4. Mu’awiya’s Discussion on Imamah and Khilafa with Abdullah ibn Abbas

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4 - قال: أخبرني أبو عبيد الله محمد بن عمران المرزباني ، قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسين الجوهري قال: حدثنا علي بن سليمان، قال: أخبرنا الزبير بن بكار قال: أخبرني علي بن صالح قال: حدثني عبد الله بن مصعب، عن أبيه قال: حضر عبد الله بن عباس مجلس معاوية بن أبي سفيان، فأقبل عليه معاوية فقال: يا ابن عباس إنكم تريدون أن تحرزوا الإمامة كما اختصصتم بالنبوة؟! والله لا يجتمعان أبدا، إن حجتكم في الخلافة مشتبهة على الناس، إنكم تقولون: نحن أهل بيت النبي [ص] فما بال خلافة النبوة في غيرنا؟ وهذه شبهة لأنها تشبه الحق وبها مسحة من العدل، وليس الأمر كما تظنون، إن الخلافة تتقلب في أحياء قريش برضى العامة وشورى الخاصة، ولسنا نجد الناس يقولون: ليت بني هاشم ولونا، ولو ولونا كان خيرا لنا في دنيانا وأخرانا. ولو كنتم زهدتم فيها أمس كما تقولون ما قاتلتم عليها اليوم، و والله لو ملكتموها يا بني هاشم لما كانت ريح عاد ولا صاعقة ثمود بأهلك للناس منكم. فقال ابن عباس رحمه الله: أما قولك يا معاوية: إنا نحتج بالنبوة في استحقاق الخلافة فهو والله كذلك، فإن لم يستحق الخلافة بالنبوة فبم يستحق وأما قولك: إن الخلافة والنبوة لا يجتمعان لأحد، فأين قول الله عز وجل: " أم يحسدون الناس على ما آتاهم الله من فضله فقد آتينا آل إبراهيم الكتاب والحكمة وآتيناهم ملكا عظيما " فالكتاب هو النبوة، والحكمة هي السنة، والملك هو الخلافة، فنحن آل إبراهيم، والحكم بذلك جار فينا إلى يوم القيامة. وأما دعواك على حجتنا أنها مشتبهة، فليس كذلك، وحجتنا أضوء من الشمس، وأنور من القمر، كتاب الله معنا وسنة نبيه صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم فينا، وإنك لتعلم ذلك ولكن ثنى عطفك وصعرك قتلنا أخاك وجدك وخالك وعمك، فلا تبك على أعظم حائلة، وأرواح في النار هالكة، ولا تغضبوا لدماء أراقها الشرك، وأحلها الكفر، ووضعها الدين. وأما ترك تقديم الناس لنا فيما خلا، وعدولهم عن الاجماع علينا ، فما حرموا منا أعظم مما حرمنا منهم، وكل أمر إذا حصل حاصله ثبت حقه وزال باطله. وأما افتخارك بالملك الزائل الذي توصلت إليه بالمحال الباطل، فقد ملك فرعون من قبلك فأهلكه الله. وما تملكون يوما يا بني أمية إلا ونملك بعدكم يومين، ولا شهرا إلا ملكنا شهرين، ولا حولا إلا ملكنا حولين. وأما قولك: إنا لو ملكنا كان ملكنا أهلك للناس من ريح عاد و صاعقة ثمود ، فقول الله يكذبك في ذلك قال الله عز وجل: " وما أرسلناك إلا رحمة للعالمين " فنحن أهل بيته الأدنون [ورحمة الله خلقه كرحمته بنبيه خلقه] ظاهر، والعذاب بتملكك رقاب المسلمين ظاهر للعيان، و سيكون من بعدك تملك ولدك وولد أبيك أهلك للخلق من الريح العقيم، ثم ينتقم الله بأوليائه ويكون العاقبة للمتقين .


4. He said: Abu Ubaiydillah Muhammad ibn Imran al-Marzbani reported to me from Muhammad ibn Husayn al-Jawhaeri, who reported from ‘Ali ibn Sulaiman who reported from al-Zubair ibn Bakkaar, who reported from ‘Ali ibn Swaleh, who reported from Abdullah ibn Mas’ab, from his father that Abdullah ibn Abbas called upon Mua’wiya ibn Abi Sufyan, who welcomed him, and then said: "O Ibn Abbas, you people wish to restrict Imamat (to yourselves) the way you have been privileged with Prophethood? By Allah, these two will never go together. Your argument about the Caliphate has put people in doubt. You say: ’We are Ahlul Bayt of the Prophet, peace be upon him and his progeny, then why should the succession to the Prophethood be outside us?’ This creates suspicion, for it has a semblance of truth, and a touch of justice. But things are not the way you imagine. The Caliphate has to rotate in various tribes of Quraish according to the general will of the public and the consultation of the selected ones. And we do not find people saying: ’We wish we were ruled by Banu Hashim, for if they did, we would have been better off here and hereinfter.’ And if you had stayed away from it yesterday the way you claim, you would have fought for it today. And By Allah, if you had acquired the rulership, O Banu Hashim, then the ill wind of A’d and the thunderbolt of Thamood would not have been worse killer of men than you." So Ibn Abbas replied (May Allah bless him with mercy): "O Mu’awiya, when you said that we base our argument on the Prophethood to prove our eligibility for Caliphate, then, by Allah, it is of course as you say. For if the Prophethood does not provide eligibility to the succession (Caliphate), what else does? And when you say that Caliphate and Prophethood do not combine for anyone, then what would say about the verse in which Allah, Most High, Says: ’Do they envy the people for the bounty that Allah has given them by His Grace. Yet We gave the family of Ibrahim the Book, and the Wisdom and We gave them a mighty sovereignty.’ (al-Nisa, 4:54) So, the Book is the Prophethood, the Wisdom is the Sunnah, the Traditions of the Prophet, and the sovereignty is the Caliphate. And we are the descendants of Ibrahim, and that is why the order remains applicable for us till the Day of Judgement. As for your claim that our arguments are dubious, then that is not true. Our arguments are brighter than the sun, and more luminous than the moon. The Book of Allah is with us, and the Traditions of the Prophet, peace be upon him and his progeny, are within us. And you know that very well, but pride makes you turn away; and you hold your head in haughtiness because we killed your brother, your grandfather, your maternal uncle and your father’s brother. Well, do not shed tears over the rotten bones, and upon the souls which are perished in hell-fire; and do not be vengeful for the blood spilled in the way of polytheism, made lawful by unbelief, and is debased by the religion (Islam). And as for the people who refused to give us preference and turned away from granting us their consensus, be it clear that what they have lost from us is greater than what we have lost from them! In every matter, the truth is established and the untruth is dispelled when the result is obtained. And as for your pride in this transitory kingdom to which you have ascended by trickery, (remember that even) Pharaoh had such kingdom before you, and Allah destroyed him. O Banu Umayya, what you hold under rule for a day, we may hold it for two days after you; and what you have for a month, we may have it for two months, and if for a year, then we may hold it for two years. And when you said that if we were the authority, our rule would have been a worse killer of men than the ill wind of A’d and the thunderbolt of Thamood, that statement has been belied by Allah, the Most High, in the Qur’an: ’And We did not send you but as a mercy to all beings.’ (al-Anbiya, 21:107) As we are the nearest inmates of the Prophet’s household, our mercy over the creatures of Allah is evident; and the torment of your kingdom over the people is there for everyone to see. And after you have gone, the kingdom will be in the hands of your son and your brothers - and that will be a worse killer of people than the fatal wind. Then Allah will avenge through His devotees, and the final success is for the pious."