87. Selling an Item of Merchandise Which the Seller Does Not Yet Have in His Possession

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1- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ بَكْرٍ عَنْ حَدِيدِ بْنِ حَكِيمٍ الأزْدِيِّ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَجِيئُنِي الرَّجُلُ يَطْلُبُ مِنِّي الْمَتَاعَ بِعَشَرَةِ آلافِ دِرْهَمٍ أَوْ أَقَلَّ أَوْ أَكْثَرَ وَلَيْسَ عِنْدِي إِلا بِأَلْفِ دِرْهَمٍ فَأَسْتَعِيرُ مِنْ جَارِي وَآخُذُ مِنْ ذَا وَذَا فَأَبِيعُهُ مِنْهُ ثُمَّ أَشْتَرِيهِ مِنْهُ أَوْ آمُرُ مَنْ يَشْتَرِيهِ فَأَرُدُّهُ عَلَى أَصْحَابِهِ قَالَ لا بَأْسَ بِهِ.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Safwan from Musa ibn Bakr from Hadid ibn Hakim al- Azdiy who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who comes to me and asks me for certain goods at the price of ten thousand dirham or less or more but I have only what is worth one thousand dirham. I then borrow from my neighbor and take from this and that person to complete the amount and sell to him; then buy from him or ask someone else to buy from him so that I then can return to the people from whom I had borrowed. He (the Imam) said, Tt is lawful.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/219)



2- أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ مَنْصُورٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سُئِلَ عَنْ رَجُلٍ بَاعَ بَيْعاً لَيْسَ عِنْدَهُ إِلَى أَجَلٍ وَضَمِنَ لَهُ الْبَيْعَ قَالَ لا بَأْسَ بِهِ.


2. Ahmad ibn Muhammad has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Mansur from Hisham ibn Salim who has said the following: “Once abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, was asked about the case of a man who makes a sale for an appointed time without having the merchandise with him and guarantees the sale for the buyer. He (the Imam) said, Tt is not unlawful.’”.


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/220)



3- أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ رَجُلٍ اشْتَرَى مَتَاعاً لَيْسَ فِيهِ كَيْلٌ وَلا وَزْنٌ أَيَبِيعُهُ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَقْبِضَهُ قَالَ لا بَأْسَ.


3. Ahmad ibn Muhammad has narrated from Ali ibn al-Hakam from abu Hamzah who has said the following: I once asked abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who has bought certain goods which are not exchanged by measurement or weighing; if he can sell them before receiving delivery. He (the Imam) said, Tt is lawful.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/220)



4- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَجَّاجِ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) الرَّجُلُ يَجِيئُنِي يَطْلُبُ الْمَتَاعَ فَأُقَاوِلُهُ عَلَى الرِّبْحِ ثُمَّ أَشْتَرِيهِ فَأَبِيعُهُ مِنْهُ فَقَالَ أَلَيْسَ إِنْ شَاءَ أَخَذَ وَإِنْ شَاءَ تَرَكَ قُلْتُ بَلَى قَالَ لا بَأْسَ بِهِ قُلْتُ فَإِنَّ مَنْ عِنْدَنَا يُفْسِدُهُ قَالَ وَلِمَ قُلْتُ بَاعَ مَا لَيْسَ عِنْدَهُ قَالَ فَمَا يَقُولُ فِي السَّلَمِ قَدْ بَاعَ صَاحِبُهُ مَا لَيْسَ عِنْدَهُ قُلْتُ بَلَى قَالَ فَإِنَّمَا صَلَحَ مِنْ أَجْلِ أَنَّهُمْ يُسَمُّونَهُ سَلَماً إِنَّ أَبِي كَانَ يَقُولُ لا بَأْسَ بِبَيْعِ كُلِّ مَتَاعٍ كُنْتَ تَجِدُهُ فِي الْوَقْتِ الَّذِي بِعْتَهُ فِيهِ.


4. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘ Umayr from ‘Abd al- Rahman ibn al-Hajjaj who has said the following: “I once said to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘A man comes to me and asks for certain goods. I contract with him for a certain profit, then buy it to sell to him. He (the Imam) asked, ‘Does he have the choice to take or leave it?’ I replied, ‘Yes, he does.’ He (the Imam) said, Tt is lawful.’ I then said, ‘There are those among us who destroy it.’. He (the Imam) asked, ‘Why is that?’ I replied, ‘He sells what is not with him.’ He (the Imam) asked, ‘What does he say about advance payment to receive goods in future in which case he sells what is not with him?’ I replied, ‘Yes, it happens.’ He (the Imam) said, Tt is valid because they call it advance payment. My father would say, “It is lawful to sell all kinds of goods that you can find at the time you sell.’””


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/220)



5- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ فَضَالَةَ بْنِ أَيُّوبَ عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ عَمَّارٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) الرَّجُلُ يَجِيئُنِي يَطْلُبُ الْمَتَاعَ الْحَرِيرَ وَلَيْسَ عِنْدِي مِنْهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ فَيُقَاوِلُنِي وَأُقَاوِلُهُ فِي الرِّبْحِ وَالأجَلِ حَتَّى يَجْتَمِعَ عَلَيَّ شَيْ‏ءٌ ثُمَّ أَذْهَبُ فَأَشْتَرِي لَهُ الْحَرِيرَ وَأَدْعُوهُ إِلَيْهِ فَقَالَ أَرَأَيْتَ إِنْ وَجَدَ بَيْعاً هُوَ أَحَبُّ إِلَيْهِ مِمَّا عِنْدَكَ أَيَسْتَطِيعُ أَنْ يَنْصَرِفَ إِلَيْهِ وَيَدَعَكَ أَوْ وَجَدْتَ أَنْتَ ذَلِكَ أَتَسْتَطِيعُ أَنْ تَنْصَرِفَ عَنْهُ وَتَدَعَهُ قُلْتُ نَعَمْ قَالَ لا بَأْسَ.


5. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from Fadalah ibn Ayyub from Mu‘awiyah ibn ‘Ammar who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who comes to me and asks for certain goods of silk but I do not have anything as such, ‘Consider if he finds a better deal than this; can he change and go for that deal instead of the deal with you and can the same thing apply to you also?’ I replied, ‘Yes, - that can happen.’ He (the Imam) said, Tt then is lawful.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/220)



6- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ الْحَجَّاجِ عَنْ خَالِدِ بْنِ نَجِيحٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) الرَّجُلُ يَجِي‏ءُ فَيَقُولُ اشْتَرِ هَذَا الثَّوْبَ وَأُرْبِحَكَ كَذَا وَكَذَا فَقَالَ أَلَيْسَ إِنْ شَاءَ أَخَذَ وَإِنْ شَاءَ تَرَكَ قُلْتُ بَلَى قَالَ لا بَأْسَ بِهِ إِنَّمَا يُحَلِّلُ الْكَلامُ وَيُحَرِّمُ الْكَلامُ.


6. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Yahya ibn al-Hajjaj from Khalid ibn Najih who has said the following: “I once said to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘A man comes to me and says, “Buy this cloth and I give you so and so much profit.’” He (the Imam) asked, ‘Can he take or leave it if he so wants?’ I replied, ‘Yes, he can do so.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It is lawful. It is statements that make it lawful as well as unlawful.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/221)



7- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنِ النَّضْرِ بْنِ سُوَيْدٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ لا بَأْسَ بِأَنْ تَبِيعَ الرَّجُلَ الْمَتَاعَ لَيْسَ عِنْدَكَ تُسَاوِمُهُ ثُمَّ تَشْتَرِي لَهُ نَحْوَ الَّذِي طَلَبَ ثُمَّ تُوجِبُهُ عَلَى نَفْسِكَ ثُمَّ تَبِيعُهُ مِنْهُ بَعْدُ.


7. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from al-Nadr ibn Suwayd from ‘Abd Allah ibn Sinan who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘It is lawful for a man to sell goods which are not with him in the form of Musawamah (fixed price regardless of capital), then buy for him the goods he demands and make it necessary for yourself thereafter to ask him to sell it to you.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/221)



8- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ رَجُلٍ بَاعَ بَيْعاً لَيْسَ عِنْدَهُ إِلَى أَجَلٍ وَضَمِنَ الْبَيْعَ قَالَ لا بَأْسَ.


8. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘ Urn ay r from Hammad from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who makes a sale and the merchandise is not with him for an appointed time but he guarantees the sale. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not unlawful.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/221)



9- بَعْضُ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَسْبَاطٍ عَنْ أَبِي مَخْلَدٍ السَّرَّاجِ قَالَ كُنَّا عِنْدَ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَدَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ مُعَتِّبٌ فَقَالَ بِالْبَابِ رَجُلانِ فَقَالَ أَدْخِلْهُمَا فَدَخَلا فَقَالَ أَحَدُهُمَا إِنِّي رَجُلٌ قَصَّابٌ وَإِنِّي أَبِيعُ الْمُسُوكَ قَبْلَ أَنْ أَذْبَحَ الْغَنَمَ قَالَ لَيْسَ بِهِ بَأْسٌ وَلَكِنِ انْسُبْهَا غَنَمَ أَرْضِ كَذَا وَكَذَا.


9. Certain persons of our people have narrated from Ali ibn Asbat from abu Mukhallad al-Sarraj who has said the following: “Once, we were with abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, when Mu‘attib came in and said, ‘There are two people at the door.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Bring them inside.’ The two men came inside and one of them said, ‘I am a butcher. Can I sell the skin before I slaughter the sheep?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not unlawful. However, say from the sheep is from so and so land.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/221)