68. The Absent and Missing

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عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) أَنَّهُ سُئِلَ عَنِ الْمَفْقُودِ فَقَالَ الْمَفْقُودُ إِذَا مَضَى لَهُ أَرْبَعُ سِنِينَ بَعَثَ الْوَالِي أَوْ يَكْتُبُ إِلَى النَّاحِيَةِ الَّتِي هُوَ غَائِبٌ فِيهَا فَإِنْ لَمْ يُوجَدْ لَهُ أَثَرٌ أَمَرَ الْوَالِي وَلِيَّهُ أَنْ يُنْفِقَ عَلَيْهَا فَمَا أَنْفَقَ عَلَيْهَا فَهِيَ امْرَأَتُهُقَالَ قُلْتُ فَإِنَّهَا تَقُولُ فَإِنِّي أُرِيدُ مَا تُرِيدُ النِّسَاءُ قَالَ لَيْسَ ذَلِكَ لَهَا وَ لَا كَرَامَةَ فَإِنْ لَمْ يُنْفِقْ عَلَيْهَا وَلِيُّهُ أَوْ وَكِيلُهُ أَمَرَهُ أَنْ يُطَلِّقَهَا فَكَانَ ذَلِكَ عَلَيْهَا طَلَاقاً وَاجِباً .


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘ Umayr from Hammad from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “Once abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, was asked about the case of a man who is absent and missing. He (the Imam) said, ‘If one is absent and missing for four years the authorities must send in writing to the area where he has disappeared, and if no trace of him is found the authority then commands his guardian to provide maintenance for her and she is his woman. 5 I (the narrator) then said, ‘She may say, “I want what women want.’” He (the Imam) said, ‘She cannot do so and it is not honorable. If his guardian did not provide maintenance or his attorney, then he (the authority) commands to divorce her and it then is obligatory divorce for her.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (21/246)



عَلِيٌّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ أُذَيْنَةَ عَنْ بُرَيْدِ بْنِ مُعَاوِيَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) عَنِ الْمَفْقُودِ كَيْفَ يُصْنَعُ بِامْرَأَتِهِ قَالَ مَا سَكَتَتْ عَنْهُ وَ صَبَرَتْ يُخَلَّى عَنْهَا فَإِنْ هِيَ رَفَعَتْ أَمْرَهَا إِلَى الْوَالِي أَجَّلَهَا أَرْبَعَ سِنِينَ ثُمَّ يَكْتُبُ إِلَى الصُّقْعِ الَّذِي فُقِدَ فِيهِ فَلْيُسْأَلْ عَنْهُ فَإِنْ خُبِّرَ عَنْهُ بِحَيَاةٍ صَبَرَتْ وَ إِنْ لَمْ يُخْبَرْ عَنْهُ بِشَيْ‏ءٍ حَتَّى تَمْضِيَ الْأَرْبَعُ سِنِينَ دُعِيَ وَلِيُّ الزَّوْجِ الْمَفْقُودِ فَقِيلَ لَهُ هَلْ لِلْمَفْقُودِ مَالٌ فَإِنْ كَانَ لَهُ مَالٌ أُنْفِقَ عَلَيْهَا حَتَّى يُعْلَمَ حَيَاتُهُ مِنْ مَوْتِهِوَ إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ مَالٌ قِيلَ لِلْوَلِيِّ أَنْفِقْ عَلَيْهَا فَإِنْ فَعَلَ فَلَا سَبِيلَ لَهَا إِلَى أَنْ تَتَزَوَّجَ وَ إِنْ لَمْ يُنْفِقْ عَلَيْهَا أَجْبَرَهُ الْوَالِي عَلَى أَنْ يُطَلِّقَ تَطْلِيقَةً فِي اسْتِقْبَالِ الْعِدَّةِ وَ هِيَ طَاهِرٌ فَيَصِيرُ طَلَاقُ الْوَلِيِّ طَلَاقَ الزَّوْجِ فَإِنْ جَاءَ زَوْجُهَا مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ تَنْقَضِيَ عِدَّتُهَا مِنْ يَوْمَ طَلَّقَهَا الْوَلِيُّ فَبَدَا لَهُ أَنْ يُرَاجِعَهَا فَهِيَ امْرَأَتُهُ وَ هِيَ عِنْدَهُ عَلَى تَطْلِيقَتَيْنِ فَإِنِ انْقَضَتِ الْعِدَّةُ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَجِي‏ءَ أَوْ يُرَاجِعَ فَقَدْ حَلَّتْ لِلْأَزْوَاجِ وَ لَا سَبِيلَ لِلْأَوَّلِ عَلَيْهَا .


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from ‘Umar ibn ‘Udhaynah from Burayd ibn Mu‘awiyah who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who is absent and missing and about how to deal with the issue of his wife. He (the Imam) said, ‘If she is silent and has exercised patience, she is not disturbed, but if she brings her case before the authorities she will be told to wait for four years. Thereafter they write to the area where he has disappeared to find out about him. If information is achieved that he is alive, she then must wait; but if no information is found until four years the guardian of the husband is summoned and asked if any assets belonging to the missing man exist. If such assets exist then her maintenance must be paid therefrom until it is found out if he is alive or not. If no asset belonging to him exists his guardian is told to provide her maintenance. If his guardian provides her maintenance she has no way to marry; but if he did not provide her maintenance the authority then compels him to divorce her one divorce before her commencing waiting period when she is in a Hayd (menses)-free period. Divorce by the guardian is treated like the divorce of the husband. If the husband comes before the end of her waiting period from the day divorce has taken place and he decides to go back to her, she is his wife. She is for him for two more divorces, but if he comes after her waiting period ends then she becomes lawful for marriage to whoever she likes and the first husband has no way to her.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (21/246)



مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْفُضَيْلِ عَنْ أَبِي الصَّبَّاحِ الْكِنَانِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) فِي امْرَأَةٍ غَابَ عَنْهَا زَوْجُهَا أَرْبَعَ سِنِينَ وَ لَمْ يُنْفَقْ عَلَيْهَا وَ لَا يُدْرَى أَ حَيٌّ هُوَ أَمْ مَيِّتٌ أَ يُجْبَرُ وَلِيُّهُ عَلَى أَنْ يُطَلِّقَهَا قَالَ نَعَمْ وَ إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ وَلِيٌّ طَلَّقَهَا السُّلْطَانُقُلْتُ فَإِنْ قَالَ الْوَلِيُّ أَنَا أُنْفِقُ عَلَيْهَا قَالَ فَلَا يُجْبَرُ عَلَى طَلَاقِهَا قَالَ قُلْتُ أَ رَأَيْتَ إِنْ قَالَتْ أَنَا أُرِيدُ مِثْلَ مَا تُرِيدُ النِّسَاءُ وَ لَا أَصْبِرُ وَ لَا أَقْعُدُ كَمَا أَنَا قَالَ لَيْسَ لَهَا ذَلِكَ وَ لَا كَرَامَةَ إِذَا أَنْفَقَ عَلَيْهَا .


3. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Muhammad ibn ’Isma‘il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from abu al-Sabbah al-Kinaniy who has said the following: “About the case of a woman whose husband is missing and absent for four years, has not provided her maintenance and it is not known if he is alive or not, if his guardian is compelled to divorce her. He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, he is compelled to do so. If he does not have any guardian, the authority and al- Sultan divorces her.’ I then asked what happens if the guardian says, ‘I can provide her maintenance?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘He is not then forced to divorce her.’ I then asked what happens if she says, ‘I want what women want, I do not want to wait patiently as I am.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘She does not have such right and it is not honorable to say so when he provides maintenance.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/247)



عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ وَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ جَمِيعاً عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الْمَفْقُودِ فَقَالَ إِنْ عَلِمَتْ أَنَّهُ فِي أَرْضٍ فَهِيَ مُنْتَظِرَةٌ لَهُ أَبَداً حَتَّى تَأْتِيَهَا مَوْتُهُ أَوْ يَأْتِيَهَا طَلَاقُهُ وَ إِنْ لَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَيْنَ هُوَ مِنَ الْأَرْضِ كُلِّهَا وَ لَمْ يَأْتِهَا مِنْهُ كِتَابٌ وَ لَا خَبَرٌ فَإِنَّهَا تَأْتِي الْإِمَامَفَيَأْمُرُهَا أَنْ تَنْتَظِرَ أَرْبَعَ سِنِينَ فَيُطْلَبُ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَإِنْ لَمْ يُوجَدْ لَهُ أَثَرٌ حَتَّى تَمْضِيَ الْأَرْبَعُ سِنِينَ أَمَرَهَا أَنْ تَعْتَدَّ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَ عَشْراً ثُمَّ تَحِلُّ لِلرِّجَالِ فَإِنْ قَدِمَ زَوْجُهَا بَعْدَ مَا تَنْقَضِي عِدَّتُهَا فَلَيْسَ لَهُ عَلَيْهَا رَجْعَةٌ وَ إِنْ قَدِمَ وَ هِيَ فِي عِدَّتِهَا أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَ عَشْراً فَهُوَ أَمْلَكُ بِرَجْعَتِهَا .


4. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Khalid and Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father all from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from Sama‘ah who has said the following: “I once asked him (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who is absent and missing. He (the Imam) said, ‘If it is known that he is in a certain location she waits for ever until the news of his death comes or her divorce. If it is not known where he is and no letter comes from him or any news, she then comes to the Imam who commands her to wait for four years and search for him in the land. If no trace of him is found until four years pass, she then is commanded to count her waiting period for four months and ten days and then she becomes lawful for men. If she marries after the end of her waiting period, he cannot go back to her and if he comes before the end of her waiting period he has the right to go back to her as her husband.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (21/247)