61. Things Each of Which Are Based on Four Pillars

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4-74 حدثنا أبي رضي الله عنه قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسين بن أبي الخطاب، وأحمد بن الحسن بن علي بن فضال جميعا، عن علي بن أسباط عن الحسن بن زيد قال: حدثني محمد بن سالم، عن سعد بن طريف، عن الاصبغ بن نباتة قال: قال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام: الايمان على أربع دعائم: على الصبر واليقين والعدل والجهاد. والصبر على أربع شعب: على الشوق، والاشفاق، والزهد، والترقب. فمن اشتاق إلى الجنة سلا عن الشهوات ومن أشفق من النار رجع عن المحرمات، ومن زهد في الدنيا تهاون بالمصيبات، ومن ارتقب الموت سارع في الخيراتواليقين على أربع شعب: على تبصرة الفطنة وتأول الحكمة، وموعظة العبرة، وسنة الاولين، فمن تبصر في الفطنة تأول الحكمة، ومن تأول الحكمة عرف العبرة ومن عرف العبرة فكأنما عاش في الاولينوالعدل على أربع شعب: على غائص الفهم، وغمرة العلم، وزهرة الحكمة، وروضة الحلم، فمن فهم فسر جمل العلم، ومن علم شرح غرائب الحكم، ومن كان حليما لم يفرط في أمر يلبسه في الناسوالجهاد على أربع شعب: على الامر بالمعروف، والنهي عن المنكر، والصدق في المواطن وشنآن الفاسقين فمن أمر بالمعروف شد ظهر المؤمن، ومن نهى عن المنكر أرغم أنف المنافق ومن صدق في المواطن قضى الذي عليه، ومن شنأ الفاسقين وغضب لله عز وجل غضب الله له، فذلك الايمان ودعائمه وشعبهوالكفر على أربع دعائم: على الفسق، والعتو، والشك، والشبهةوالفسق على أربع شعب: على الجفاء، والعمى، والغفلة، والعتوفمن جفا حقر الحق، ومقت الفقهاء، وأصر على الحنث العظيم، ومن عمى نسي الذكر واتبع الظن، وألح عليه الشيطان، ومن غفل غرته الاماني، وأخذته الحسرة إذا انكشف الغطاء، وبدا له من الله مالم يكن يحتسب،ومن عتا عن أمر الله تعالى الله عليه. ثم أذله بسلطانه، وصغره بجلاله كما فرط في جنبه، وعتا عن أمر ربه الكريموالعتو على أربع شعب: على التعمق، والتنازع، والزيغ، والشقاق. فمن تعمق لم ينب إلى الحق ولم يزدد إلا غرقا في الغمرات، فلم تحتبس عنه فتنة إلا غشيته اخرى، وانخرق دينه، فهو يهيم في أمر مريجومن نازع وخاصم قطع بينهم الفشل وذاقوا وبال أمرهم، وساءت عنده الحسنة، وحسنت عنده السيئة، ومن ساءت عليه الحسنة أعورت عليه طرقه واعترض عليه أمره وضاق [عليه] مخرجه، وحري أن ترجع من دينه، ويتبع غير سبيل المؤمنين. والشك على أربع شعب: على الهول، والريب، والتردد، والاستسلام [فمن جعل المراء ديدنا لم يصبح ليله] "فبأي آلاء ربك يتمارى" المتمارون فمن هاله ما بين يديه نكص على عقبيه، ومن تردد في الريب سبقه الاولون، وأدركه الآخرون، وقطعته سنابك الشياطين، ومن استسلم لهلكة الدنيا والآخرة هلك فيما بينهما ومن نجا فباليقين. والشبهة على أربع شعب على الاعجاب بالزينة وتسويلالنفس، وتأول الفرج وتلبس الحق بالباطل، وذلك بأن الزينة تزيل على البينة وأن تسويل النفس يقحم على الشهوة، وإن الفرج يميل ميلا عظيما،وإن التلبس ظلمات بعضها فوق بعض، فذلك الكفر ودعائمه وشعبهوالنفاق على أربع دعائم: على الهوى، والهوينا، والحفيظة، والطمعوالهوى على أربع شعب: على البغي، والعدوان، والشهوة، والطغيان، فمن بغي كثرت غوائله وعلاته، ومن اعتدى لم تؤمن بوائقه، ولم يسلم قلبه، ومن لم يعزل نفسه عن الشهوات خاض في الخبيثات، ومن طغى ضل على غير يقين ولا حجة له وشعب الهوينا الهيبة، والغرة، والمماطلة والامل، وذلك لان الهيبة ترد على دين الحق، وتفرط المماطلة في العمل حتى يقدم الاجل، ولولا الامل علم الانسان حسب ما هو فيه، ولو علم حسب ما هو فيه مات من الهول والوجلوشعب الحفيظة: الكبر، والفخر، والحمية، والعصبية، فمن استكبر أدبر، ومن فخر فجر، ومن حمى أضر، ومن أخذته العصبية جار، فبئس الامر أمر بين الاستكبار والادبار، وفجور وجوروشعب الطمع أربع: الفرح، والمرح، واللجاجة، والتكاثر، فالفرح مكروه عند الله عز وجل، والمرح خيلاء، واللجاجة بلاء لمن اضطرته إلى حبائل الآثام، والتكاثر لهو وشغل واستبدال الذي هو أدنى بالذي هو خير، فذلك النفاق ودعائمه وشعبه


4-74 (The compiler of the book narrated) that his father - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Sa’ed ibn Abdullah quoted Muhammad ibn al-Hussein ibn Abil Khat’tab and Ahmad ibn al-Hassan ibn Ali ibn Faz’zal, on the authority of Ali ibn Asbat, on the authority of Al-Hassan ibn Zayd, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Salim, on the authority of Sa’ed ibn Tarif, on the authority of Al-Asbaq ibn al-Nobatat that the Commander of the Faithful Imam Ali (MGB) said, “Faith is founded on the following four: perseverance; certitude; justice and struggling in the way of God. There are four pillars of perseverance: courage, fear, piety, and awaiting. Anyone who is eager for Paradise will not be entrapped in lust. Anyone who fears Hell will abstain from committing forbidden acts. Calamities will be easy to bear for anyone who is pious in this world. Anyone who awaits death will attempt to do good deeds.There are four pillars of certitude: intelligence; foresight; wisdom; preaching lessons; and ways of the people of the past. One who is intelligent would have foresight. One who is wise would recognize things from which he can learn. One who recognizes things from which he can learn would learn the right approach. One who learns the right approach it is as if he is living with the experiences of the people of the past.There are four pillars for justice: deep understanding, thorough knowledge, good insight and great wisdom. One who understands deeply would explain the knowledge beautifully. One who has thorough knowledge would make acceptable decisions and one who is wise would not neglect anything and live admirably amongst the people.There are four pillars of struggling in the way of God: enjoining to do good; forbidding evil; persistence at the war front; and hating the corrupt people. One who enjoins to do so strengthens the back of the believers. One who forbids from evil, defeats the hypocrites. One who persists at the war front has done his duty. One who hates the corrupt people and the Honorable the Exalted God’s Wrath would also raise his wrath. This is belief, its pillars and its kinds. This is faith, its pillars and its various types.Atheism is founded on the following four: corruption; tyranny; doubt and dubiosity.There are four pillars of corruption: oppression, blind-heartedness, ignorance, and rebellion.One who is oppressive would belittle the truth; consider knowledgeable ones as his enemies, and insist on committing major sins. One who is blind-hearted would forget God, would follow his suspicions and be defeated by Satan. One who is ignorant would be fooled by high aspirations and would feel sorry when he realizes that these were just mirages. One who is rebellious would be debased by God through God’s Dominion and Majesty since he turns away from God and rebels against the decrees of his Noble Lord.There are four pillars of tyranny: pickiness; causing conflicts; mental aberration and causing discord.One who is picky would not adhere to the right. He would only get more drowned in problems. He is always entrapped in seditions and would be deviated away from the religion and would wander about in trouble aimlessly.One who causes conflicts and fights others would lose his ties with others. He would be in real trouble. Good things will turn into bad for him. Bad things will turn into good. Such people would not be able to find the right way, and it would become hard for them to find their way out. They would turn away from the religion and follow a path other than that which the believers follow.There are four pillars for doubt: fear; distrust; hesitation and surrendering. One who bases his religion on doubt would not be able to even sleep until the morning. ‘O those who dispute! ‘Then which of the gifts of thy Lord, (O man,) wilt thou dispute about?’ One who fears what is ahead of him would fall over. One who hesitates in doubt would fall behind others. They will overpass him and would be destroyed under the feet of the devils. One who surrenders would be destroyed between the affairs of this world and the next. Whoever adheres to certitude shall survive. There are four pillars for dubiosity: selfishness; fooling oneself;improper thoughts; and decorating what is indeed wrong in order to make it look right. This is how by selfishness one blocks off what is right. One who fools himself would be entrapped in the fire of lust. Improper thoughts would greatly harm one. Decorating what is wrong to look like right would cover up things with many layers of darkness. These were the various categories of atheism, its foundations and its various types. Hypocrisy is founded upon four things: selfishness, light-headedness, animosity and greed.There are four pillars for selfishness: trespassing, animosity, lust and rebellion. One who trespasses would be in a lot of trouble. He would never be calm. One who doesn’t control lust would wade in ice. One who rebels would undoubtedly go astray.And the various types of light-headedness are: sluggishness, being deceived, postponing deeds to a later time and having great expectations. One who acts sluggishly will not act according to God’s religion. One who postpones the deeds will put them off until he dies. If man did not have any great expectations, he would act according to his duties. If man doesn’t know his duties, he would badly die in fear. There are four types of animosity: haughtiness; pride; supporting one side; and being biased. One who is haughty would fall behind. One who is too proud would become corrupt. One who supports one side would be insisting on sins. One who is biased would be wicked. And greed can be classified into the following four categories: undue happiness and cheerfulness, stubbornness and hoarding up. Undue happiness and cheerfulness are not pleasant in the sight of the Honorable the Exalted God. Stubbornness is an evil thing which would entrap one in sins. Hoarding up would imply changing what could be useful into what is bad. These were the various categories of hypocrisy, its foundations and its various types.