1. Reason for Unlawfulness

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عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ جَمِيعاً عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) وَ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا أَيْضاً عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَسْلَمَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ مُفَضَّلِ بْنِ عُمَرَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِأَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) أَخْبِرْنِي جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ لِمَ حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى الْخَمْرَ وَ الْمَيْتَةَ وَ الدَّمَ وَ لَحْمَ الْخِنْزِيرِفَقَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى لَمْ يُحَرِّمْ ذَلِكَ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ وَ أَحَلَّ لَهُمْ سِوَاهُ رَغْبَةً مِنْهُ فِيمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَ لَا زُهْداً فِيمَا أَحَلَّ لَهُمْ وَ لَكِنَّهُ خَلَقَ الْخَلْقَ وَ عَلِمَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ مَا تَقُومُ بِهِ أَبْدَانُهُمْ وَ مَا يُصْلِحُهُمْ فَأَحَلَّهُ لَهُمْ وَ أَبَاحَهُ تَفَضُّلًا مِنْهُ عَلَيْهِمْ بِهِ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى لِمَصْلَحَتِهِمْ وَ عَلِمَ مَا يَضُرُّهُمْ فَنَهَاهُمْ عَنْهُ وَ حَرَّمَهُ عَلَيْهِمْثُمَّ أَبَاحَهُ لِلْمُضْطَرِّ وَ أَحَلَّهُ لَهُ فِي الْوَقْتِ الَّذِي لَا يَقُومُ بَدَنُهُ إِلَّا بِهِ فَأَمَرَهُ أَنْ يَنَالَ مِنْهُ بِقَدْرِ الْبُلْغَةِ لَا غَيْرِ ذَلِكَثُمَّ قَالَ أَمَّا الْمَيْتَةُ فَإِنَّهُ لَا يُدْمِنُهَا أَحَدٌ إِلَّا ضَعُفَ بَدَنُهُ وَ نَحَلَ جِسْمُهُ وَ ذَهَبَتْ قُوَّتُهُ وَ انْقَطَعَ نَسْلُهُ وَ لَا يَمُوتُ آكِلُ الْمَيْتَةِ إِلَّا فَجْأَةًوَ أَمَّا الدَّمُ فَإِنَّهُ يُورِثُ آكِلَهُ الْمَاءَ الْأَصْفَرَ وَ يُبْخِرُ الْفَمَ وَ يُنَتِّنُ الرِّيحَ وَ يُسِي‏ءُ الْخُلُقَ وَ يُورِثُ الْكَلَبَ وَ الْقَسْوَةَ فِي الْقَلْبِ وَ قِلَّةَ الرَّأْفَةِ وَ الرَّحْمَةِ حَتَّى لَا يُؤْمَنَ أَنْ يَقْتُلَ وَلَدَهُ وَ وَالِدَيْهِ وَ لَا يُؤْمَنَ عَلَى حَمِيمِهِ وَ لَا يُؤْمَنَ عَلَى مَنْ يَصْحَبُهُوَ أَمَّا لَحْمُ الْخِنْزِيرِ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى مَسَخَ قَوْماً فِي صُوَرٍ شَتَّى شِبْهِ الْخِنْزِيرِ وَ الْقِرْدِ وَ الدُّبِّ وَ مَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُسُوخِ ثُمَّ نَهَى عَنْ أَكْلِهِ لِلْمَثُلَةِ لِكَيْلَا يَنْتَفِعَ النَّاسُ بِهَا وَ لَا يُسْتَخَفَّ بِعُقُوبَتِهَاوَ أَمَّا الْخَمْرُ فَإِنَّهُ حَرَّمَهَا لِفِعْلِهَا وَ لِفَسَادِهَا وَ قَالَ مُدْمِنُ الْخَمْرِ كَعَابِدِ وَثَنٍ تُورِثُهُ الِارْتِعَاشَ وَ تَذْهَبُ بِنُورِهِ وَ تَهْدِمُ مُرُوءَتَهُ وَ تَحْمِلُهُ عَلَى أَنْ يَجْسُرَ عَلَى الْمَحَارِمِ مِنْ سَفْكِ الدِّمَاءِ وَ رُكُوبِ الزِّنَا فَلَا يُؤْمَنُ إِذَا سَكِرَ أَنْ يَثِبَ عَلَى حَرَمِهِ وَ هُوَ لَا يَعْقِلُ ذَلِكَ وَ الْخَمْرُ لَا يَزْدَادُ شَارِبُهَا إِلَّا كُلَّ سُوءٍ .


1. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad, Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father all, from ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah, from certain persons of our people from abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from Muhammad ibn Aslam from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Salim from Mufaddal ibn ‘Umar who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying, ‘I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, why has Allah, most Blessed, most High, made wine, dead animals, blood and the flesh of pigs unlawful?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Allah, who is free of all defects, the most High has not made such things unlawful for His servants and made certain things lawful for them because of His interest in what He has made unlawful and His dislike of what He has made lawful for them. In fact He created the creatures and He, most Majestic, most Glorious, knew what their bodies needed and what was beneficial for them; so He made such things lawful for them as a favor to them from Him, most Blessed, most High, for their well being. He knew what was harmful to them, so He prohibited them and made it unlawful to them but then He made lawful for those compelled and in the times when their bodies could not survive without it so He commanded to use it for the bare necessities and not more.’ “He (the Imam) said, ‘The dead animals are unlawful; no one must use it every now and then because it weakens their bodies, makes it thin and his power goes away, his offspring become cutoff and those who eat dead bodies die suddenly. “Blood is unlawful because eating it causes yellow fluid, bad breath, foul smell, bad moral behavior and causes an illness similar to madness, hardheartedness, lack of kindness and sympathy so much so that one may murder his children, and parents, and he cannot be trusted about his best friends and his companions. “The flesh of pigs is unlawful because Allah, most Blessed, most High, metamorphosed certain people in different shapes such as pigs, apes and bears and others. He then prohibited eating such things, it is a kind of cannibalism, so people must not take advantage of such things and must not take consequent suffering lightly. “Wine is made unlawful because of its bad effects and damages it may cause. He (the Imam) then said, ‘One who often uses wine is like a worshipper of idols, it causes tremors, takes away the light (beauty), abolishes kindness, carries him to excessive boldness against the relatives like bloodshed and fornication. He, when drunk cannot be trusted and he may disregard his sanctity when failing to understand. Drinking wine does not increase anything to one except what is worse and evil.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول والثاتني ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (22/29)