11. Chapter On Prohibition on Considering Allah as having Body (JISM) and Form (SURAH)

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1ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ إِدْرِيسَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لابِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) سَمِعْتُ هِشَامَ بْنَ الْحَكَمِ يَرْوِي عَنْكُمْ أَنَّ الله جِسْمٌ صَمَدِيٌّ نُورِيٌّ مَعْرِفَتُهُ ضَرُورَةٌ يَمُنُّ بِهَا عَلَى مَنْ يَشَاءُ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ فَقَالَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) سُبْحَانَ مَنْ لا يَعْلَمُ أَحَدٌ كَيْفَ هُوَ إِلا هُوَ لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ لا يُحَدُّ وَلا يُحَسُّ وَلا يُجَسُّ وَلا تُدْرِكُهُ الابْصَارُ وَلا الْحَوَاسُّ وَلا يُحِيطُ بِهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَلا جِسْمٌ وَلا صُورَةٌ وَلا تَخْطِيطٌ وَلا تَحْدِيدٌ.


1. Ahmad ibn Idris has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar from Safwan ibn Yahya from Ali ibn abu Hamzah, who has said the following. “I stated before abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) that I have heard Hisham ibn al-Hakam quoting you that Allah is a body of Self-subsisting nature and is from light. He can very clearly be recognized and He bestows such knowledge to whoever among His creatures He wills.” The Imam said, “Glorious is He, Whom no one knows how He is except He Himself. There is no one similar to Him and He is All-hearing, All-seeing. He cannot be limited, nor can He be felt or touched or moved. Eyes cannot see Him nor any of the senses can comprehend Him. He cannot be contained in anything, nor has He any body or form or figure or confine.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/ 2)



2ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْحَسَنِ عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ حَمْزَةَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ قَالَ كَتَبْتُ إِلَى أَبِي الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَسْأَلُهُ عَنِ الْجِسْمِ وَالصُّورَةِ فَكَتَبَ سُبْحَانَ مَنْ لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ لا جِسْمٌ وَلا صُورَةٌ.


وَرَوَاهُ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله إِلا أَنَّهُ لَمْ يُسَمِّ الرَّجُلَ.


Muhammad ibn al-Hassan has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Hamzah ibn Muhammad who has said the following. “I wrote to Imam abu al-Hassan (al-Thalith 3rd (a.s.) asking about the body and form (of Allah). He wrote in reply, ‘Glorious is He similar to Who there is nothing. He is not a body nor has He any form.’” This Hadith has also been narrated by Muhammad ibn abu ‘Abdallah without giving the name of the person (from whom he has heard).


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف وآخره مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (2/2)



3ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْحَسَنِ عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ بَزِيعٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ زَيْدٍ قَالَ جِئْتُ إِلَى الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَسْأَلُهُ عَنِ التَّوْحِيدِ فَأَمْلَى عَلَيَّ الْحَمْدُ لله فَاطِرِ الاشْيَاءِ إِنْشَاءً وَمُبْتَدِعِهَا ابْتِدَاعاً بِقُدْرَتِهِ وَحِكْمَتِهِ لا مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَيَبْطُلَ الاخْتِرَاعُ وَلا لِعِلَّةٍ فَلا يَصِحَّ الابْتِدَاعُ خَلَقَ مَا شَاءَ كَيْفَ شَاءَ مُتَوَحِّداً بِذَلِكَ لاظْهَارِ حِكْمَتِهِ وَحَقِيقَةِ رُبُوبِيَّتِهِ لا تَضْبِطُهُ الْعُقُولُ وَلا تَبْلُغُهُ الاوْهَامُ وَلا تُدْرِكُهُ الابْصَارُ وَلا يُحِيطُ بِهِ مِقْدَارٌ عَجَزَتْ دُونَهُ الْعِبَارَةُ وَكَلَّتْ دُونَهُ الابْصَارُ وَضَلَّ فِيهِ تَصَارِيفُ الصِّفَاتِ احْتَجَبَ بِغَيْرِ حِجَابٍ مَحْجُوبٍ وَاسْتَتَرَ بِغَيْرِ سِتْرٍ مَسْتُورٍ عُرِفَ بِغَيْرِ رُؤْيَةٍ وَوُصِفَ بِغَيْرِ صُورَةٍ وَنُعِتَ بِغَيْرِ جِسْمٍ لا إِلَهَ إِلا الله الْكَبِيرُ الْمُتَعَالِ.


3. Muhammad ibn al-Hassan has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Muhammad ibn Isma‘il ibn Bazi‘ from Muhammad ibn Zayd who has said the following. “I went to Imam al-Rida (a.s.) to ask about the Oneness of Allah (God). The Imam dictated to me thus, ‘All praise belongs to Allah, Who is the originator of all things. He is the inventor of all things, an invention that came from His power and wisdom but not from a thing so it would invalidate the invention and not from a cause so it would invalidate the novelty. He created whatever He wanted and howsoever He liked. He alone did all this to manifest His Wisdom and the truth of His Providence. Intelligence cannot comprehend Him, (Awham) imagination cannot reach Him, eyes cannot see Him and measurements cannot confine Him. The power of expression is unable to express Him in words. All sights are exhausted from reaching Him and the power of describing and defining have gone astray in its description and definition of His-self. He is hidden without any veil and is concealed without any covering. He is known without being seen; described without any form, and praised without any body. There is no god, except Allah, the Great, the Most High.’”




4ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله عَمَّنْ ذَكَرَهُ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْعَبَّاسِ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ حَكِيمٍ قَالَ وَصَفْتُ لابِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَوْلَ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ الْجَوَالِيقِيِّ وَحَكَيْتُ لَهُ قَوْلَ هِشَامِ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ أَنَّهُ جِسْمٌ فَقَالَ إِنَّ الله تَعَالَى لا يُشْبِهُهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ أَيُّ فُحْشٍ أَوْ خَناً أَعْظَمُ مِنْ قَوْلِ مَنْ يَصِفُ خَالِقَ الاشْيَاءِ بِجِسْمٍ أَوْ صُورَةٍ أَوْ بِخِلْقَةٍ أَوْ بِتَحْدِيدٍ وَأَعْضَاءٍ تَعَالَى الله عَنْ ذَلِكَ عُلُوّاً كَبِيراً.


4. Muhammad ibn Abu ‘Abdallah has narrated from those he mentioned from Ali ibn al-‘Abbass from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn abu Nasr from Muhammad ibn Hakim. He has said that I explained to abu Ibrahim (Musa al-Kazim (a.s.), the words of Hisham ibn Salim al-Jawaliqi and the words of Hisham ibn al-Hakam that say Allah is a body. The Imam (a.s.) said, “Allah, the Most High, is not similar to any of the things. What can be more blasphemous and scandalous than to describe the Creator of all things by means of body, form, type of creation, limitations, limbs and organs. Allah, the Most High, the Great, is far above these things.”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (2/3)



5ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ رَفَعَهُ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْفَرَجِ الرُّخَّجِيِّ قَالَ كَتَبْتُ إِلَى أَبِي الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَسْأَلُهُ عَمَّا قَالَ هِشَامُ بْنُ الْحَكَمِ فِي الْجِسْمِ وَهِشَامُ بْنُ سَالِمٍ فِي الصُّورَةِ فَكَتَبَ دَعْ عَنْكَ حَيْرَةَ الْحَيْرَانِ وَاسْتَعِذْ بِالله مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ لَيْسَ الْقَوْلُ مَا قَالَ الْهِشَامَانِ.


5. Ali ibn Muhammad, in a marfu‘ manner, has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Faraj al-Rukhkhaji who has said the following. “I wrote to Imam abu al-Hassan (a.s.), about the words of Hisham ibn al-Hakam, about the body and the words of Hisham ibn Salim about the form (of Allah). He wrote in reply, ‘Remove from thyself the confusion of the confounded people and seek refuge from Allah against Shaytan (Satan). What the two Hishams have said is not correct.’”




6ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ عَنْ بَكْرِ بْنِ صَالِحٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ يُونُسَ بْنَ ظَبْيَانَ يَقُولُ دَخَلْتُ عَلَى أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَقُلْتُ لَهُ إِنَّ هِشَامَ بْنَ الْحَكَمِ يَقُولُ قَوْلاً عَظِيماً إِلا أَنِّي أَخْتَصِرُ لَكَ مِنْهُ أَحْرُفاً فَزَعَمَ أَنَّ الله جِسْمٌ لانَّ الاشْيَاءَ شَيْئَانِ جِسْمٌ وَفِعْلُ الْجِسْمِ فَلا يَجُوزُ أَنْ يَكُونَ الصَّانِعُ بِمَعْنَى الْفِعْلِ وَيَجُوزُ أَنْ يَكُونَ بِمَعْنَى الْفَاعِلِ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) وَيْحَهُ أَ مَا عَلِمَ أَنَّ الْجِسْمَ مَحْدُودٌ مُتَنَاهٍ وَالصُّورَةَ مَحْدُودَةٌ مُتَنَاهِيَةٌ فَإِذَا احْتَمَلَ الْحَدَّ احْتَمَلَ الزِّيَادَةَ وَالنُّقْصَانَ وَإِذَا احْتَمَلَ الزِّيَادَةَ وَالنُّقْصَانَ كَانَ مَخْلُوقاً قَالَ قُلْتُ فَمَا أَقُولُ قَالَ لا جِسْمٌ وَلا صُورَةٌ وَهُوَ مُجَسِّمُ الاجْسَامِ وَمُصَوِّرُ الصُّوَرِ لَمْ يَتَجَزَّأْ وَلَمْ يَتَنَاهَ وَلَمْ يَتَزَايَدْ وَلَمْ يَتَنَاقَصْ لَوْ كَانَ كَمَا يَقُولُونَ لَمْ يَكُنْ بَيْنَ الْخَالِقِ وَالْمَخْلُوقِ فَرْقٌ وَلا بَيْنَ الْمُنْشِئِ وَالْمُنْشَإِ لَكِنْ هُوَ الْمُنْشِئُ فَرْقٌ بَيْنَ مَنْ جَسَّمَهُ وَصَوَّرَهُ وَأَنْشَأَهُ إِذْ كَانَ لا يُشْبِهُهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَلا يُشْبِهُ هُوَ شَيْئاً.


6. Muhammad ibn Abu ‘Abdallah has narrated from Muhammad ibn Isma‘il from al-Husayn ibn al-Hassan from Bakr ibn Salih from al-Hassan ibn Sa‘id from ‘Abdullah ibn al-Mughirah from Muhammad ibn Ziyad who has said the following. “I heard Yunus ibn Zabyan saying, ‘I went to meet abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.), and said, “Hisham ibn al-Hakam has uttered monstrous words. I will briefly mention a few words. He thinks Allah has a body because things are of two types; (a) body and (b) the acts. It is not possible for the Creator Himself to be just actions or functions. But it is possible to consider Him as the agent.” Abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) then said, ‘That is not proper from him. Does he not know that the body has limits and the form has limits and an end? Whatever is subject to limitations is also subject to increase and reduction and such things are created.’ I then asked, “What then I should say?” He replied, ‘Allah is without body and form. He is the giver of body to all bodies and the giver of form to all forms. He can not be divided or limited. He does not grow or decrease. If it were as they say, then there would have been no difference between the Creator and the created, the inventor and the invented. But He is the Creator and the inventor. He has made the distinction and differentiation between that to which He has given body, form and that which He has invented. This is because nothing is similar to Him nor He resembles anything.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (2/5)



7ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْعَبَّاسِ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ الْحِمَّانِيِّ قَالَ قُلْتُ لابِي الْحَسَنِ مُوسَى بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهما السَّلام) إِنَّ هِشَامَ بْنَ الْحَكَمِ زَعَمَ أَنَّ الله جِسْمٌ لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ عَالِمٌ سَمِيعٌ بَصِيرٌ قَادِرٌ مُتَكَلِّمٌ نَاطِقٌ وَالْكَلامُ وَالْقُدْرَةُ وَالْعِلْمُ يَجْرِي مَجْرَى وَاحِدٍ لَيْسَ شَيْ‏ءٌ مِنْهَا مَخْلُوقاً فَقَالَ قَاتَلَهُ الله أَ مَا عَلِمَ أَنَّ الْجِسْمَ مَحْدُودٌ وَالْكَلامَ غَيْرُ الْمُتَكَلِّمِ مَعَاذَ الله وَأَبْرَأُ إِلَى الله مِنْ هَذَا الْقَوْلِ لا جِسْمٌ وَلا صُورَةٌ وَلا تَحْدِيدٌ وَكُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ سِوَاهُ مَخْلُوقٌ إِنَّمَا تُكَوَّنُ الاشْيَاءُ بِإِرَادَتِهِ وَمَشِيئَتِهِ مِنْ غَيْرِ كَلامٍ وَلا تَرَدُّدٍ فِي نَفَسٍ وَلا نُطْقٍ بِلِسَانٍ.


7. Muhammad ibn abu ‘Abdallah has narrated from Muhammad ibn Isma‘il from Ali ibn al-‘Abbass from al-Hassan ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Hammani who has said the following. “I said to abu al-Hassan Musa ibn Ja‘far (a.s.), ‘Hisham ibn al-Hakam claims that Allah is a body like unto Whom there is no one. He is All-knowing, All-hearing, All-seeing, All-powerful. He speaks and reasons. His word, His power, His knowledge are all in one. No one of them is created.’” The Imam said, “May Allah be his foe. Does he not know that the body is limited, and that the speech is other than what the speaker is? I seek refuge from Allah and I disclaim such words. Allah does not have a body, form or any kind of limitations. Allah has created everything. He creates things as and when He wills without any word or planing in the mind or utterance of the tongue.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (2/7)



8ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ حَكِيمٍ قَالَ وَصَفْتُ لابِي الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَوْلَ هِشَامٍ الْجَوَالِيقِيِّ وَمَا يَقُولُ فِي الشَّابِّ الْمُوَفَّقِ وَوَصَفْتُ لَهُ قَوْلَ هِشَامِ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ فَقَالَ إِنَّ الله لا يُشْبِهُهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ.


8. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Iisa from Yunus from Muhammad ibn Hakim who has said the following. “I mentioned to abu al-Hassan al-Awwal (the first) (a.s.), the statements of Hisham al-Jawaliqi and what he says about fully grown up young man (see Hadith 3 Chapter on prohibited Attributes). I also mentioned the statements of Hisham ibn al-Hakam in this matter.” The Imam said, “Allah, certainly, is not similar to any thing.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (8/ 2)