28. Dispute of Man and Woman over Household Items

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1- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَجَّاجِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلَنِي هَلْ يَقْضِي ابْنُ أَبِي لَيْلَى بِالْقَضَاءِ ثُمَّ يَرْجِعُ عَنْهُ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ بَلَغَنِي أَنَّهُ قَضَى فِي مَتَاعِ الرَّجُلِ وَالْمَرْأَةِ إِذْ مَاتَ أَحَدُهُمَا فَادَّعَاهُ وَرَثَةُ الْحَيِّ وَوَرَثَةُ الْمَيِّتِ أَوْ طَلَّقَهَا الرَّجُلُ فَادَّعَاهُ الرَّجُلُ وَادَّعَتْهُ النِّسَاءُ بِأَرْبَعِ قَضِيَّاتٍ فَقَالَ وَمَا ذَاكَ فَقُلْتُ أَمَّا أُولَيهُنَّ فَقَضَى فِيهِ بِقَوْلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ النَّخَعِيِّ كَانَ يَجْعَلُ مَتَاعَ الْمَرْأَةِ الَّتِي لا يَصْلُحُ لِلرِّجَالِ لِلْمَرْأَةِ وَمَتَاعَ الرَّجُلِ الَّذِي لا يَصْلُحُ لِلنِّسَاءِ لِلرَّجُلِ وَمَا كَانَ لِلرِّجَالِ وَالنِّسَاءِ بَيْنَهُمَا نِصْفَانِ ثُمَّ بَلَغَنِي أَنَّهُ قَالَ إِنَّهُمَا مُدَّعِيَانِ جَمِيعاً فَالَّذِي بِأَيْدِيهِمَا جَمِيعاً بَيْنَهُمَا نِصْفَانِ ثُمَّ قَالَ الرِّجَالُ صَاحِبُ الْبَيْتِ وَالْمَرْأَةُ الدَّاخِلَةُ عَلَيْهِ وَهِيَ الْمُدَّعِيَةُ فَالْمَتَاعُ كُلُّهُ لِلرَّجُلِ إِلا مَتَاعَ النِّسَاءِ الَّذِي لا يَكُونُ لِلرِّجَالِ فَهُوَ لِلْمَرْأَةِ ثُمَّ قَضَى بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ بِقَضَاءٍ لَوْ لا أَنِّي شَاهَدْتُهُ لَمْ أَرُدَّهُ عَلَيْهِ مَاتَتِ امْرَأَةٌ مِنَّا وَلَهَا زَوْجُهَا وَتَرَكَتْ مَتَاعاً فَرَفَعْتُهُ إِلَيْهِ فَقَالَ اكْتُبُوا الْمَتَاعَ فَلَمَّا قَرَأَهُ قَالَ لِلزَّوْجِ هَذَا يَكُونُ لِلرَّجُلِ وَالْمَرْأَةِ فَقَدْ جَعَلْنَاهُ لِلْمَرْأَةِ إِلا الْمِيزَانَ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْ مَتَاعِ الرَّجُلِ فَهُوَ لَكَ فَقَالَ لِي فَعَلَى أَيِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ هُوَ الْيَوْمَ قُلْتُ رَجَعَ إِلَى أَنْ قَالَ بِقَوْلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ النَّخَعِيِّ أَنْ جَعَلَ الْبَيْتَ لِلرَّجُلِ ثُمَّ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ مَا تَقُولُ أَنْتَ فِيهِ فَقَالَ الْقَوْلَ الَّذِي أَخْبَرْتَنِي أَنَّكَ شَهِدْتَهُ وَإِنْ كَانَ قَدْ رَجَعَ عَنْهُ فَقُلْتُ يَكُونُ الْمَتَاعُ لِلْمَرْأَةِ فَقَالَ أَرَأَيْتَ إِنْ أَقَامَتْ بَيِّنَةً إِلَى كَمْ كَانَتْ تَحْتَاجُ فَقُلْتُ شَاهِدَيْنِ فَقَالَ لَوْ سَأَلْتَ مَنْ بَيْنَهُمَا يَعْنِي الْجَبَلَيْنِ وَنَحْنُ يَوْمَئِذٍ بِمَكَّةَ لأخْبَرُوكَ أَنَّ الْجَهَازَ وَالْمَتَاعَ يُهْدَى عَلانِيَةً مِنْ بَيْتِ الْمَرْأَةِ إِلَى بَيْتِ زَوْجِهَا فَهِيَ الَّتِي جَاءَتْ بِهِ وَهَذَا الْمُدَّعِي فَإِنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّهُ أَحْدَثَ فِيهِ شَيْئاً فَلْيَأْتِ عَلَيْهِ الْبَيِّنَةَ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father and Muhammad ibn ’Isma‘il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from all from ibn abu ‘Umayr from ‘ Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Hajjaj who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, once asked me, ‘Does ibn abu Layla 5 reverse his judgments? 5 I replied, ‘I have come to know that he issued a judgment about the assets of man and woman when one of them died and the living heirs claim it as well as the heirs of the dead, or when she is divorced then the men claim it as well as women. It is about four cases. He (the Imam) asked, ‘What are they? 5 I replied, ‘The first is that he issued judgment by the words of Ibrahim al-Nakha‘iy. He (Ibrahim) would give the items that were especially for women to women and those for men to men and whatever was for both men and women, divide between them half-and-half. Then I came to know that he said, “Men are the owner of the house and women are additions on them. She is the plaintiff. All items belong to men except those especially for women which are for women. 55 He then issued a judgment that if I had not experienced it I would not mention. A woman from us died and left behind her husband and assets. I took the case before him. He then asked us to list the goods. When he read it, he then said to the husband, “This is for both man and woman so we give it to the woman, except the balance because it is of the assets of man and it is for you. 55 5 He (the Imam) asked, ‘What is his judgment now? 5 I replied, ‘He has reversed and now he says according to the words of Ibrahim al-Nakha‘iy that the house is for man. 5 I then asked him (the Imam) what he (the Imam) said in the case. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is the case that you experienced and that he then reversed. 5 1 then asked, ‘Do the items belong to the woman? 5 He (the Imam) said, ‘Consider, if she were to present proof; how much proof would she need? 5 1 replied, ‘She needed two witnesses. 5 He (the Imam) said, ‘Were you to ask from between the two mountains - we were in Makkah in those days - they tell you that the items and assets that are given as gifts publicly from the house of the woman to the house of her husband is what she has brought (belongs to her). He is the plaintiff and if he thinks that he has increased anything to it he must present testimony.


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن كالصحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/191)