6. Kinds of Swearing

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1- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حَدِيدٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ الأيْمَانُ ثَلاثٌ يَمِينٌ لَيْسَ فِيهَا كَفَّارَةٌ وَيَمِينٌ فِيهَا كَفَّارَةٌ وَيَمِينٌ غَمُوسٌ تُوجِبُ النَّارَ فَالْيَمِينُ الَّتِي لَيْسَ فِيهَا كَفَّارَةٌ الرَّجُلُ يَحْلِفُ بِاللهِ عَلَى بَابِ بِرٍّ أَنْ لا يَفْعَلَهُ فَكَفَّارَتُهُ أَنْ يَفْعَلَهُ وَالْيَمِينُ الَّتِي تَجِبُ فِيهَا الْكَفَّارَةُ الرَّجُلُ يَحْلِفُ عَلَى بَابِ مَعْصِيَةٍ أَنْ لا يَفْعَلَهُ فَيَفْعَلُهُ فَتَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ الْكَفَّارَةُ وَالْيَمِينُ الْغَمُوسُ الَّتِي تُوجِبُ النَّارَ الرَّجُلُ يَحْلِفُ عَلَى حَقِّ امْرِئٍ مُسْلِمٍ عَلَى حَبْسِ مَالِهِ. عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ قَالَ الأيْمَانُ ثَلاثَةٌ يَمِينٌ تَجِبُ فِيهَا النَّارُ وَيَمِينٌ تَجِبُ فِيهَا الْكَفَّارَةُ وَيَمِينٌ لا تَجِبُ فِيهَا النَّارُ وَلا الْكَفَّارَةُ فَأَمَّا الْيَمِينُ الَّتِي تَجِبُ فِيهَا النَّارُ فَرَجُلٌ يَحْلِفُ عَلَى مَالِ رَجُلٍ يَجْحَدُهُ وَيَذْهَبُ بِمَالِهِ وَيَحْلِفُ عَلَى رَجُلٍ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ كَاذِباً فَيُوَرِّطُهُ أَوْ يُعِينُ عَلَيْهِ عِنْدَ سُلْطَانٍ وَغَيْرِهِ فَيَنَالُهُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ تَلَفُ نَفْسِهِ أَوْ ذَهَابُ مَالِهِ فَهَذَا تَجِبُ فِيهِ النَّارُ وَأَمَّا الْيَمِينُ الَّتِي تَجِبُ فِيهَا الْكَفَّارَةُ فَالرَّجُلُ يَحْلِفُ عَلَى أَمْرٍ هُوَ طَاعَةٌ للهِ أَنْ يَفْعَلَهُ أَوْ يَحْلِفُ عَلَى مَعْصِيَةٍ للهِ أَنْ لا يَفْعَلَهَا ثُمَّ يَفْعَلُهَا فَيَنْدَمُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ فَتَجِبُ فِيهِ الْكَفَّارَةُ وَأَمَّا الْيَمِينُ الَّتِي لا تَجِبُ فِيهَا الْكَفَّارَةُ فَرَجُلٌ يَحْلِفُ عَلَى قَطِيعَةِ رَحِمٍ أَوْ يُجْبِرُهُ السُّلْطَانُ أَوْ يُكْرِهُهُ وَالِدُهُ أَوْ زَوْجَتُهُ أَوْ يَحْلِفُ عَلَى مَعْصِيَةٍ للهِ أَنْ يَفْعَلَهَا ثُمَّ يَحْنَثُ فَلا تَجِبُ فِيهِ الْكَفَّارَةُ.


1. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn Hadid from certain persons of our people who have narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Swearing is of three kinds. There is one kind of swearing, which does not require expiation, the kind that requires expiation, and the false swearing which causes the fire. The kind, which does not require expiation, is the swearing in which one has sworn by Allah for a good cause not to do it and its expiation is doing such thing. The kind of oath, which requires expiation, is that which a man takes for not to do a sinful deed but he does it, then expiation becomes obligatory. Al-Ghumus oath is that which causes the fire and is that in which a man swears against the right of a Muslim man to withhold his assets.”’ Ali ibn Ibrahim has said the following: “He (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that swearing is of three kinds. There is the kind of swearing because of which fire becomes obligatory, the oath, which makes expiation obligatory, and the kind, which does not make the fire or expiation obligatory. The kind of swearing which makes the fire obligatory is the swearing of a man who swears and denies the assets of another. In this way, he takes it away from him or swears against a Muslim man falsely to tangle him or seek the support of Sultan and so on against him in which he succeeds and causes the loss of his life or his assets. For this kind, fire becomes obligatory. The oath because of which expiation becomes obligatory is that which a man takes about a lawful act in the sight of Allah to do it or swears to do something, which is not lawful not to do it, then he repents, in such case expiation becomes obligatory. The kind of oath, which does not require expiation, is that which one takes to cut off good relations with relatives or the Sultan forces him or against his wishes his father or his wife urges him. He swears for an act which is in disobedience to Allah, he swears to do so although he commits a sin, but there is not any expiation on him.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/314)