وبمركب الطبع عليها دلالة و بحدوث الفطر عليها قدمة وبإحكام الصنعة لها عبرة، فلا إليه حد منسوب، و لا له مثل مضروب، ولا شئ عنه محجوب، تعالى عن ضرب الأمثال والصفات المخلوقة علوا كبيرا. وأشهد أن لا إله إلا الله إيمانا بربوبيته، وخلافا على من أنكره، وأشهد أن محمد عبده ورسوله المقر في خير مستقر، المتناسخ من أكارم الأصلاب ومطهرات الأرحام المخرج من أكرم المعادن محتدا، وأفضل المنابت منبتا، من أمنع ذروة، وأعز أرومة، من الشجرة التي صاغ الله منها أنبياءه وانتجب منها أمناءه الطيبة العود، المعتدلة العمود، الباسقة الفروع، الناضرة الغصون، اليانعة الثمار الكريمة الحشا، في كرم غرست، وفي حرم أنبتت، وفيه تشعبت، وأثمرت، و عزت، وامتنعت، فسمت به وشمخت حتى أكرمه الله عز وجل بالروح الأمين والنور المبين والكتاب المستبين، وسخر له البراق، وصافحته الملائكة، وأرعب به الأباليس، وهدم به الأصنام والآلهة المعبودة دونه، سنته الرشد، وسيرته العدل وحكمه الحق، صدع بما أمره ربه، وبلغ ما حمله، حتى أفصح بالتوحيد دعوته وأظهر في الخلق أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له، حتى خلصت له الوحدانية وصفت له الربوبية، وأظهر الله بالتوحيد حجته، وأعلى بالاسلام درجته، واختار الله عز وجل لنبيه ما عنده من الروح والدرجة والوسيلة، صلى الله عليه عدد ما صلى على أنبيائه المرسلين، وآله الطاهرين.


26. Abu al- `Abbas Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Ishaq al-Taliqani (may Allah be pleased with him) said: Abu Sa`id al-Hasan ibn `Ali al-Adwi said: Al-Haytham ibn `Abd Allah al-Rummani said: `Ali ibn Musa al-Rida (AS) on the authority of his father Musa ibn Ja`far (AS) on the authority of his father Ja`far ibn Muhammad (AS) on the authority of his father Muhammad ibn `Ali (AS) on the authority of his father `Ali ibn al-Husayn on the authority of his father alHusayn ibn `Ali (AS) that The Commander of the Faithful (AS) addressed the people in the Mosque of al-Kufah in‬‬ ‫‪the following terms:‬‬ ‫‪All praise be to Allah, Who is neither from anything nor creates from anything. The creation of all things from nothing is a manifestation of His Omnipotence. The fleeting nature of all things ins a manifestation of His Permanence. Although no space is devoid of Him, He cannot be subjected to the question “where?” Nothing is similar to Him so He cannot be described through similarity [kayfiyya]. Neither is anything absent from His Knowledge so that He may know it through distinction. He is Dissimilar to the attributes which He has brought about. He cannot be comprehended by what He has created. He is beyond behavioral states due to His Magnificence and Exalted Nature. Limits are forbidden to Him in the brilliant acute mind’s proficiencies. Enquiring minds cannot comprehend His Nature. Intellectual explorers cannot conceive His Shape. Due to His Greatness, He cannot be confined to space. Due to His Majesty, He is beyond measure. Due to His Magnificence, He cannot be divided. Imaginations cannot grasp Him entirely. He cannot be comprehended by minds nor can He be compared. The most eager of intellects cannot hope to comprehend Him through inference. Oceans of Knowledge have dried up attempting to fathom Him. The sharpest minds of the opponents have shriveled attempting to describe His Omnipotence. He is One but not numbers; Everlasting, but not with an extent; and Existing, but without support. He is neither a genus so that the species may be compared to Him, nor a shape so that the shapes may be compared to Him; nor like other things so that descriptions may apply to Him. Intellects have floated away in the waves of His Perception. Imaginations are astonished when contemplating His Eternity. Intellects are prevented from understanding His Omnipotence. The minds have drowned in the depths of the orbit of His Realm which possesses power over the bestowal of blessings, and which forbids with magnificence. He is Sovereign over all thins. He never declines nor is encompassed by an attribute. The obstinate fixed stars surrender to Him through their orbit. The firm causes submit to Him in the utmost heights of their section as a witness from all species over His Lordship. The inability of beings bears witness to His Omnipotence. The coming into being of beings bear witness that He is without a beginning. And the death of beings bears witness that He is Everlasting. Thus, there is no refuge for them from His Reach; there is no fleeing His Encirclement; there is no hiding from His Decree; and there is no avoiding His Omnipotence. The composition of nature is proof. Creation out of nothing is proof that He has no beginning. The creative power is sufficient as an admonition. Thus, there is no limit connected to Him, no likeness of Him, and there is nothing hidden from Him. Exalted is He, the Most High, from the attributes of created things! I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, with faith in His Lordship, and in contrast to those who deny Him. And I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and His Messenger, the Inhabitant of the Best Resting Place, the Fruit of the Most Noble Lions and Purified Wombs, the Product of the Most Dignified Lineage and Best Birth place which is inaccessible to others and which has the most honorable foundation. He was chosen by Allah as His trustworthy Friend from the Tree of Prophethood. The tree possesses fine wood, an upright trunk, high branches, blooming twigs, ripened fruits, and a precious interior. In nobility was the tree planted, and in sanctity it grew, branching off, and producing honorable fruits. Hence, the tree was given prestige, and was made lofty by the Prophet Muhammad (SA). Eventually, Allah, the Mighty and High, honored him with the Trusted Spirit [al-Ruh alAmin], the Open Light [al-Nur al-Mubin], and the Evident Book [al-Kitab al-Mustabin]. He made Alboarak [buraq] subservient to Muhammad (SA) and the Angels greeted him. The devils were frightened of him. Through him, Allah destroyed the idols, and the gods that were served other than Him. His practice [Sunnah] is sensible, his conduct [sirah] is just, and his judgment is true. He complied with what his Lord ordered him, and fulfilled his responsibilities. He clearly preached Divine Unity, and made known to creation that there is no god but Allah, the One, the Only, who has not associates. Eventually, he purified the concept of Diving Unity, attributing all Lordship to Him. Through Divine Unity, He made apparent his proof, and with Islam elevated his status. Allah, the Mighty and High, chose for His Prophet (SA) the spirit, the status, and the expedition. May Allah bless him, and his Purified Progeny, as He has blessed all of the Prophets who preceded him!




27 - حدثنا محمد بن محمد بن عصام الكليني رحمه الله قال: حدثنا محمد بن يعقوب الكليني، قال: حدثنا محمد بن علي بن معن، قال: حدثنا محمد بن علي بن عاتكة، عن الحسين بن النضر الفهري، عن عمرو الأوزاعي، عن عمرو بن شمر، عن جابر ابن يزيد الجعفي، عن أبي جعفر محمد بن علي الباقر، عن أبيه، عن جده عليهم السلام، قال: قال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام في خطبة خطبها بعد موت النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم بسبعة أيام، و ذلك حين فرغ من جمع القرآن فقال: الحمد لله الذي أعجز الأوهام أن تنال إلا وجوده وحجب العقول عن أن تتخيل ذاته في امتناعها من الشبه والشكل، بل هو الذي لم يتفاوت في ذاته، ولم يتبعض بتجزئة العدد في كماله، فارق الأشياء لا على اختلاف الأماكن، وتمكن منها لا على الممازجة، وعلمها لا بأداة - لا يكون العلم إلا بها - وليس بينه وبين معلومه علم غيره، إن قيل كان فعلى تأويل أزلية الوجود، وإن قيل: لم يزل فعلى تأويل نفي العدم فسبحانه وتعالى عن قول من عبد سواه واتخذ إلها غيره علوا كبيرا. ونحمده بالحمد الذي ارتضاه لخلقه، وأوجب قبوله على نفسه، وأشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له، وأشهد أن محمد عبده ورسوله، شهادتان ترفعان القول، وتضاعفان العمل، خف ميزان ترفعان منه، وثقل ميزان توضعان فيه، و بهما الفوز بالجنة والنجاة من النار، والجواز على الصراط، وبالشهادتين يدخلون الجنة، وبالصلاة ينالون الرحمة، فأكثروا من الصلاة على نبيكم وآله، إن الله وملائكته يصلون على النبي يا أيها الذين آمنوا صلوا عليه وسلموا تسليما. أيها الناس إنه لا شرف أعلى من الإسلام، ولا كرم أعز من التقى، ولا معقل أحرز من الورع، ولا شفيع أنجح من التوبة، ولا كنز أنفع من العلم، ولا عز أرفع من الحلم، ولا حسب أبلغ من الأدب، ولا نسب أوضع من الغضب، ولا جمال أزين من العقل، ولا سوء أسوء من الكذب، ولا حافظ أحفظ من الصمت، ولا لباس أجمل من العافية، ولا غائب أقرب من الموت. أيها الناس إنه من مشى على وجه الأرض فإنه يصير إلى بطنها، والليل والنهار مسرعان في هدم الأعمار، ولكل ذي رمق قوت، ولكل حبة آكل، و أنتم قوت الموت، وإن من عرف الأيام لم يغفل عن الاستعداد، لن ينجو من الموت غني بماله ولا فقير لا قلاله. أيها الناس من خاف ربه كف ظلمه، ومن لم يرع في كلامه أظهر هجره ومن لم يعرف الخير من الشر فهو بمنزلة البهم، ما أصغر المصيبة مع عظم الفاقة غدا، هيهات هيهات، وما تناكرتم إلا لما فيكم من المعاصي والذنوب، فما أقرب الراحة من التعب، والبؤس من النعيم، وما شر بشر بعده الجنة، وما خير بخير بعده النار، وكل نعيم دون الجنة محقور، وكل بلاء دون النار عافية.


27. Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn `Isam al-Kulayni (may Allah have mercy on him) said: Muhammad ibn Ya`qub al-Kulayni said: Muhammad ibn `Ali ibn Ma`an said: Muhammad ibn `ali ibn `Atikah on the authority of al-Husayn ibn al-Nadr al-Fihri, on the authority of `Amr alAwza`I, on the authority of `Amr ibn Shimr, the authority of Jabir ibn Yazid al-Ju`fi, on the authority of Abu Ja`far Muhammad ibn `Ali al-Baqir (AS), on the authority of his father (AS) that His grandfather, Imam `Ali, the Commander of the Faithful, delivered the following sermon seven days after the death of the Prophet (SA), after he had completed the compilation of the Qur`an: All praise be to Allah, who, although He is the Existent, cannot be conceived by the imagination. Intellects are prevented from imagining His Essence through likeness and form. His Essence does not alter. He is indivisible in His Perfection. He is the Distinguisher, but not through differences of place. He is the Establisher, but not through composition. He is the Knower, but not through instruments. His Knowledge does not depend on instruments.. There is no knowledge besides Him. If it is said: `He was there’ then it is based on the eternity of His Existence. And if it is said: `He is still there’ then it is due to negating His non-existence. Thus, praise be Him and Exalted is He from the words of he who serve s other than Him and take a god other than Him, the Elevated, High. We extol Him with the praise that He approved for His creation, and made mandatory upon Himself to accept it. I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, Alone, without associates, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and His Messenger. The two witnesses elevate the statement, and multiply the deeds. The scale of actions becomes lighter when these two witnesses are removed form it, and it becomes heavier when these two are places in it. With these two is the achievement of Paradise, escape from Hell, and crossing of the Bridge (al-Sirat). With the two witnesses people may enter Paradise, and with sending blessings [salawat] people attain mercy. Therefore, increase the blessings you send to your Prophet (SA) and his Progeny (AS): Verily, Allah and His Angels bless the Prophet; O you who believe, send blessings unto him and salute him with a salutation worthy of respect. O people! There is no honor greater than Islam, no nobility more respectful than piety, no refuge safer than godliness, no intercessor better than the repentance, no treasure more beneficial than knowledge, no respect higher than forbearance, no value more emphatic than manners, no relation lower than anger, no beauty more attractive than intellect, no bad deed worse than lying, no protection more effective than quietness, no dress more beautiful than health, and no absence closer than death. O people, whoever has walked on the surface of the Earth will certainly fall to its depth. The night and day are speedy in demolishing lives, and for every spark of life there is nourishment. For every seed there is a consumer, and you are the nutrients of death. Most certainly he who recognizes time does not neglect to get prepared (for the Hereafter). No one escapes death, neither the rich through wealth, nor the poor through poverty. O people! Whoever fears his Lord refrains from oppression. He who does not guard his tongue, obscene language overtakes him; and he who does not know the difference between right and wrong belongs to the animal kingdom. How small is suffering compared to tomorrow’s need (the Day of Judgment)! How far it is! Your ignorance (of God) is caused by your defiance, and your sins. How close it: the comfort from exhaustion and the misery from ease. Calamity is not calamity if it is followed by Paradise and the welfare is not welfare if it is followed by Hell. Every ease other than Paradise is inconsiderable and every tribulation other than the Hell is relief.




28 - حدثنا تميم بن عبد الله بن تميم القرشي رضي الله عنه، قال: حدثني أبي، عن حمدان بن سليمان النيسابوري، عن علي بن محمد بن الجهم، قال: حضرت مجلس المأمون وعنده علي بن موسى الرضا عليهما السلام، فقال له المأمون: يا ابن رسول الله أليس من قولك إن الأنبياء معصومون، قال: بلى، قال: فسأله عن آيات من القرآن، فكان فيما سأله أن قال له: فأخبرني عن قول الله عز وجل في إبراهيم (فلما جن عليه الليل رأى كوكبا قال هذا ربي) فقال الرضا عليه السلام: إن إبراهيم عليه السلام وقع إلى ثلاثة أصناف: صنف يعبد الزهرة، وصنف يعبد القمر، وصنف يعبد الشمس، وذلك حين خرج من السرب الذي أخفي فيه، فلما جن عليه الليل و رأى الزهرة قال: هذا ربي على الانكار والاستخبار، فلما أفل الكوكب قال: (لا أحب الآفلين) لأن الأفول من صفات المحدث لا من صفات القديم، فلما رأى القمر بازغا قال: هذا ربي على الانكار والاستخبار، فلما أفل قال: (لئن لم يهدني ربي لأكونن من القوم الضالين) فلما أصبح (ورأى الشمس بازغة قال هذا ربي هذا أكبر) من الزهرة والقمر على الإنكار والإستخبار لا على الإخبار والإقرار، فلما أفلت قال للأصناف الثلاثة من عبدة الزهرة والقمر والشمس: (يا قوم إني برئ مما تشركون إني وجهت وجهي للذي فطر السماوات والأرض حنيفا وما أنا من المشركين) وإنما أراد إبراهيم بما قال أن يبين لهم بطلان دينهم، ويثبت عندهم أن العبادة لا تحق لما كان بصفة الزهرة والقمر والشمس، وإنما تحق العبادة لخالقها وخالق السماوات والأرض، وكان ما احتج به على قومه مما ألهمه الله عز وجل وآتاه كما قال الله عز وجل: ﴿وتلك حجتنا آتيناها إبراهيم على قومه﴾ فقال المأمون: لله درك يا ابن رسول الله. والحديث طويل أخذنا منه موضع الحاجة، وقد أخرجته بتمامه في كتاب عيون أخبار الرضا عليه السلام.


28. Tamim ibn `Abd Allah ibn Tamim al-Qarashi (may Allah be pleased with him) said: My father related to me on the authority of Hamdan ibn Sulayman al-Naysaburi, on the authority of `Ali ibn Muhammad ibn al-Jahm that I entered the presense of al-Ma`mum while `Ali ibn Musa al-Rida (AS) was with him. AlMa`mum said to him: “O son of the Messenger of Allah (SA), do you not say that the Prophets are infallible?” He (AS) replied: “Certainly.” He says that he asked him (AS) about some verses from the Qur`an. Among his questions was: “Then tell me about the Word of Allah, the Mighty and High, regarding Ibrahim (AS): So when the night overshadowed him, he saw a star; said he: Is this my Lord?”1 Hence, (`Ali) al-Rida (AS) responded: Ibrahim (AS) was faced with three types of people: the first worshiped Venus, the second worshipped the moon, and the third worshiped the sun. This was when the came out of the den in which he was hiding. So when the night overshadowed him, he saw the planet Venus, and said: this is my Lord, as a denial and inquiry So when it set, he aid: I do not love the setting one,2 because setting is one of the attributes of the created [muhdath] and not from the attributes of the Eternal [qadim]. Then when he saw the moon rising, he asked: Is this my Lord? He said this as both denial and inquiry. So when it set, he said: If my Lord had not guided me I should certainly be of the erring people.3 Then when the day began and he saw the sun rising, he said: This is my Lord. This is greater than Venus and the moon. He (AS) said this as denial and inquiry and not as information and approval. So when it set, he said to all three types of people from the worshippers of Venus, the moon and the sun: O my people! Surely I am clear of what you set up (with Allah). Surely I have turned myself, being upright, wholly to Him who originated the Heaven and the Earth, and I am not of the polytheists.4 Verily, Ibrahim (AS) intended to clarify for them the invalidity of their religion, and prove to them that worshipping Venus, the Moon, and the Sun was wrong. Rather, service belongs only to their Creator, the Creator of the Heavens and the Earth. The argument he brought forth was inspired by Allah, the Mighty and High: And this was Our argument which we gave to Ibrahim against his people.5 Al-Ma`mum said: “For Allah’s sake continue, O son of the Messenger of Allah!” The Compiler of this book says: The tradition is detailed; we have extracted from it the required passage. I have transmitted all of it in the book `Uyun Akhbar al-Rida (AS). 29. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Walid (may Allah have mercy on him) said: Muhammad ibn Yahya al-`Attar said on the authority of al-Husayn ibn al-Hasan ibn Aban, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Auramah, on the authority of Ibrahim ibn al-Hakam ibn Zuhayr, on the authority of `Abd Allah ibn Jarir al-`Abdi saying that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) used to say: All praise be to Allah who cannot be sensed, felt or touched, as He cannot be perceived by the five senses. Imagination cannot grasp Him. Tongues cannot describe Him. Everything that can be sensed is a creation. All praise be to Allah who was when there was nothing but He. He made all things according to a design. He knows what has been and what will be.




30 - حدثنا أحمد بن زياد بن جعفر الهمداني رضي الله عنه، قال: حدثنا علي بن إبراهيم بن هاشم، عن أبيه، عن القاسم بن يحيى، عن جده الحسن بن راشد، عن يعقوب بن جعفر، قال: سمعت أبا إبراهيم موسى بن جعفر عليهما السلام، وهو يكلم راهبا من النصارى، فقال له في بعض ما ناظره: إن الله تبارك وتعالى أجل وأعظم من أن يحد بيد أو رجل أو حركة أو سكون، أو يوصف بطول أو قصر، أو تبلغه. الأوهام، أو تحيط به صفة العقول أنزل مواعظه ووعده ووعيده، أمر بلا شفة ولا لسان، ولكن كما شاء أن يقول له كن فكان خبرا كما أراد في اللوح .


30. Ahmad ibn Ziyad ibn Ja`far al-Hamadani (may Allah be pleased with him) said: `Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashim said on the authority of his father, on the authority of al-Qasim ibn Yahya, on the authority of his grandfather al-Hasan ibn Rashid, on the authority of Ya`qub ibn Ja`far that I head Abu Ibrahim Musa ibn Ja`far (AS) when he was talking to a Christina monk. He said the following during the debate. Verily, Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, is Higher and Greater than to be limited to limbs, movement or measure. Imaginations cannot reach Him and minds cannot encompass Him. He revealed His Exhortations, Promises, Threats, and Commands without mouth and tongue. However, when He wills anything, He says to it “Be,” according to the message He decreed in the (Diving) Tablet.




31 - حدثنا أحمد بن هارون الفامي رضي الله عنه، قال: حدثنا محمد بن عبد الله ابن جعفر بن جامع الحميري، عن أبيه، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن أبيه، عن محمد بن أبي عمير، عن غير واحد، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: من شبه الله بخلقه فهو مشرك، ومن أنكر قدرته فهو كافر.


31. Ahmad ibn Harun al-Fami (may Allah be pleased with him) said: Muhammad ibn `Abd Allah ibn Ja`far ibn Jami’ al-Himyari on the authority of his father, on the authority of Ahamad ibn Muammad ibn `Isa, on the authority of his father, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Abu `Umayr, on the authority of a number of them that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) said: “He who compares Allah with His Creation is an infidel; and he who denies His Omnipotence is an unbeliever.”




32 - حدثنا أبي، وعبد الواحد بن محمد بن عبدوس العطار رحمهما الله، قالا: حدثنا علي بن محمد بن قتيبة، عن الفضل بن شاذان، عن محمد بن أبي عمير، قال: دخلت على سيدي موسى بن جعفر عليهما السلام، فقلت له: يا ابن رسول الله علمني التوحيد فقال: يا أبا أحمد لا تتجاوز في التوحيد ما ذكره الله تعالى ذكره في كتابه فتهلك، واعلم أن الله تعالى واحد، أحد، صمد، لم يلد فيورث، ولم يولد فيشارك، ولم يتخذ صاحبة ولا ولدا ولا شريكا، وإنه الحي الذي لا يموت، والقادر الذي لا يعجز، والقاهر الذي لا يغلب، والحليم الذي لا يعجل، والدائم الذي لا يبيد، والباقي الذي لا يفنى، والثابت الذي لا يزول، والغني الذي لا يفتقر، والعزيز الذي لا يذل، والعالم الذي لا يجهل، والعدل الذي لا يجور، والجواد الذي لا يبخل، و إنه لا تقدره العقول، ولا تقع عليه الأوهام، ولا تحيط به الأقطار، ولا يحويه مكان، ولا تدركه الأبصار وهو يدرك الأبصار وهو اللطيف الخبير، وليس كمثله شئ وهو السميع البصير (ما يكون من نجوى ثلاثة إلا هو رابعهم ولا خمسة إلا هو سادسهم ولا أدنى من ذلك ولا أكثر إلا هو معهم أينما كانوا) وهو الأول الذي لا شئ قبله، والآخر الذي لا شئ بعده، وهو القديم وما سواه مخلوق محدث، تعالى عن صفات المخلوقين علوا كبيرا.


32. My father; and `Abd al-Walid ibn Muhammad ibn `Abdus al-`Attar (may Allah have mercy on them both) said: `Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Qutaybah said on the authority of al-Fadl ibn Shadhan, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Abu `Umayr that I entered into the presence of My Master Musa ibn Ja`far (AS) and said to him: “O son of the Messenger (SA)! Teach me about Divine Unity.” Hence, he (AS) said: O Abu Ahmad! When it comes to Divine Unity, do not go beyond what Allah, the Exalted, has mentioned in His Book, otherwise you will perish. Know that Allah, the Exalted, is One, Unique, Everlasting. He begets not so He may be inherited, nor is He begotten so He may have an associate. He has not taken a wife, a son or an associate. He is the Living that does not dies. He is the Omnipotent that is never powerless. He is the Subduer who is never overwhelmed. He is the Clement who does not hasten. He is the Eternal who does not perish. He is the Permanent who does not pas away. He is the Firm who does not decline. He is the All-Sufficient who is never in need. He is the Almighty who is never abased. He is the All-Knowing who is never ignorant. He is the Just who never oppresses. He is the Magnanimous who is never miserly. Verily, He is He whom intellects cannot anticipate. He is not located in imaginations. He is not encompassed by region. He is not contained in any place. Vision comprehends Him not, and He comprehends (all) vision; and He is the Knower of subtleties, the Aware.1 Nothing whatsoever is like unto Him, and He is the all-Hearing, the all-Seeing.2 Nowhere is there a secret counsel between three persons but He is the Fourth of them, not (between) five but He is the Sixty of them, nor less than that nor more but He is with them where so ever they are.3 He is the First who has nothing prior to Him, and the Last who has nothing after Him. He is without beginning, and the rest are creations with beginnings. Exalted is He, the Mighty, the Great, from the attributes of creation!




33 - حدثنا أبو سعيد محمد بن الفضل بن محمد بن إسحاق المذكر المعروف بأبي سعيد المعلم بنيسابور، قال: حدثنا إبراهيم بن محمد بن سفيان، قال: حدثنا علي ابن سلمة الليفي، قال: حدثنا إسماعيل بن يحيى بن عبد الله، عن عبد الله بن طلحة بن هجيم، قال: حدثنا أبو سنان الشيباني سعيد بن سنان، عن الضحاك، عن النزال ابن سبرة ، قال: جاء يهودي إلى علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام، فقال: يا أمير المؤمنين متى كان ربنا؟ قال: فقال له علي عليه السلام: إنما يقال: متى كان لشئ لم يكن فكان وربنا تبارك وتعالى هو كائن بلا كينونة كائن، كان بلا كيف يكون، كائن لم يزل بلا لم يزل، وبلا كيف يكون، كان لم يزل ليس له قبل، هو قبل القبل بلا قبل وبلا غاية ولا منتهى، غاية ولا غاية إليها غاية انقطعت الغايات عنه، فهو غاية كل غاية.


33. Abu Sa`id Muhammad ibn al-Fadl ibn Muhammad ibn Ishaq al-Mudhakkir famous as Abu Sa`id the teacher [al-Mu`allim] in Naysabur said: Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Sufyan said: `Ali ibn Salmah al-Layfi said: Isma`il ibn Yahya ibn `Abd Allah related to on the authority of `Abd Allah ibn Talhah ibn Hujaym that Abu Sinan al-Shaybani Sa`id ibn Sinan said on the authority of al-Dahhak, on the authority of al-Nizal ibn Sabrah that A Jewish man came to `Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS) and asked: “O Commander of the Faithful! Since when has our Lord existed?” `Ali (AS) replied: It is certainly said `when was it’ for a thing that was not there and then was there. However, our Lord, the Blessed and Exalted, had existed, does exist and will exist without occurrence. He existed without quality. He has always existed with eternity and without quality. He has always existed. There is no beginning for Him. He is prior to the beginning. He is without a beginning and an end [ghayah]. He is the End and there is no end to Him. He is the End that ends all. Thus, He is the End of all Ends.




34 - أخبرني أبو العباس الفضل بن الفضل بن العباس الكندي فيما أجازه لي بهمدان سنة أربع وخمسين وثلاثمائة، قال: حدثنا محمد بن سهل يعني العطار البغدادي لفظا من كتابه سنة خمس وثلاثمائة، قال: حدثنا عبد الله بن محمد البلوي قال: حدثني عمارة بن زيد، قال: حدثني عبد الله بن العلاء قال: حدثني صالح بن سبيع، عن عمرو بن محمد بن صعصعة بن صوحان قال: حدثني أبي عن أبي المعتمر مسلم بن أوس، قال: حضرت مجلس علي عليه السلام في جامع الكوفة فقام إليه رجل مصفر اللون - كأنه من متهودة اليمن - فقال: يا أمير المؤمنين صف لنا خالقك وانعته لنا كأنا نراه وننظر إليه، فسبح علي عليه السلام ربه وعظمه عز وجل وقال: الحمد لله الذي هو أول بلا بدئ مما ولا باطن فيما، ولا يزال مهما ولا ممازج مع ما، ولا خيال وهما ليس بشبح فيرى، ولا بجسم فيتجزأ، ولا بذي غاية فيتناهى، ولا بمحدث فيبصر، ولا بمستتر فيكشف، ولا بذي حجب فيحوى كان ولا أماكن تحمله أكنافها، ولا حملة ترفعه بقوتها، ولا كان بعد أن لم يكن، بل حارث الأوهام أن تكيف المكيف للأشياء ومن لم يزل بلا مكان، ولا يزول باختلاف الأزمان، ولا ينقلب شأنا بعد شأن ، البعيد من حدس القلوب المتعالي عن الأشياء والضروب، والوتر، علام الغيوب، فمعاني الخلق عنه منفية، وسرائرهم عليه غير خفية، المعروف بغير كيفية، لا يدرك بالحواس، ولا يقاس بالناس، ولا تدركه الأبصار، ولا تحيط به الأفكار، ولا تقدره العقول، ولا تقع عليه الأوهام، فكل ما قدره عقل أو عرف له مثل فهو محدود، وكيف يوصف بالأشباح، و ينعت بالألسن الفصاح؟ من لم يحلل في الأشياء فيقال هو فيها كائن، ولم ينأ عنها فيقال هو عنها بائن، ولم يخل منها فيقال أين، ولم يقرب منها بالالتزاق، ولم يبعد عنها بالافتراق، بل هو في الأشياء بلا كيفية، وهو أقرب إلينا من حبل الوريد، وأبعد من الشبه من كل بعيد لم يخلق الأشياء من أصول أزلية، ولا من أوائل كانت قبله بدية بل خلق ما خلق، وأتقن خلقه، وصور ما صور، فأحسن صورته، فسبحان من توحد في علوه، فليس لشئ منه امتناع، ولا له بطاعة أحد من خلقه انتفاع، إجابته للداعين سريعة، والملائكة له في السماوات والأرض مطيعة، كلم موسى تكليما بلا جوارح وأدوات ولا شفة ولا لهوات سبحانه و تعالى عن الصفات، فمن زعم أن إله الخلق محدود فقد جهل الخالق المعبود - و الخطبة طويلة أخذنا منها موضع الحاجة -.


34. Abu al-`Abbas al-Fadl ibn al-Fadl ibn al`Abbas al-Kindi related to me in which he has permitted me [ajaza] in Hamdan in the year 354 AH that Muhammad ibn Sahl that is al-`Attar al-Baghdadi said word for word from his book in the year 305 AH that `Abd Allah ibn Muhammad al-Balawi said: `Umarah ibn Zayd related to me on the authority of `Amar ibn Muhammad ibn Sa`sa`ah ibn Sawhan that My father related to me on the authority of Abu alMu`tamar Muslim ibn Aws who said I attended a gather of `Ali (AS) in the Mosque of al-Kufah. There a man stood up whose color was pale, as if he was a Yemeni Jew, and said: “O Commander of the Faithful! Describe your Creator, and praise Him for us such that we may see Him.” Hence, `Ali (AS) praised his Lord, and exalted His Greatness, the Mighty and High, in the following words: All praise be to Allah, who is the First not from something, nor hidden in something, and who does not vanish nor unite with something. He is not an imaginary delusion. He is neither a shape that He may be watched, not a body so He may have parts. He is not with an end that He may terminate. He is not accidental [muhdath] so He may be seen. He is neither covered that He may be uncovered, not is He with veils so He may be comprised. He was there, but no space was there to carry Him in its sides, nor any carrier to life Him with its power. Neither has He come into being after not being there. In fact, the imaginations are baffled to assume a shape for the One who formed all things and is still without space, and does not decline with the variation of time. He does not transform from one quality to another. He is far from the supposition of hearts. He is Exalted above all things and varieties. He is the Single, and the Knower of the Unseen. Thus, the meanings of the creation are negated from Him, and their secrets are not hidden from Him. He is the Known without quality. He is not perceived through the senses and not compared with people. Eyes do not perceive Him. Thoughts cannot encompass Him. Intellects cannot assess Him, and imaginations cannot imagine Him. Hence, any likeness of Him conceived by the intellect is limited. And how could He be described with shapes and praised with eloquent tongues? He neither occurred in things, so it may be said that He is in them, nor left them, that it may be said that He is obvious. Neither is He free from them so it may be said `where.’ He is neither so close to them as to stick to them, nor so far from them as to be split. But He is in the things without quality. He is closer to us than our jugular vein, and further ways than what is most far. He has neither created things with the origin of eternity, nor from prior examples. In fact, He created what He created, and made it strong. He imagined what He imagined and beautified it. Thus, praise be Him who is Unique in His Elevation. Hence, nothing can refuse to Him His decree. Nor does He gain anything through the obedience of His Creation. His Response to callers is quick. The Angels in the Heavens and the Earth are submissive to Him. He addressed Moses with words without limbs, instruments, lips or uvulas. Praise be Him and Exalted is He from attributes. Thus, whoever supposes that the God of the Creation is limited then he is ignorant of God, the Creator. The Compiler of this book says: The sermon is detailed; we have extracted from it the required passage.




35 - حدثنا أبو العباس محمد بن إبراهيم بن إسحاق الطالقاني رضي الله عنه. قال: حدثنا أبو أحمد عبد العزيز بن يحيى الجلودي البصري بالبصرة، قال: أخبرنا محمد بن زكريا الجوهري الغلابي البصري، قال: حدثنا العباس بن بكار الضبي، قال: حدثنا أبو بكر الهذلي عن عكرمة، قال: بينما ابن عباس يحدث الناس إذ قام إليه نافع بن الأزرق، فقال: يا ابن عباس تفتي في النملة والقملة، صف لنا إلهك الذي تعبده، فأطرق ابن عباس إعظاما لله عز وجل، وكان الحسين ابن علي عليهما السلام جالسا ناحية، فقال: إلي يا ابن الأزرق، فقال: لست إياك أسأل: فقال ابن العباس: يا ابن الأزرق إنه من أهل بيت النبوة، وهم ورثة العلم فأقبل نافع بن الأزرق نحو الحسين، فقال له الحسين: يا نافع إن من وضع دينه على القياس لم يزل الدهر في الارتماس، مائلا عن المنهاج، ظاعنا في الاعوجاج ضالا عن السبيل، قائلا غير الجميل، يا ابن الأزرق أصف إلهي بما وصف به نفسه وأعرفه بما عرف به نفسه، لا يدرك بالحواس ولا يقاس بالناس، فهو قريب غير ملتصق، وبعيد غير متقص، يوحد، ولا يبعض، معروف بالآيات، موصوف بالعلامات، لا إله إلا هو الكبير المتعال.


35. Abu al-`Abbas Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Ishaq al-Taliqani (may Allah be pleased with him) said: Abu Ahmad `Abd al- `Aziz ibn Yahya al-Jaludi al-Basri said in Basra that Muhammad ibn Zakariyyah al-Jawhari al-Ghulabi al-Basri said: al-`Abbas ibn Bakkar al-Dibbi said: Abu Bakr al-Hudhali on the authority of `Ikrimah said While Ibn `Abbas was addressing the people, Nafi` ibn al-Azraq stood up and said: “O son of `Abbas! You give verdicts on ants and lice, so will you not describe to us the God that you serve,” So Ibn `Abbas bowed down his head in silence to exalt Allah, the Mighty and High. Al-Husayn ibn `Ali (AS) was sitting on the side, who said: “Come to me, O son of alAzraq!.” He replied: “I am not asking you.” Then Ibn `Abbas said: “O son of al-Azraq! Verily, he from the Household of Prophethood, and they (the household members) are the Heirs of (Prophetic) Knowledge.” Thus, Nafi` ibn al-Azraq turned towards al-Husayn (AS), so al-Husayn said to him: O Nafi`! Verily, he who bases his religion on analogy is still immersed in the world. He is straying away from the (right) path, transient in the deviation (from that which is right), is leading astray from the way, and is saying that which is not nice. O son of al-Azraq! I am describing my god with what He Himself has described Himself and I am presenting Him with what He presented Himself. He cannot be perceived with the senses and cannot be compared with the people. He is near but not attached. He is far, but not cut off. He is United, but not divided into parts. He is known by signs and attributed by symbols. There is not god but He, the Great, the Most High.




36 - حدثنا أحمد بن هارون الفامي رضي الله عنه، قال: حدثنا محمد بن عبد الله بن جعفر الحميري، عن أبيه، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن محمد بن خالد البرقي، عن محمد بن أبي عمير، عن المفضل بن عمر، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام، قال: من شبه الله بخلقه فهو مشرك، إن الله تبارك وتعالى لا يشبه شيئا ولا يشبهه شئ وكل ما وقع في الوهم فهو بخلافه . قال مصنف هذا الكتاب رحمه الله: الدليل على أن الله سبحانه لا يشبه شيئا من خلقه من جهة من الجهات أنه لا جهة لشئ من أفعاله إلا محدثة، ولا جهة محدثة إلا وهي تدل على حدوث من هي له، فلو كان الله جل ثناؤه يشبه شيئا منها لدلت على حدوثه من حيث دلت على حدوث من هي له إذ المتماثلان في العقول يقتضيان حكما واحدا من حيث تماثلا منها وقد قام الدليل على أن الله عز وجل قديم، ومحال أن يكون قديما من جهة وحادثا من أخرى. ومن الدليل على أن الله تبارك وتعالى قديم أنه لو كان حادثا لوجب أن يكون له محدث، لأن الفعل لا يكون إلا بفاعل، ولكان القول في محدثه كالقول فيه، وفي هذا وجود حادث قبل حادث لا إلى أول، وهذا محال، فصح أنه لا بد من صانع قديم، وإذا كان ذلك كذلك فالذي يوجب قدم ذلك الصانع ويدل عليه يوجب قدم صانعنا ويدل عليه .


36. Ahmad ibn Harun al-Fami (may Allah be pleased with him) said: Muhammad ibn `Abd Allah ibn Ja`far al-Himyari said on the authority of his father, on the authority of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Isa, on the authority of Mohammad ibn Khalid al-Barqi, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Abu `Umayr, on the authority of al-Mufaddal ibn `Umar that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) said: He who anthropomorphizes Allah with His Creation is an infidel. Verily, Allah, the Blessed and the Exalted, does not resemble anything and nothing resembles Him. Everything that is imagined is other than Him. The Compiler (may Allah have mercy on him) of this book says: The proof that nothing resembles Allah, the Glorified, in His Creation in any dimension, is that there is no dimension for any of His Actions except that it has a beginning [muhdathah]. Therefore, it Allah, High be His Praise, resembles anything from His Creation, then that would certainly give Him a beginning… At the same time, two things which are intellectually similar require one ruling due to their similarity. And the proof had been established for Allah, the Mighty and High, being without beginning [qadim], It is impossible that He may be Eternal in one dimension, and have beginning another. Another proof that Allah, Blessed and Exalted be He, is without beginning is that if He had a beginning then there must have been someone that gave Him a beginning, because an action requires an agent. And surely the word about one who gave beginning to Him is like the word about Him. And in this (case) there is existence of an eternal before an eternal that has no prior (to Him). This is impossible. Hence, it is correct that there must be an Eternal Creator. And if it is so, then whatever demands the eternity of that creator and indicates upon him, also demands the eternity of the Creator we believe in and indicates upon Him.


Grading:

Shaykh Hadi al-Najafi: من حيث السند لا بأس بها - Mawsu'at Ahadith Ahlulbayt (12/253)



37 - حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق رحمه الله وعلي بن عبد الله الوراق، قالا: حدثنا محمد بن هارون الصوفي، قال: حدثنا أبو تراب عبيد الله ابن موسى الروياني، عن عبد العظيم بن عبد الله الحسني، قال: دخلت على سيدي علي بن محمد بن علي بن موسى بن جعفر بن محمد بن علي بن الحسين بن علي بن أبي طالب عليهم السلام فلما بصر بي قال لي: مرحبا بك يا أبا القاسم أنت ولينا حقا، قال: فقلت له: يا ابن رسول الله إني أريد أن أعرض عليك ديني، فإن كان مرضيا أثبت عليه حتى ألقى الله عز وجل: فقال: هات يا أبا القاسم، فقلت: إني أقول: إن الله تبارك وتعالى واحد، ليس كمثله شئ، خارج عن الحدين حد الإبطال و حد التشبيه، وإنه ليس بجسم ولا صورة ولا عرض ولا جوهر، بل هو مجسم الأجسام، ومصور الصور، وخالق الأعراض والجواهر، ورب كل شئ ومالكه وجاعله ومحدثه، وإن محمدا عبده ورسوله خاتم النبيين فلا نبي بعده إلى يوم القيامة وأقول: إن الإمام والخليفة وولي الأمر من بعده أمير المؤمنين علي بن أبي طالب ثم الحسن، ثم الحسين، ثم علي بن الحسين، ثم محمد بن علي، ثم جعفر بن محمد ثم موسى بن جعفر، ثم علي بن موسى، ثم محمد بن علي ثم أنت يا مولاي، فقال عليه السلام: ومن بعدي الحسن ابني، فكيف للناس بالخلف من بعده، قال: فقلت: وكيف ذاك يا مولاي؟ قال: لأنه لا يرى شخصه ولا يحل ذكره باسمه حتى يخرج فيملأ الأرض قسطا وعدلا كما ملئت جورا وظلما، قال: فقلت: أقررت، وأقول إن وليهم ولي الله، وعدوهم عدو الله، وطاعتهم طاعة الله، ومعصيتهم معصية الله، و أقول: إن المعراج حق، والمسألة في القبر حق، وإن الجنة حق، وإن النار حق، والصراط حق، والميزان حق، وإن الساعة آتية لا ريب فيها، وإن الله يبعث من في القبور، وأقول: إن الفرائض الواجبة بعد الولاية الصلاة، والزكاة، والصوم، والحج، والجهاد، والأمر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر، فقال علي بن محمد عليهما السلام: يا أبا القاسم هذا والله دين الله الذي ارتضاه لعباده، فاثبت عليه، ثبتك الله بالقول الثابت في الحياة الدنيا وفي الآخرة. باب معنى الواحد والتوحيد والموحد


37. `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al-Daqqaq (may Allah have mercy on him) and `Ali ibn `Abd Allah al-Warraq both said: Muhammad ibn Harun al-Sufi said: Abu Turab `Ubayd Allah ibn Musa al-Rawyani said on the authority of `Abd al-`Azim al-Hasani that I entered into the presence of My Master `Ali ibn Muhammad ibn `Ali ibn Musa ibn Ja`far ibn Muhammad ibn `Ali ibn al-Husayn ibn `Ali ibn Abu Talib (peace be on them), when he saw me, he said: “Welcome, O Abu al-Qasim! You are our true lover.” So I said to him: “O son of the Messenger of Allah! I intend to present to you my religion. If it is acceptable then I will remain firm on it until I meet Allah, the Mighty and High.” Thus, he said: “Tell me, O Abu al-Qasim.” Hence, I explained: Verily, I proclaim: Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, is One God. There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him. He is beyond the two limitations; the limitation of annulment and the limitation of anthropomorphism. Verily, He has neither body nor an image, neither an accidental quality nor a substance. In fact, He is the Creator of bodies, images, accidental qualities, and substances. He is the Lord of Everything, their Master, their Creator, and is the One who gave them beginning. Verily, Muhammad (SA) is His Servant and His Messenger, the Seal of the Messengers; hence, there is no Messenger after him till the Day of Judgment. I profess: Verily, the Imam, the Caliph and the Legal Guardian [wali al-amr] after him (SA) is the Commander of the Faithful `Ali in Abu Talib (AS) then al-Hasan, then al-Husayn, then `Ali ibn alHusayn, then Muhammad ibn `Ali, then Ja`far ibn Muhammad, then Musa ibn Ja`far, then `Ali ibn Musa, then Muhammad ibn `Ali, then you, O my Master. So he (AS) said: “And after me is al-Hasan my son and what shall happen to people for the one after him?” He said: I asked him (AS): “And what is that O Master?” He replied: “Because he cannot be seen and it is not permissible to mention him with his name until he reappears. Then he will fill the Earth with peace and justice like it will be filed with injustice and oppression.” Then I asked him: I acknowledge and declare: Verily, to befriend them is to befriend Allah, to bear enmity towards them is to bear enmity with Allah, to obey them is to obey Allah, and to disobey them is to disobey Allah. And I affirm: Verily, the Ascension (of Muhammad (AS) to the Heavens) [Mi’raj] is true, the questioning in the grave is true; Heaven is true, and Hell is true. The Bridge (Sirat) is true,and the Balance is true. And there can be no doubt about the coming of the Inevitable Hour and that Allah shall raise the dead from their graves. And II assert that the obligations after the guardianship [Wilayah] are the prayers [Salat], alms [Zakat], fasting [Sawm], Hajj, Jihad, as well as enjoining good and forbidding evil. Thus, `Ali ibn Muhammad (AS) said: “O Abu al-Qasim! By Allah, this is the religion of Allah, which he wishes for His Servants. Remain firm in this (religion). May Allah keep you firm on the established word in this life and in the Hereafter.”