12. Chapter On Attribute Of Essence (Sifat al-DhDhat) Of Allah

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ الطَّيَالِسِيِّ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنِ ابْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ لَمْ يَزَلِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ رَبَّنَا وَالْعِلْمُ ذَاتُهُ وَلا مَعْلُومَ وَالسَّمْعُ ذَاتُهُ وَلا مَسْمُوعَ وَالْبَصَرُ ذَاتُهُ وَلا مُبْصَرَ وَالْقُدْرَةُ ذَاتُهُ وَلا مَقْدُورَ فَلَمَّا أَحْدَثَ الاشْيَاءَ وَكَانَ الْمَعْلُومُ وَقَعَ الْعِلْمُ مِنْهُ عَلَى الْمَعْلُومِ وَالسَّمْعُ عَلَى الْمَسْمُوعِ وَالْبَصَرُ عَلَى الْمُبْصَرِ وَالْقُدْرَةُ عَلَى الْمَقْدُورِ قَالَ قُلْتُ فَلَمْ يَزَلِ الله مُتَحَرِّكاً قَالَ فَقَالَ تَعَالَى الله عَنْ ذَلِكَ إِنَّ الْحَرَكَةَ صِفَةٌ مُحْدَثَةٌ بِالْفِعْلِ قَالَ قُلْتُ فَلَمْ يَزَلِ الله مُتَكَلِّماً قَالَ فَقَالَ إِنَّ الْكَلامَ صِفَةٌ مُحْدَثَةٌ لَيْسَتْ بِأَزَلِيَّةٍ كَانَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَلا مُتَكَلِّمَ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn Khalid al-Tayalisi from Safwan ibn Yahya from ibn Maskan from abu Basir who has said the following. “I heard abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) saying, ‘The Exalted, the Glorious, Allah, our Lord, is Eternal. Knowledge is His self even if there is nothing to be known. Hearing is His self even if there is nothing to be heard. Seeing is His-self even when there is nothing to be seen. Power is His self even if there is nothing to feel the power. When He brought things into existence the perceptible objects became the objects of His knowledge, His hearing applied to audible objects, His seeing to visible objects and His power to the objects that feel power.’” Abu Basir adds; “I further asked, ‘Has Allah always been in motion?” He replied, “Allah is High Exalted above that. Motion is an attribute that is created through action.” I asked, “Did Allah always have the ability to speak?” He replied, “ Speech is a created attribute and not an eternal one. Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, existed when there was nothing able to speak.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/ 2)



2ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ ابي جعفر (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ كَانَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَلا شَيْ‏ءَ غَيْرُهُ وَلَمْ يَزَلْ عَالِماً بِمَا يَكُونُ فَعِلْمُهُ بِهِ قَبْلَ كَوْنِهِ كَعِلْمِهِ بِهِ بَعْدَ كَوْنِهِ.


2. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hisham ibn Salim from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said the following. “I heard abu Ja‘far (a.s.) saying, ‘Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, existed when nothing else existed. He eternally knows whatever comes into being. His knowledge of things before their coming into existence and afterwards is exactly the same.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (2/10)



3ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنِ الْكَاهِلِيِّ قَالَ كَتَبْتُ إِلَى أَبِي الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي دُعَاءٍ الْحَمْدُ لله مُنْتَهَى عِلْمِهِ فَكَتَبَ إِلَيَّ لا تَقُولَنَّ مُنْتَهَى عِلْمِهِ فَلَيْسَ لِعِلْمِهِ مُنْتَهًى وَلَكِنْ قُلْ مُنْتَهَى رِضَاهُ‏.


3. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from Safwan ibn Yahya from al-Kahili who has said the following. “I wrote to abu al-Hassan (al-Kazim) (a.s.), praising Allah in my letter as, ‘All praise belongs to Allah to the limit of His knowledge.’” He wrote back to me, “Do not say, “To the limit of His knowledge because there is no limit to His knowledge. Instead say, “All praise belongs to Allah to the limit of His pleasure.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (2/10)



4ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ سَعْدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الله عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ أَيُّوبَ بْنِ نُوحٍ أَنَّهُ كَتَبَ إِلَى أَبِي الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَسْأَلُهُ عَنِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَ كَانَ يَعْلَمُ الاشْيَاءَ قَبْلَ أَنْ خَلَقَ الاشْيَاءَ وَكَوَّنَهَا أَوْ لَمْ يَعْلَمْ ذَلِكَ حَتَّى خَلَقَهَا وَأَرَادَ خَلْقَهَا وَتَكْوِينَهَا فَعَلِمَ مَا خَلَقَ عِنْدَ مَا خَلَقَ وَمَا كَوَّنَ عِنْدَ مَا كَوَّنَ فَوَقَّعَ بِخَطِّهِ لَمْ يَزَلِ الله عَالِماً بِالاشْيَاءِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَخْلُقَ الاشْيَاءَ كَعِلْمِهِ بِالاشْيَاءِ بَعْدَ مَا خَلَقَ الاشْيَاءَ.


4. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Sa‘d ibn ‘Abdallah from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Ayyub ibn Nuh, who wrote to abu al-Hassan (al-Thalith (a.s.) asking him about Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious. “Did He know all things before creating and giving them being, or did He not know until He brought them into existence or until He willed their creation and existence? Did Allah come to know what He created during the process of their creation and what He originated during their being originated?” The Imam wrote in reply in his own handwriting, “Eternally Allah has had full knowledge of all things, before as well as after their creation.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (2/11)



5ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ حَمْزَةَ قَالَ كَتَبْتُ إِلَى الرَّجُلِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَسْأَلُهُ أَنَّ مَوَالِيَكَ اخْتَلَفُوا فِي الْعِلْمِ فَقَالَ بَعْضُهُمْ لَمْ يَزَلِ الله عَالِماً قَبْلَ فِعْلِ الاشْيَاءِ وَقَالَ بَعْضُهُمْ لا نَقُولُ لَمْ يَزَلِ الله عَالِماً لانَّ مَعْنَى يَعْلَمُ يَفْعَلُ فَإِنْ أَثْبَتْنَا الْعِلْمَ فَقَدْ أَثْبَتْنَا فِي الازَلِ مَعَهُ شَيْئاً فَإِنْ رَأَيْتَ جَعَلَنِيَ الله فِدَاكَ أَنْ تُعَلِّمَنِي مِنْ ذَلِكَ مَا أَقِفُ عَلَيْهِ وَلا أَجُوزُهُ فَكَتَبَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) بِخَطِّهِ لَمْ يَزَلِ الله عَالِماً تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى ذِكْرُهُ.


5. Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ja‘far ibn Muhammad ibn Hamzah who has said the following. “I wrote to the man (Imam (a.s.), ‘Your followers differ about the knowledge of Allah. There are those who say that before creating all things Allah had eternally full knowledge of them. Others say that we should not say so because His knowing is like His action. If we prove that His Knowledge is eternal we have also established another thing eternal along with Him. May Allah take my soul in service for your cause, if you would consider it proper, kindly enlighten me in this issue so that I would have a firm stand and do not waver therefrom.” He wrote in his own handwriting, “Eternally Allah , the Most Holy, the Most High has had the Knowledge of all things.” ?? and Allah’s Positive Attributes such as His knowledge are the same as His Essence without any duality between His Essence and His Positive Attributes).’ “


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (11/ 2)



6ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الصَّمَدِ بْنِ بَشِيرٍ عَنْ فُضَيْلِ بْنِ سُكَّرَةَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لابي جعفر (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ إِنْ رَأَيْتَ أَنْ تُعَلِّمَنِي هَلْ كَانَ الله جَلَّ وَجْهُهُ يَعْلَمُ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَخْلُقَ الْخَلْقَ أَنَّهُ وَحْدَهُ فَقَدِ اخْتَلَفَ مَوَالِيكَ فَقَالَ بَعْضُهُمْ قَدْ كَانَ يَعْلَمُ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَخْلُقَ شَيْئاً مِنْ خَلْقِهِ وَقَالَ بَعْضُهُمْ إِنَّمَا مَعْنَى يَعْلَمُ يَفْعَلُ فَهُوَ الْيَوْمَ يَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُ لا غَيْرُهُ قَبْلَ فِعْلِ الاشْيَاءِ فَقَالُوا إِنْ أَثْبَتْنَا أَنَّهُ لَمْ يَزَلْ عَالِماً بِأَنَّهُ لا غَيْرُهُ فَقَدْ أَثْبَتْنَا مَعَهُ غَيْرَهُ فِي أَزَلِيَّتِهِ فَإِنْ رَأَيْتَ يَا سَيِّدِي أَنْ تُعَلِّمَنِي مَا لا أَعْدُوهُ إِلَى غَيْرِهِ فَكَتَبَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) مَا زَالَ الله عَالِماً تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى ذِكْرُهُ.


6. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad from ’Abd al-Samad ibn Bashir from Fudayl ibn Sukkarah who has said the following. “I asked abu Ja‘far (a.s.), ‘May Allah take my soul in service for your cause, if you would consider it proper please enlighten me about whether Allah, Majestic is Whose face, had knowledge of His Oneness before He brought the creation into existence? Your followers differ on this issue. There are those who believe that Allah did have knowledge of His Oneness before He created anything. Others say His knowledge is His action. Thus, now Allah has come to know that before He created things there had been nothing besides He Himself. They say that if we believe in the eternal knowledge of Allah of His Oneness, we have established another thing eternal along with Him. If you would consider it proper please enlighten me in this issue so I may not waver here and there.” He wrote, “Allah, the Blessed and Exalted has always had the Knowledge of all things.” (See Hadith No. 294 – 53)


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (2/12)