38. The Case of One who Dies without a Will, Leaves behind Small Heirs and it is Sold upon Him

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1- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى وَغَيْرُهُ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ سَعْدٍ الأشْعَرِيِّ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ رَجُلٍ مَاتَ بِغَيْرِ وَصِيَّةٍ وَتَرَكَ أَوْلاداً ذُكْرَاناً [وَإِنَاثاً] وَغِلْمَاناً صِغَاراً وَتَرَكَ جَوَارِيَ وَمَمَالِيكَ هَلْ يَسْتَقِيمُ أَنْ تُبَاعَ الْجَوَارِي قَالَ نَعَمْ وَعَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَصْحَبُ الرَّجُلَ فِي سَفَرِهِ فَيَحْدُثُ بِهِ حَدَثُ الْمَوْتِ وَلا يُدْرِكُ الْوَصِيَّةَ كَيْفَ يَصْنَعُ بِمَتَاعِهِ وَلَهُ أَوْلادٌ صِغَارٌ وَكِبَارٌ أَيَجُوزُ أَنْ يَدْفَعَ مَتَاعَهُ وَدَوَابَّهُ إِلَى وُلْدِهِ الْكِبَارِ أَوْ إِلَى الْقَاضِي فَإِنْ كَانَ فِي بَلْدَةٍ لَيْسَ فِيهَا قَاضٍ كَيْفَ يَصْنَعُ وَإِنْ كَانَ دَفَعَ الْمَالَ إِلَى وُلْدِهِ الأكَابِرِ وَلَمْ يُعْلِمْ بِهِ فَذَهَبَ وَلَمْ يَقْدِرْ عَلَى رَدِّهِ كَيْفَ يَصْنَعُ قَالَ إِذَا أَدْرَكَ الصِّغَارُ وَطَلَبُوا فَلَمْ يَجِدْ بُدّاً مِنْ إِخْرَاجِهِ إِلا أَنْ يَكُونَ بِأَمْرِ السُّلْطَانِ وَ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَمُوتُ بِغَيْرِ وَصِيَّةٍ وَلَهُ وَرَثَةٌ صِغَارٌ وَكِبَارٌ أَيَحِلُّ شِرَاءُ خَدَمِهِ وَمَتَاعِهِ مِنْ غَيْرِ أَنْ يَتَوَلَّى الْقَاضِي بَيْعَ ذَلِكَ فَإِنْ تَوَلاهُ قَاضٍ قَدْ تَرَاضَوْا بِهِ وَلَمْ يَسْتَأْمِرْهُ الْخَلِيفَةُ أَيَطِيبُ الشِّرَاءُ مِنْهُ أَمْ لا فَقَالَ إِذَا كَانَ الأكَابِرُ مِنْ وُلْدِهِ مَعَهُ فِي الْبَيْعِ فَلا بَأْسَ بِهِ إِذَا رَضِيَ الْوَرَثَةُ بِالْبَيْعِ وَقَامَ عَدْلٌ فِي ذَلِكَ.


1. Muhammad ibn Yahya and others have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from ’Isma‘il ibn Sa‘d al-Ash‘ariy who has narrated the following: “I once asked al-Rida’, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who dies without a will and leaves behind heirs of male and female, small boys and slave-girls and slaves if it is proper to sell the slave- girls. He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, it is so.’ “I asked him (the Imam) about a man who accompanies a man on a journey, then the incident of death over takes him and he does not get a chance to make a will and how to deal with his assets. He has small and adult children, if it is permissible to give his assets and stumper to his grown-up children or to a judge. If he is in a place where there is no judge what must he do. If he gives his assets to his adult children but did not inform them and when he went, he could not return it what must he do? He (the Imam) said, ‘When the small children grow up and cannot get their assets back in any way but by the command of Sultan (they can do so). “I asked him (the Imam) about the case of a man who dies without a will and leaves behind heirs who are small ones as well as adults if it is lawful to buy his servants and goods without the supervision of the judge. The judge supervises with the consent of the parties involved, but without the instruction from the Khalifah, if buying is good or not. He (the Imam) said, ‘If the adults of his children are with him (judge) during the sale, then it is not harmful if the heirs agree to the sale and justice is maintained in it.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/106)



2- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنِ ابْنِ رِئَابٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ رَجُلٍ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَهُ قَرَابَةٌ مَاتَ وَتَرَكَ أَوْلاداً صِغَاراً وَتَرَكَ مَمَالِيكَ لَهُ غِلْمَانٌ وَجَوَارِي وَلَمْ يُوصِ فَمَا تَرَى فِيمَنْ يَشْتَرِي مِنْهُمُ الْجَارِيَةَ يَتَّخِذُهَا أُمَّ وَلَدٍ وَمَا تَرَى فِي بَيْعِهِمْ قَالَ فَقَالَ إِنْ كَانَ لَهُمْ وَلِيٌّ يَقُومُ بِأَمْرِهِمْ بَاعَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَنَظَرَ لَهُمْ كَانَ مَأْجُوراً فِيهِمْ قُلْتُ فَمَا تَرَى فِيمَنْ يَشْتَرِي مِنْهُمُ الْجَارِيَةَ فَيَتَّخِذُهَا أُمَّ وَلَدٍ قَالَ لا بَأْسَ بِذَلِكَ إِذَا أَنْفَذَ ذَلِكَ الْقَيِّمُ لَهُمُ النَّاظِرُ فِيمَا يُصْلِحُهُمْ وَلَيْسَ لَهُمْ أَنْ يَرْجِعُوا فِيمَا صَنَعَ الْقَيِّمُ لَهُمُ النَّاظِرُ فِيمَا يُصْلِحُهُمْ.


2. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from ibn Mahbub from ibn Ri’ab who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man with whom I have a relation of kinship, he dies leaving behind small children, slaves and slave-girls but has not made any will. ‘What do you say about buying a slave-girl for a mother of one’s child and what do you say about selling them?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘If they have a guardian who supervises for them the sale and looks after them, he will receive good rewards.’ I asked, ‘What do you say about one’s buying from them a slave- girl for a mother of one’s child?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not harmful if it is executed by their guardian who looks after their interests and well-being; and they cannot change their mind about what the guardian has done for them who looks after their well-being.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/107)



3- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ زُرْعَةَ عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ رَجُلٍ مَاتَ وَلَهُ بَنُونَ وَبَنَاتٌ صِغَارٌ وَكِبَارٌ مِنْ غَيْرِ وَصِيَّةٍ وَلَهُ خَدَمٌ وَمَمَالِيكُ وَعُقَدٌ كَيْفَ يَصْنَعُ الْوَرَثَةُ بِقِسْمَةِ ذَلِكَ الْمِيرَاثِ قَالَ إِنْ قَامَ رَجُلٌ ثِقَةٌ قَاسَمَهُمْ ذَلِكَ كُلَّهُ فَلا بَأْسَ.


3. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Zur’ah from Sama‘ah, who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who without a will dies leaving behind male and female children. He has servants, slaves and assets. How the heirs must deal with the legacy? He (the Imam) said, ‘If a trustworthy man stands up to distribute it among them, it is not harmful.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/107)