51. Rule about Unlawful Interest

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1- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ دِرْهَمٌ رِبًا أَشَدُّ مِنْ سَبْعِينَ زَنْيَةً كُلُّهَا بِذَاتِ مَحْرَمٍ.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hisham ibn Salim, who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘The sin of receiving one dirham of Riba ’ (unlawful interest) is more serious than having carnal relations with one’s relatives (with whom marriage is unlawful).”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/122)



2- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي نَجْرَانَ عَنْ عَاصِمِ بْنِ حُمَيْدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ قَيْسٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) آكِلُ الرِّبَا وَمُؤْكِلُهُ وَكَاتِبُهُ وَشَاهِدُهُ فِيهِ سَوَاءٌ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu Najran from ‘Asim ibn Hamid from m h ibn Qays, who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘One who consumes Riba’, one who feeds Riba ’ and one who documents it, are all the same (in committing this sins).”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/122)



3- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ مَنْصُورٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَأْكُلُ الرِّبَا وَهُوَ يَرَى أَنَّهُ لَهُ حَرَامٌ قَالَ لا يَضُرُّهُ حَتَّى يُصِيبَهُ مُتَعَمِّداً فَإِذَا أَصَابَهُ مُتَعَمِّداً فَهُوَ بِالْمَنْزِلَةِ الَّتِي قَالَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ.


3. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Mansur from Hisham ibn Salim who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who consumes Riba ’ and he considers it lawful. He (the Imam) replied, ‘It does not harm him as long as he does not consume it knowing that it is unlawful, in which case he will face the condition of one who is mentioned in the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious. “Those who take unlawful interest will stand before Allah (on the Day of Judgment) as those who suffer from a mental imbalance because of Satan’s touch; they have said that trade is just like unlawful interest. Allah has made trade lawful and has forbidden unlawful interest. One who has received advice from his Lord and has stopped committing sins will be rewarded for his previous good deeds. His affairs will be in the hands of Allah. But one who turns back to committing sins will be of the dwellers of hell wherein he will live forever.” (2:275)’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/122)



4- أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْوَشَّاءِ عَنْ أَبِي الْمَغْرَاءِ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) كُلُّ رِبًا أَكَلَهُ النَّاسُ بِجَهَالَةٍ ثُمَّ تَابُوا فَإِنَّهُ يُقْبَلُ مِنْهُمْ إِذَا عُرِفَ مِنْهُمُ التَّوْبَةُ وَقَالَ لَوْ أَنَّ رَجُلا وَرِثَ مِنْ أَبِيهِ مَالا وَقَدْ عَرَفَ أَنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ الْمَالِ رِبًا وَلَكِنْ قَدِ اخْتَلَطَ فِي التِّجَارَةِ بِغَيْرِهِ حَلالٍ كَانَ حَلالا طَيِّباً فَلْيَأْكُلْهُ وَإِنْ عَرَفَ مِنْهُ شَيْئاً أَنَّهُ رِبًا فَلْيَأْخُذْ رَأْسَ مَالِهِ وَلْيَرُدَّ الرِّبَا وَأَيُّمَا رَجُلٍ أَفَادَ مَالا كَثِيراً قَدْ أَكْثَرَ فِيهِ مِنَ الرِّبَا فَجَهِلَ ذَلِكَ ثُمَّ عَرَفَهُ بَعْدُ فَأَرَادَ أَنْ يَنْزِعَهُ فِيمَا مَضَى فَلَهُ وَيَدَعُهُ فِيمَا يَسْتَأْنِفُ.


4. Ahmad ibn Muhammad from has narrated from al-Washsha’ from abu al-Mighra’ from al-Halabiy, who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Any kind of Riba ’ people have consumed in ignorance then repented, such repentance is accepted if such repentance is found in them.’ He (the Imam) then said, ‘If a man inherits goods, from his father and knows that there is Riba ’ in it but is mixed in trade with other lawful goods it is lawful and clean for him and he has permission to consume such properties. If however, he comes to know the Riba ’ item, he then must separate his capital and return the Riba’ property. If one earns a great deal of property in which there is a great deal of Riba’ but does not know such property exactly and afterwards comes to know it and wants to remove it, what is passed is for him but he must stay away from Riba ’ in coming times.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/123)



5- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ أَتَى رَجُلٌ أَبِي فَقَالَ إِنِّي وَرِثْتُ مَالا وَقَدْ عَلِمْتُ أَنَّ صَاحِبَهُ الَّذِي وَرِثْتُهُ مِنْهُ قَدْ كَانَ يَرْبُو وَقَدْ أَعْرِفُ أَنَّ فِيهِ رِبًا وَأَسْتَيْقِنُ ذَلِكَ وَلَيْسَ يَطِيبُ لِي حَلالُهُ لِحَالِ عِلْمِي فِيهِ وَقَدْ سَأَلْتُ فُقَهَاءَ أَهْلِ الْعِرَاقِ وَأَهْلِ الْحِجَازِ فَقَالُوا لا يَحِلُّ أَكْلُهُ فَقَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِنْ كُنْتَ تَعْلَمُ بِأَنَّ فِيهِ مَالا مَعْرُوفاً رِبًا وَتَعْرِفُ أَهْلَهُ فَخُذْ رَأْسَ مَالِكَ وَرُدَّ مَا سِوَى ذَلِكَ وَإِنْ كَانَ مُخْتَلِطاً فَكُلْهُ هَنِيئاً مَرِيئاً فَإِنَّ الْمَالَ مَالُكَ وَاجْتَنِبْ مَا كَانَ يَصْنَعُ صَاحِبُهُ فَإِنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) قَدْ وَضَعَ مَا مَضَى مِنَ الرِّبَا وَحَرَّمَ عَلَيْهِمْ مَا بَقِيَ فَمَنْ جَهِلَهُ وَسِعَ لَهُ جَهْلُهُ حَتَّى يَعْرِفَهُ فَإِذَا عَرَفَ تَحْرِيمَهُ حَرُمَ عَلَيْهِ وَوَجَبَتْ عَلَيْهِ فِيهِ الْعُقُوبَةُ إِذَا رَكِبَهُ كَمَا يَجِبُ عَلَى مَنْ يَأْكُلُ الرِّبَا.


5. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that once a man came to my father and said, ‘I have inherited a certain amount of property and I knew the owner from whom I inherited received Raba’ and I know with certainty there is Riba’ in it and I do not feel happy to consume it because of my knowledge about it. I asked the scholars of law of Iraq about it and they said, ‘It is not lawful to consume it.’ Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said, ‘If you know exactly Riba’ property in it and you know the owner also, you must separate it and return to the owner. If it is mixed you can consume it in good health and pleasure. It is your property but you must stay away from what the previous owner would do. The Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, granted relief to what is passed and prohibited from Riba ’ in coming times. If one is ignorant he is exempt, until he comes to know of the unlawfulness of Riba Once a person learns that Riba ’ is unlawful and punishment becomes necessary if one consumes Riba’ just as it (punishment) is necessary for one who has consumed Riba’.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/123)



6- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ عُمَرَ الْيَمَانِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ الرِّبَا رِبَاءَانِ رِبًا يُؤْكَلُ وَرِبًا لا يُؤْكَلُ فَأَمَّا الَّذِي يُؤْكَلُ فَهَدِيَّتُكَ إِلَى الرَّجُلِ تَطْلُبُ مِنْهُ الثَّوَابَ أَفْضَلَ مِنْهَا فَذَلِكَ الرِّبَا الَّذِي يُؤْكَلُ وَهُوَ قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَما آتَيْتُمْ مِنْ رِباً لِيَرْبُوَا فِي أَمْوالِ النَّاسِ فَلا يَرْبُوا عِنْدَ اللهِ وَأَمَّا الَّذِي لا يُؤْكَلُ فَهُوَ الرِّبَا الَّذِي نَهَى اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَنْهُ وَأَوْعَدَ عَلَيْهِ النَّارَ.


6. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from Ibrahim ibn ‘Umar af-Yamaniy who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that Riba’ is of two kinds: One kind is that which is consumed and the other kind is not consumed. The gift that one presents to someone in order to receive Thawab (rewards from Allah) is better. Of this kind is the Riba’ which is consumed as it is mentioned in the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, ’The Riba’ in which you are involved so it increases in people’s property does not increase before Allah.’ (30:38) The other kind of Riba’ is that which Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has prohibited and has warned those involved in it with punishment in the fire.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/124)



7- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِنِّي رَأَيْتُ اللهَ تَعَالَى قَدْ ذَكَرَ الرِّبَا فِي غَيْرِ آيَةٍ وَكَرَّرَهُ فَقَالَ أَوَتَدْرِي لِمَ ذَاكَ قُلْتُ لا قَالَ لِئَلا يَمْتَنِعَ النَّاسُ مِنِ اصْطِنَاعِ الْمَعْرُوفِ.


7. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn abu ‘Abd Allah from ‘Uthman ibn ’Isa from Sama‘ah who has said the following: “I once said to abu ’Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘I have noticed that Allah, most High, has mentioned Riba’ in more than one passages of the Holy Quran. He (the Imam) asked, ’Do you know why He has done so?’ I (the narrator) replied, ’No, I do not know.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It is because He wants people not to deny performing good and benevolent deeds.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/125)



8- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ الرِّبَا لِكَيْلا يَمْتَنِعَ النَّاسُ مِنِ اصْطِنَاعِ الْمَعْرُوفِ.


8. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hisham ibn Salim who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has prohibited receiving Riba’ so that people do not deny acts of benevolence and compassion.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/125)



9- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَأَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ خَالِدِ بْنِ جَرِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي الرَّبِيعِ الشَّامِيِّ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ رَجُلٍ أَرْبَى بِجَهَالَةٍ ثُمَّ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَتْرُكَهُ فَقَالَ أَمَّا مَا مَضَى فَلَهُ وَلْيَتْرُكْهُ فِيمَا يَسْتَقْبِلُ ثُمَّ قَالَ إِنَّ رَجُلا أَتَى أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَقَالَ إِنِّي قَدْ وَرِثْتُ مَالا وَقَدْ عَلِمْتُ أَنَّ صَاحِبَهُ كَانَ يَرْبُو وَقَدْ سَأَلْتُ فُقَهَاءَ أَهْلِ الْعِرَاقِ وَفُقَهَاءَ أَهْلِ الْحِجَازِ فَذَكَرُوا أَنَّهُ لا يَحِلُّ أَكْلُهُ فَقَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِنْ كُنْتَ تَعْرِفُ مِنْهُ شَيْئاً مَعْزُولا تَعْرِفُ أَهْلَهُ وَتَعْرِفُ أَنَّهُ رِبًا فَخُذْ رَأْسَ مَالِكَ وَدَعْ مَا سِوَاهُ وَإِنْ كَانَ الْمَالُ مُخْتَلِطاً فَكُلْهُ هَنِيئاً مَرِيئاً فَإِنَّ الْمَالَ مَالُكَ وَاجْتَنِبْ مَا كَانَ يَصْنَعُ صَاحِبُكَ فَإِنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) قَدْ وَضَعَ مَا مَضَى مِنَ الرِّبَا فَمَنْ جَهِلَهُ وَسِعَهُ أَكْلُهُ فَإِذَا عَرَفَهُ حَرُمَ عَلَيْهِ أَكْلُهُ فَإِنْ أَكَلَهُ بَعْدَ الْمَعْرِفَةِ وَجَبَ عَلَيْهِ مَا وَجَبَ عَلَى آكِلِ الرِّبَا.


9. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Ahmad ibn Muhammad from all from ibn Mahbub from Khalid ibn Jarir from abu al-Rabi‘ al-Shamiy who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who received Riba’ in ignorance, then he wanted to stay away from Riba’. He (the Imam) said ’What is passed is for him and he must stay away in the coming times.’ He (the Imam) then said, ’Once a man visited abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, and said, “I have inherited a certain amount of property and noticed that the owner of that property was involved in Riba’. I asked the scholars of law of Iraq and Hijaz and they said that consuming it is not lawful.” Abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said, “If you know the Riba’ item distinctly and know the owners of such property, you must return it to them, if you know it is Riba’, take away your capital and leave the rest. If the property is mixed, you can consume them in good health and with pleasure; the property is your property and stay away from what your companion was involved in. The Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, exempted what had passed of Riba’. One who is ignorant is exempt and is allowed to consume such property. Once he comes to know then it becomes unlawful for him to consume. If he consumes after knowing, it becomes necessary on him what has become necessary on one who consumes Riba’.’””


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/125)



10- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَنِ ابْنِ بُكَيْرٍ عَنْ عُبَيْدِ بْنِ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ لا يَكُونُ الرِّبَا إِلا فِيمَا يُكَالُ أَوْ يُوزَنُ.


10. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Faddal from ibn Bukayr from ‘Ubayd ibn Zurarah who has said the following: “I once heard abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying, ‘Riba’ comes in existence only in what is measured or is weighed.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق كالصحيح 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/126)



11- أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَنِ ابْنِ بُكَيْرٍ [عَنْ عُبَيْدِ بْنِ زُرَارَةَ] قَالَ بَلَغَ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ رَجُلٍ أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَأْكُلُ الرِّبَا وَيُسَمِّيهِ اللِّبَأَ فَقَالَ لَئِنْ أَمْكَنَنِي اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ [مِنْهُ] لأضْرِبَنَّ عُنُقَهُ.


11. Ahmad ibn Muhammad from has narrated from ibn Faddal from ibn Bukayr from ‘Ubayd ibn Zurarah from who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, was informed about a man who consumed Riba ’ and called it fresh milk. Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said, ‘Had Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, made it possible for me I most certainly would strike his neck.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق كالصحيح 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/126)



12- أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَمِيلَةَ عَنْ سَعْدِ بْنِ طَرِيفٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ أَخْبَثُ الْمَكَاسِبِ كَسْبُ الرِّبَا.


12. Ahmad ibn Muhammad from has narrated from ibn Faddal from abu Jamilah from Sa‘d ibn Tarif who has said the following: “Abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘The filthiest earning is earning by means of Riba , . ,,,


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/126)