398. Hadith

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ابْنُ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ جَمِيلِ بْنِ صَالِحٍ عَنْ أَبِي عُبَيْدَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ (عليه السلام) عَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ الم غُلِبَتِ الرُّومُ فِي أَدْنَى الْأَرْضِ قَالَ فَقَالَ يَا أَبَا عُبَيْدَةَ إِنَّ لِهَذَا تَأْوِيلًا لَا يَعْلَمُهُ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَ الرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ مِنْ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ صَلَوَاتُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِمْ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ (صلى الله عليه وآله) لَمَّا هَاجَرَ إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ وَ أَظْهَرَ الْإِسْلَامَ كَتَبَ إِلَى مَلِكِ الرُّومِ كِتَاباً وَ بَعَثَ بِهِ مَعَ رَسُولٍ يَدْعُوهُ إِلَى الْإِسْلَامِ وَ كَتَبَ إِلَى مَلِكِ فَارِسَ كِتَاباً يَدْعُوهُ إِلَى الْإِسْلَامِ وَ بَعَثَهُ إِلَيْهِ مَعَ رَسُولِهِ فَأَمَّا مَلِكُ الرُّومِ فَعَظَّمَ كِتَابَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ (صلى الله عليه وآله) وَ أَكْرَمَ رَسُولَهُ وَ أَمَّا مَلِكُ فَارِسَ فَإِنَّهُ اسْتَخَفَّ بِكِتَابِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ (صلى الله عليه وآله) وَ مَزَّقَهُ وَ اسْتَخَفَّ بِرَسُولِهِ وَ كَانَ مَلِكُ فَارِسَ يَوْمَئِذٍ يُقَاتِلُ مَلِكَ الرُّومِ وَ كَانَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ يَهْوَوْنَ أَنْ يَغْلِبَ مَلِكُ الرُّومِ مَلِكَ فَارِسَ وَ كَانُوا لِنَاحِيَتِهِ أَرْجَى مِنْهُمْ لِمَلِكِ فَارِسَ فَلَمَّا غَلَبَ مَلِكُ فَارِسَ مَلِكَ الرُّومِ كَرِهَ ذَلِكَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ وَ اغْتَمُّوا بِهِ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ بِذَلِكَ كِتَاباً قُرْآناً الم غُلِبَتِ الرُّومُ فِي أَدْنَى الْأَرْضِ يَعْنِي غَلَبَتْهَا فَارِسُ فِي أَدْنَى الْأَرْضِ وَ هِيَ الشَّامَاتُ وَ مَا حَوْلَهَا وَ هُمْ يَعْنِي وَ فَارِسُ مِنْ بَعْدِ غَلَبِهِمْ الرُّومَ سَيَغْلِبُونَ يَعْنِي يَغْلِبُهُمُ الْمُسْلِمُونَ فِي بِضْعِ سِنِينَ لِلَّهِ الْأَمْرُ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَ مِنْ بَعْدُ وَ يَوْمَئِذٍ يَفْرَحُ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ بِنَصْرِ اللَّهِ يَنْصُرُ مَنْ يَشاءُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ فَلَمَّا غَزَا الْمُسْلِمُونَ فَارِسَ وَ افْتَتَحُوهَا فَرِحَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ بِنَصْرِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ قَالَ قُلْتُ أَ لَيْسَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ يَقُولُ فِي بِضْعِ سِنِينَ وَ قَدْ مَضَى لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ سِنُونَ كَثِيرَةٌ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ (صلى الله عليه وآله) وَ فِي إِمَارَةِ أَبِي بَكْرٍ وَ إِنَّمَا غَلَبَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ فَارِسَ فِي إِمَارَةِ عُمَرَ فَقَالَ أَ لَمْ أَقُلْ لَكُمْ إِنَّ لِهَذَا تَأْوِيلًا وَ تَفْسِيراً وَ الْقُرْآنُ يَا أَبَا عُبَيْدَةَ نَاسِخٌ وَ مَنْسُوخٌ أَ مَا تَسْمَعُ لِقَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لِلَّهِ الْأَمْرُ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَ مِنْ بَعْدُ يَعْنِي إِلَيْهِ الْمَشِيئَةُ فِي الْقَوْلِ أَنْ يُؤَخِّرَ مَا قَدَّمَ وَ يُقَدِّمَ مَا أَخَّرَ فِي الْقَوْلِ إِلَى يَوْمٍ يَحْتِمُ الْقَضَاءَ بِنُزُولِ النَّصْرِ فِيهِ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ يَوْمَئِذٍ يَفْرَحُ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ بِنَصْرِ اللَّهِ يَنْصُرُ مَنْ يَشاءُ أَيْ يَوْمَ يَحْتِمُ الْقَضَاءَ بِالنَّصْر.


398. Ibn Mahboub, from Jameel Bin Salih, from Abu Ubeyda who said: I asked Abu Ja’far (asws) about the Statement of Allah (azwj): “[30:1] Alif Lam Mim [30:2] The Romans have been defeated [30:3] In a near land”. O Abu Ubeyda! No one knows the explanation of this except for Allah (azwj) and the ones (asws) firmly rooted in Knowledge from the Progeny (asws) of Muhammad (saww). The Rasool Allah (saww), when he (saww) migrated to Al-Medina and displayed Al-Islam, he (saww) wrote to the king of Rome a letter, and sent it with a messenger calling him to Al-Islam, and he (saww) wrote a letter to the king of Persia a letter calling him to Al-Islam and sent it with his (saww) messenger to him. So, as for the king of Rome, so he respected the letter and honoured his (saww) messenger, and as for the king of Persia, so he belittled the letter of the Rasool Allah (saww), and tore it up and belittled his (saww) messenger. In those days the king of Persia was at war with the king of Rome, and the Muslims desired that the king of Rome should overcome the king of Persia, and they were on his side hoping against the king of Persia. So when the king of Persia overcame the king of Rome the Muslims did not like that and were grieved by it. So Allah (azwj) Revealed with that in the Quran: “[30:1] Alif Lam Mim [30:2] The Romans have been defeated [30:3] In a near land”, meaning it was overcome by Persia in a nearby land, and it is Syria and what is around it, and they, meaning Persia from after having overcome Rome will be overcoming, meaning the Muslims would be overcoming, “[30:4] Within a few years. Allah’s is the command before and after; and on that day the believers shall rejoice [30:5] With the help of Allah; He helps whom He pleases” and He (azwj) is Mighty and Majestic. So when the Muslims invaded Persia and conquered it, the Muslims were happy with the Help of Allah (azwj) Mighty and Majestic’. So I said, ‘Does not Allah (azwj) Mighty and Majestic Say: “[30:4] Within a few years”, whereas the Believers spent many years with the Rasool Allah (saww), and in the rule of Abu Bakr. But rather, the Believers overcame Persia during the rule of Umar’. So he (asws) said: ‘Did I (asws) not say to you that this is the explanation and the interpretation? O Abu Ubeyda! And the Quran has Abrogating (verses) and Abrogated (Verses). Have you not heard the Words of Allah (azwj) Mighty and Majestic: “Allah’s is the command before and after”? It means the Decision is His (azwj) in the Words whether he (azwj) Delays what was to happen first, or to bring forward that which was Delayed in the Words up to the Day the matter has been Ordained to occur by the Descent of the Help upon the Believers with regards to it. So that is the Statement of the Mighty and Majestic: “and on that day the believers shall rejoice [30:5] With the help of Allah; He helps whom He pleases”, yes, the day on which the Help has been Ordained to occur’.


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6 / 273)