Al-Kāfi - Volume 1 > Chapter on the Differences in al-Hadith
Hadith #10

10ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ دَاوُدَ بْنِ الْحُصَيْنِ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ حَنْظَلَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ رَجُلَيْنِ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا بَيْنَهُمَا مُنَازَعَةٌ فِي دَيْنٍ أَوْ مِيرَاثٍ فَتَحَاكَمَا إِلَى السُّلْطَانِ وَإِلَى الْقُضَاةِ أَ يَحِلُّ ذَلِكَ قَالَ مَنْ تَحَاكَمَ إِلَيْهِمْ فِي حَقٍّ أَوْ بَاطِلٍ فَإِنَّمَا تَحَاكَمَ إِلَى الطَّاغُوتِ وَمَا يَحْكُمُ لَهُ فَإِنَّمَا يَأْخُذُ سُحْتاً وَإِنْ كَانَ حَقّاً ثَابِتاً لانَّهُ أَخَذَهُ بِحُكْمِ الطَّاغُوتِ وَقَدْ أَمَرَ الله أَنْ يُكْفَرَ بِهِ قَالَ الله تَعَالَى يُرِيدُونَ أَنْ يَتَحاكَمُوا إِلَى الطَّاغُوتِ وَقَدْ أُمِرُوا أَنْ يَكْفُرُوا بِهِ قُلْتُ فَكَيْفَ يَصْنَعَانِ قَالَ يَنْظُرَانِ إِلَى مَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ مِمَّنْ قَدْ رَوَى حَدِيثَنَا وَنَظَرَ فِي حَلالِنَا وَحَرَامِنَا وَعَرَفَ أَحْكَامَنَا فَلْيَرْضَوْا بِهِ حَكَماً فَإِنِّي قَدْ جَعَلْتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ حَاكِماً فَإِذَا حَكَمَ بِحُكْمِنَا فَلَمْ يَقْبَلْهُ مِنْهُ فَإِنَّمَا اسْتَخَفَّ بِحُكْمِ الله وَعَلَيْنَا رَدَّ وَالرَّادُّ عَلَيْنَا الرَّادُّ عَلَى الله وَهُوَ عَلَى حَدِّ الشِّرْكِ بِالله قُلْتُ فَإِنْ كَانَ كُلُّ رَجُلٍ اخْتَارَ رَجُلاً مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا فَرَضِيَا أَنْ يَكُونَا النَّاظِرَيْنِ فِي حَقِّهِمَا وَاخْتَلَفَا فِيمَا حَكَمَا وَكِلاهُمَا اخْتَلَفَا فِي حَدِيثِكُمْ قَالَ الْحُكْمُ مَا حَكَمَ بِهِ أَعْدَلُهُمَا وَأَفْقَهُهُمَا وَأَصْدَقُهُمَا فِي الْحَدِيثِ وَأَوْرَعُهُمَا وَلا يَلْتَفِتْ إِلَى مَا يَحْكُمُ بِهِ الاخَرُ قَالَ قُلْتُ فَإِنَّهُمَا عَدْلانِ مَرْضِيَّانِ عِنْدَ أَصْحَابِنَا لا يُفَضَّلُ وَاحِدٌ مِنْهُمَا عَلَى الاخَرِ قَالَ فَقَالَ يُنْظَرُ إِلَى مَا كَانَ مِنْ رِوَايَتِهِمْ عَنَّا فِي ذَلِكَ الَّذِي حَكَمَا بِهِ الْمُجْمَعُ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ أَصْحَابِكَ فَيُؤْخَذُ بِهِ مِنْ حُكْمِنَا وَيُتْرَكُ الشَّاذُّ الَّذِي لَيْسَ بِمَشْهُورٍ عِنْدَ أَصْحَابِكَ فَإِنَّ الْمُجْمَعَ عَلَيْهِ لا رَيْبَ فِيهِ وَإِنَّمَا الامُورُ ثَلاثَةٌ أَمْرٌ بَيِّنٌ رُشْدُهُ فَيُتَّبَعُ وَأَمْرٌ بَيِّنٌ غَيُّهُ فَيُجْتَنَبُ وَأَمْرٌ مُشْكِلٌ يُرَدُّ عِلْمُهُ إِلَى الله وَإِلَى رَسُولِهِ قَالَ رَسُولُ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) حَلالٌ بَيِّنٌ وَحَرَامٌ بَيِّنٌ وَشُبُهَاتٌ بَيْنَ ذَلِكَ فَمَنْ تَرَكَ الشُّبُهَاتِ نَجَا مِنَ الْمُحَرَّمَاتِ وَمَنْ أَخَذَ بِالشُّبُهَاتِ ارْتَكَبَ الْمُحَرَّمَاتِ وَهَلَكَ مِنْ حَيْثُ لا يَعْلَمُ قُلْتُ فَإِنْ كَانَ الْخَبَرَانِ عَنْكُمَا مَشْهُورَيْنِ قَدْ رَوَاهُمَا الثِّقَاتُ عَنْكُمْ قَالَ يُنْظَرُ فَمَا وَافَقَ حُكْمُهُ حُكْمَ الْكِتَابِ وَالسُّنَّةِ وَخَالَفَ الْعَامَّةَ فَيُؤْخَذُ بِهِ وَيُتْرَكُ مَا خَالَفَ حُكْمُهُ حُكْمَ الْكِتَابِ وَالسُّنَّةِ وَوَافَقَ الْعَامَّةَ قُلْتُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ أَ رَأَيْتَ إِنْ كَانَ الْفَقِيهَانِ عَرَفَا حُكْمَهُ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَالسُّنَّةِ وَوَجَدْنَا أَحَدَ الْخَبَرَيْنِ مُوَافِقاً لِلْعَامَّةِ وَالاخَرَ مُخَالِفاً لَهُمْ بِأَيِّ الْخَبَرَيْنِ يُؤْخَذُ قَالَ مَا خَالَفَ الْعَامَّةَ فَفِيهِ الرَّشَادُ فَقُلْتُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ فَإِنْ وَافَقَهُمَا الْخَبَرَانِ جَمِيعاً قَالَ يُنْظَرُ إِلَى مَا هُمْ إِلَيْهِ أَمْيَلُ حُكَّامُهُمْ وَقُضَاتُهُمْ فَيُتْرَكُ وَيُؤْخَذُ بِالاخَرِ قُلْتُ فَإِنْ وَافَقَ حُكَّامُهُمُ الْخَبَرَيْنِ جَمِيعاً قَالَ إِذَا كَانَ ذَلِكَ فَأَرْجِهْ حَتَّى تَلْقَى إِمَامَكَ فَإِنَّ الْوُقُوفَ عِنْدَ الشُّبُهَاتِ خَيْرٌ مِنَ الاقْتِحَامِ فِي الْهَلَكَاتِ.

10. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Safwan ibn Yahya from Dawud ibn al-Husayn from ‘Umar ibn Hanzala who has said the following. “I asked Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) about the two people with a dispute between them on the issue of debts or inheritance and they go to the king or the judges for a decision is it permissible to seek such decisions?” The Imam replied, “Whoever would go to them for a judgement in a right or wrongful matter it is like seeking the judgment of the devil. Anything received through such judgment would like consuming filth even if it would one’s established right. It is because of receiving through the judgment of the devil and Allah has commanded to reject the devil, “yet choose to take their affairs to Satan for judgment even though they are commanded to deny him. Satan wants to lead them far away from the right path. (4:60)” I said, “What should then they do?” The Imam replied, “They must look for one among you who have narrated our Hadith and have studied what is lawful and unlawful in our teachings and have learned our laws they must agree to settle their dispute according to his judgment because I have made him over you a ruler. When he may judge according to our commands and then it is not accepted from him the dissenting this judgment has ignored the commands of Allah and it is rejection of us. Rejecting us is rejecting Allah and that is up to the level of paganism and considering things equal to Allah.” I said, “What if each one of such disputing parties would chose a man from among our people and agree to accept their judgment but these two man would come up with different judgments and they would have differences in your Hadith?” The Imam replied, “The judgment will be the judgment of the one who has a more just, having more better understanding of the law, Fiqh, the more truthful in Hadith and the more pious of the two. The judgment of the other one will be disregarded.” I said, “What if both (of such judges) would be just and accepted among our people and none of them would have been any preference over the other?” The Imam replied, “One must consider and study the hadith that each one of them would narrate from us as to which has received the acceptance of all of your people. Such Hadith must be followed and the one, which rarely accepted and is not popular in your people, must be disregarded because the one popularly accepted is free of doubts. The nature of cases are of three kinds: (a) A case that is a well-known and true to follow. (b) A case that is well known to be false to stay away from. (c) And a confusing case the knowledge of which must be left to Allah and His Prophet for an answer. The holy Prophet has said, ‘There is the clearly lawful and the clearly unlawful and the confusing cases. One who stays away from the confusing ones he has protected himself against the unlawful ones. Those who follow the confusing matters they indulge in unlawful matters and will be destroyed unexpectedly.” I said, “What if both Hadith from you would be popular and narrated by the trustworthy people from you?” The Imam replied, “One must study to find out which one agrees with the laws of the Quran and the Sunnah and it does not agree with the laws of the those who oppose us. Such Hadith must be accepted and the one that disagree with the laws of the Quran and the Sunnah and coincides the masses must be disregarded.” I said, “May Allah take my soul in the service of your cause, What if both Faqih, scholars of the law would have deduced and learned their judgment from the book and the Sunnah and found that one of the Hadith agrees with the masses and the other disagrees with the masses which one must be followed?” The Imam replied, “The one which disagrees with the masses must be followed because in it there is guidance.” I said, “May Allah take my soul in the service of your cause, what if both Hadith would agree with the masses?” The Imam replied, “One must study to find out of the two the one that is more agreeable to their rulers and judges must be disregarded and the other must be followed.” I said, “What if both Hadith would agree with their rulers?” The Imam replied, “If such would be the case it must be suspended until you meet your Imam. Restraint in confusing cases is better than indulging in destruction.”