16. The Case of Two People who Claim for Something Each one with Testimony

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1- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ عَنْ شُعَيْبٍ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَأْتِي الْقَوْمَ فَيَدَّعِي دَاراً فِي أَيْدِيهِمْ وَيُقِيمُ الَّذِي فِي يَدِهِ الدَّارُ الْبَيِّنَةَ أَنَّهُ وَرِثَهَا عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَلا يَدْرِي كَيْفَ كَانَ أَمْرُهَا فَقَالَ أَكْثَرُهُمْ بَيِّنَةً يُسْتَحْلَفُ وَيُدْفَعُ إِلَيْهِ وَذَكَرَ أَنَّ عَلِيّاً (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَتَاهُ قَوْمٌ يَخْتَصِمُونَ فِي بَغْلَةٍ فَقَامَتِ الْبَيِّنَةُ لِهَؤُلاءِ أَنَّهُمْ أَنْتَجُوهَا عَلَى مِذْوَدِهِمْ وَلَمْ يَبِيعُوا وَلَمْ يَهَبُوا وَأَقَامَ هَؤُلاءِ الْبَيِّنَةَ أَنَّهُمْ أَنْتَجُوهَا عَلَى مِذْوَدِهِمْ لَمْ يَبِيعُوا وَلَمْ يَهَبُوا فَقَضَى بِهَا لأكْثَرِهِمْ بَيِّنَةً وَاسْتَحْلَفَهُمْ قَالَ فَسَأَلْتُهُ حِينَئِذٍ فَقُلْتُ أَرَأَيْتَ إِنْ كَانَ الَّذِي ادَّعَى الدَّارَ فَقَالَ إِنَّ أَبَا هَذَا الَّذِي هُوَ فِيهَا أَخَذَهَا بِغَيْرِ ثَمَنٍ وَلَمْ يُقِمِ الَّذِي هُوَ فِيهَا بَيِّنَةً إِلا أَنَّهُ وَرِثَهَا عَنْ أَبِيهِ قَالَ إِذَا كَانَ أَمْرُهَا هَكَذَا فَهِيَ لِلَّذِي ادَّعَاهَا وَأَقَامَ الْبَيِّنَةَ عَلَيْهَا.


1. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from Safwan from Shu’ayb from abu Basir who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who comes to a certain people and claims the house. It is in their possession but he claims to be his house. The one who has the house in his possession presents testimony that he has inherited it from his father but does not know more about it. He (the Imam) said, The party that has the greater degree of testimony is asked to take an oath and it then is given to him.’ He (the Imam) then mentioned that once a certain people came before Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam. They had a dispute over a mule. There was testimony that this party had bred it in their barn, which they did not sell, or gift; and the other party presented testimony that they had bred it in their barn and had not sold or gifted. He (the Imam) issued a judgment in favor of the party with a greater degree of testimony and asked him to take an oath. I then asked about the one who claims a house to be his house. He (the Imam) said, Tf the father of the one who lives there had taken it without price and the one living in it did not present testimony but that he has inherited it from his father’, he (the Imam) said, Tf this is the case it then belongs to the one who has claimed it and has presented testimony.’” (In al-Masalik it is said that when testimonies contradict and the asset is in their hand they each receive one-half)


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/286)



2- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ عَنِ الْخَشَّابِ عَنْ غِيَاثِ بْنِ كَلُّوبٍ عَنْ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ عَمَّارٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَنَّ رَجُلَيْنِ اخْتَصَمَا إِلَى أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي دَابَّةٍ فِي أَيْدِيهِمَا وَأَقَامَ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا الْبَيِّنَةَ أَنَّهَا نُتِجَتْ عِنْدَهُ فَأَحْلَفَهُمَا عَلِيٌّ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَحَلَفَ أَحَدُهُمَا وَأَبَى الآخَرُ أَنْ يَحْلِفَ فَقَضَى بِهَا لِلْحَالِفِ فَقِيلَ لَهُ فَلَوْ لَمْ تَكُنْ فِي يَدِ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا وَأَقَامَا الْبَيِّنَةَ قَالَ أُحْلِفُهُمَا فَأَيُّهُمَا حَلَفَ وَنَكَلَ الآخَرُ جَعَلْتُهَا لِلْحَالِفِ فَإِنْ حَلَفَا جَمِيعاً جَعَلْتُهَا بَيْنَهُمَا نِصْفَيْنِ قِيلَ فَإِنْ كَانَتْ فِي يَدِ أَحَدِهِمَا وَأَقَامَا جَمِيعاً الْبَيِّنَةَ قَالَ أَقْضِي بِهَا لِلْحَالِفِ الَّذِي هِيَ فِي يَدِهِ.


2. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Khashshab from Ghiyath ibn Kallub from Ishaq ibn ‘Ammar who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that once two men presented their case before Amir al- Mu’minin, Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a stumper in their hand and each presented testimony that it was bred in his facilities. He (the Imam) then asked them to take an oath. One party did not take oath, then he (the Imam) issued a judgment in favor of the one who had taken the oath. It then was asked, ‘What would have happened if it was not in the hand of anyone of them and both presented testimony?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘I would ask them to take an oath. If one party took the oath and the other refused, the one who took the oath wins the case. If both of them took oath I will make it for them half and half.’ It then was asked, ‘What happens if it is in the hand of one of them and they both present testimony?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘I would issue a judgment in favor of the one who has it in his hand and takes an oath.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن أو موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/287)



3- الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْوَشَّاءِ عَنْ أَبَانٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ كَانَ عَلِيٌّ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِذَا أَتَاهُ رَجُلانِ بِشُهُودٍ عَدْلُهُمْ سَوَاءٌ وَعَدَدُهُمْ أَقْرَعَ بَيْنَهُمْ عَلَى أَيِّهِمْ تَصِيرُ الْيَمِينُ قَالَ وَكَانَ يَقُولُ اللهُمَّ رَبَّ السَّمَاوَاتِ السَّبْعِ أَيُّهُمْ كَانَ لَهُ الْحَقُّ فَأَدِّهِ إِلَيْهِ ثُمَّ يَجْعَلُ الْحَقَّ لِلَّذِي تَصِيرُ إِلَيْهِ الْيَمِينُ إِذَا حَلَفَ.


3. Al-Husayn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla’ ibn Muhammad from al-Washsha’ from Aban from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn abu ‘Abd Allah who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that ’ Amir al-Mu’minin, Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, whenever two people came before him with just witnesses in equal numbers, would cast a raffle about who must take the oath.’ He (the Imam) said that he (the Imam) would say, ‘O Lord of the seven heavens, whoever is right then make it available for him’ and he would decide in favor of the one whose raffle came out for taking the oath; if he took the oath.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/288)



4- عَنْهُ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْوَشَّاءِ عَنْ دَاوُدَ بْنِ سِرْحَانَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي شَاهِدَيْنِ شَهِدَا عَلَى أَمْرٍ وَاحِدٍ وَجَاءَ آخَرَانِ فَشَهِدَا عَلَى غَيْرِ الَّذِي شَهِدَا وَاخْتَلَفُوا قَالَ يُقْرَعُ بَيْنَهُمْ فَأَيُّهُمْ قُرِعَ عَلَيْهِ الْيَمِينُ فَهُوَ أَوْلَى بِالْقَضَاءِ.


4. It is narrated from the narrator of the previous Hadith from Mu‘alla’ ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad from al-Washsha’ from Dawud ibn Sarhan who has narrated the following: “About the case of two witnesses who testify about one thing and two others testify differently, abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that a raffle must be arranged and whoever ’s name comes out to take an oath then judgment must be issued in his favor.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/288)



5- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَمِيلَةَ عَنْ سِمَاكِ بْنِ حَرْبٍ عَنْ تَمِيمِ بْنِ طَرَفَةَ أَنَّ رَجُلَيْنِ عَرَفَا بَعِيراً فَأَقَامَ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا بَيِّنَةً فَجَعَلَهُ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) بَيْنَهُمَا.


5. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Faddal from abu Jamilah from Sammak ibn Harb from Tamim ibn Tarafah who has narrated the following: “Once, two men recognized a camel and each one presented testimony. ’ Amir al-Mu’minin, Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, made it half and half for them.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/288)



6- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ غِيَاثِ بْنِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَنَّ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) اخْتَصَمَ إِلَيْهِ رَجُلانِ فِي دَابَّةٍ وَكِلاهُمَا أَقَامَ الْبَيِّنَةَ أَنَّهُ أَنْتَجَهَا فَقَضَى بِهَا لِلَّذِي هِيَ فِي يَدِهِ وَقَالَ لَوْ لَمْ تَكُنْ فِي يَدِهِ جَعَلْتُهَا بَيْنَهُمَا نِصْفَيْنِ.


6. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Yahya from Ghiyath ibn Ibrahim who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that once two men presented their case before Amir al- Mu’minin, Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a stumper and both presented testimony that he has bred it in his facilities. He (the Imam) issued a judgment in favor of the one who had it in his possession saying, ‘Had it not been in his possession I would make it one-half for each one of them.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/288)