15. Chapter 13(a) - Matters about which Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘ Alayhi al-Salam, Recommended at the Time of War

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1- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ عَنْ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ عَقِيلٍ الْخُزَاعِيِّ أَنَّ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) كَانَ إِذَا حَضَرَ الْحَرْبَ يُوصِي لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ بِكَلِمَاتٍ فَيَقُولُ تَعَاهَدُوا الصَّلاةَ وَحَافِظُوا عَلَيْهَا وَاسْتَكْثِرُوا مِنْهَا وَتَقَرَّبُوا بِهَا فَإِنَّهَا كَانَتْ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ كِتَاباً مَوْقُوتاً وَقَدْ عَلِمَ ذَلِكَ الْكُفَّارُ حِينَ سُئِلُوا ما سَلَكَكُمْ فِي سَقَرَ قالُوا لَمْ نَكُ مِنَ الْمُصَلِّينَ وَقَدْ عَرَفَ حَقَّهَا مَنْ طَرَقَهَا وَأُكْرِمَ بِهَا مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الَّذِينَ لا يَشْغَلُهُمْ عَنْهَا زَيْنُ مَتَاعٍ وَلا قُرَّةُ عَيْنٍ مِنْ مَالٍ وَلا وَلَدٍ يَقُولُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ رِجالٌ لا تُلْهِيهِمْ تِجارَةٌ وَلا بَيْعٌ عَنْ ذِكْرِ اللهِ وَإِقامِ الصَّلاةِ وَكَانَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) مُنْصِباً لِنَفْسِهِ بَعْدَ الْبُشْرَى لَهُ بِالْجَنَّةِ مِنْ رَبِّهِ فَقَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَأْمُرْ أَهْلَكَ بِالصَّلاةِ وَاصْطَبِرْ عَلَيْها الآيَةَ فَكَانَ يَأْمُرُ بِهَا أَهْلَهُ وَيُصَبِّرُ عَلَيْهَا نَفْسَهُ ثُمَّ إِنَّ الزَّكَاةَ جُعِلَتْ مَعَ الصَّلاةِ قُرْبَاناً لأهْلِ الإسْلامِ عَلَى أَهْلِ الإسْلامِ وَمَنْ لَمْ يُعْطِهَا طَيِّبَ النَّفْسِ بِهَا يَرْجُو بِهَا مِنَ الثَّمَنِ مَا هُوَ أَفْضَلُ مِنْهَا فَإِنَّهُ جَاهِلٌ بِالسُّنَّةِ مَغْبُونُ الأجْرِ ضَالُّ الْعُمُرِ طَوِيلُ النَّدَمِ بِتَرْكِ أَمْرِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَالرَّغْبَةِ عَمَّا عَلَيْهِ صَالِحُو عِبَادِ اللهِ يَقُولُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَمَنْ... يَتَّبِعْ غَيْرَ سَبِيلِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ نُوَلِّهِ ما تَوَلَّى مِنَ الأمَانَةِ فَقَدْ خَسِرَ مَنْ لَيْسَ مِنْ أَهْلِهَا وَضَلَّ عَمَلُهُ عُرِضَتْ عَلَى السَّمَاوَاتِ الْمَبْنِيَّةِ وَالأرْضِ الْمِهَادِ وَالْجِبَالِ الْمَنْصُوبَةِ فَلا أَطْوَلَ وَلا أَعْرَضَ وَلا أَعْلَى وَلا أَعْظَمَ لَوِ امْتَنَعْنَ مِنْ طُولٍ أَوْ عَرْضٍ أَوْ عِظَمٍ أَوْ قُوَّةٍ أَوْ عِزَّةٍ امْتَنَعْنَ وَلَكِنْ أَشْفَقْنَ مِنَ الْعُقُوبَةِ ثُمَّ إِنَّ الْجِهَادَ أَشْرَفُ الأعْمَالِ بَعْدَ الإسْلامِ وَهُوَ قِوَامُ الدِّينِ وَالأجْرُ فِيهِ عَظِيمٌ مَعَ الْعِزَّةِ وَالْمَنَعَةِ وَهُوَ الْكَرَّةُ فِيهِ الْحَسَنَاتُ وَالْبُشْرَى بِالْجَنَّةِ بَعْدَ الشَّهَادَةِ وَبِالرِّزْقِ غَداً عِنْدَ الرَّبِّ وَالْكَرَامَةِ يَقُولُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَلا تَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ قُتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ الآيَةَ ثُمَّ إِنَّ الرُّعْبَ وَالْخَوْفَ مِنْ جِهَادِ الْمُسْتَحِقِّ لِلْجِهَادِ وَالْمُتَوَازِرِينَ عَلَى الضَّلالِ ضَلالٌ فِي الدِّينِ وَسَلْبٌ لِلدُّنْيَا مَعَ الذُّلِّ وَالصَّغَارِ وَفِيهِ اسْتِيجَابُ النَّارِ بِالْفِرَارِ مِنَ الزَّحْفِ عِنْدَ حَضْرَةِ الْقِتَالِ يَقُولُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذا لَقِيتُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا زَحْفاً فَلا تُوَلُّوهُمُ الأدْبارَ فَحَافِظُوا عَلَى أَمْرِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِي هَذِهِ الْمَوَاطِنِ الَّتِي الصَّبْرُ عَلَيْهَا كَرَمٌ وَسَعَادَةٌ وَنَجَاةٌ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالآخِرَةِ مِنْ فَظِيعِ الْهَوْلِ وَالْمَخَافَةِ فَإِنَّ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لا يَعْبَأُ بِمَا الْعِبَادُ مُقْتَرِفُونَ لَيْلَهُمْ وَنَهَارَهُمْ لَطُفَ بِهِ عِلْماً وَكُلُّ ذَلِكَ فِي كِتابٍ لا يَضِلُّ رَبِّي وَلا يَنْسى‏ فَاصْبِرُوا وَصَابِرُوا وَاسْأَلُوإ؛ النَّصْرَ وَوَطِّنُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ عَلَى الْقِتَالِ وَاتَّقُوا اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَإِنَّ اللهَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ مُحْسِنُونَ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from certain individuals of his people from abu Hamzah from ‘Aqil al-Khuza’iy who has said the following: “Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, during a war recommended the Muslims with these words: ‘You must perform your Salat (prayer) regularly, preserve it, perform it very often and seek thereby nearness to Allah. It was made obligatory for the believing people. The unbelievers found out when they were asked, “What has led to Saqar?” (74:46) They replied, “We were not of those who performed Salat (prayer).” The believing people who do not become disturbed because of worldly attractions, delightfulness of their eyes because of wealth and children realize its significance and know its proper time to be performed and think of it as very graceful. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, has said, “There are men who do not become disturbed because of business and trade when they speak of Allah and performing Salat (prayer).” The Messenger of Allah after receiving the glad news of paradise had fixed himself in performing Salat (prayer). Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, has said, “Command your family to perform Salat (prayer) and exercise patience during Salat (prayer).” (20:132) ‘He would command his family to perform Salat (prayer) and himself would exercise patience during performing Salat (prayer). Thereafter Zakat along with Salat (prayer) is made a means of getting nearer to Allah for the people of al-Islam and upon the people of al-Islam. One who does not perform it with his soul delighted and then expects to receive a reward better than Salat (prayer) he is ignorant of the Sunnah, suffers loss in matters of his reward and his life ends in confusion. He remains regretful because of disregarding the command of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, and not paying attention to what the virtuous servants of Allah had great inclinations. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, has said, “We turn away whoever follows a path other than that of the believing people, to whatever he loves.” (4:115) ‘Thereafter is keeping of trust. One who is not a person of trust suffers a great loss and his deeds become confused. It was introduced to the well established heavens, well stretched earth and well fixed mountains. Other things are not taller, wider, higher and greater than them. If tallness, wideness, greatness, power and majesty were needed to refuse they could use them. They feared punishment, thus refused to accept the trust. Thereafter is Jihad. It is the noblest one of the deeds after al-Islam. It is the pillar of religion. The reward for it is great with majesty and highness. It is an opportunity in which there is goodness and glad news of paradise after martyrdom and sustenance with the Lord and honor. ‘Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, has said, “You must not think of those who are murdered for the cause of Allah as dead. . . .” (3:169) Fear and fright of doing Jihad, when there is demand for Jihad, and supporting to cause confusion is straying in religion, losses in the worldly matters, humiliation and lowliness. In it there is reason to deserve hellfire because of fleeing during advancing against the enemy and fighting. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, has said, “O believers, when you face the unbelievers during and advancing against the enemy you must not turn your backs to them.” (8: 15) ‘You must observe the commandments of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, in such conditions and exercise patience therein. It is honor, salvation and safety in this world and in the next world, which is full of frightening matters and fear. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, is not concerned about what the servant commits during the nights and days although His knowledge of their activities is subtle. All of these are in the book. My Lord does not become confused and forget. You must exercise patience, encourage others to exercise patience and ask Allah for help. You must settle your souls upon fighting. Maintain piety before Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious. Allah is with those who maintain piety and those who do good deeds.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (18/366)



2- وَفِي حَدِيثِ يَزِيدَ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ عَنْ أَبِي صَادِقٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ عَلِيّاً (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يُحَرِّضُ النَّاسَ فِي ثَلاثَةِ مَوَاطِنَ الْجَمَلِ وَصِفِّينَ وَيَوْمِ النَّهَرِ يَقُولُ عِبَادَ اللهِ اتَّقُوا اللهَ وَغُضُّوا الأبْصَارَ وَاخْفِضُوا الأصْوَاتَ وَأَقِلُّوا الْكَلامَ وَوَطِّنُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ عَلَى الْمُنَازَلَةِ وَالْمُجَادَلَةِ وَالْمُبَارَزَةِ وَالْمُنَاضَلَةِ وَالْمُنَابَذَةِ وَالْمُعَانَقَةِ وَالْمُكَادَمَةِ وَفَاثْبُتُوا وَاذْكُرُوا اللهَ كَثِيراً لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ... وَلا تَنازَعُوا فَتَفْشَلُوا وَتَذْهَبَ رِيحُكُمْ وَاصْبِرُوا إِنَّ اللهَ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ.


2. In the Hadith of ibn Ishaq the following is narrated from abu Sadiq who has said the following: “I heard Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, encourage people during three battle places. They were the battle of al- Jamal, Siffin and al-Nahrawan. He spoke to people and said, ‘Servants of Allah, you must maintain piety before Allah and cast down your eyes, lower your voices, reduce your speeches, settle your soul on walking in the arena of war to do your best. Face the enemy, make best use of your weapons, strive to win, close up on to the enemy, force your enemy to flee and stay steadfast. Speak of Allah very often, perhaps you succeed. You must not quarrel among yourselves lest you fail and will be humiliated. Exercise patience; Allah is with those who exercise patience.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (8/369)



3- وَفِي حَدِيثِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ جُنْدَبٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ أَنَّ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) كَانَ يَأْمُرُ فِي كُلِّ مَوْطِنٍ لَقِينَا فِيهِ عَدُوَّنَا فَيَقُولُ لا تُقَاتِلُوا الْقَوْمَ حَتَّى يَبْدَءُوكُمْ فَإِنَّكُمْ بِحَمْدِ اللهِ عَلَى حُجَّةٍ وَتَرْكُكُمْ إِيَّاهُمْ حَتَّى يَبْدَءُوكُمْ حُجَّةٌ لَكُمْ أُخْرَى فَإِذَا هَزَمْتُمُوهُمْ فَلا تَقْتُلُوا مُدْبِراً وَلا تُجْهِزُوا عَلَى جَرِيحٍ وَلا تَكْشِفُوا عَوْرَةً وَلا تُمَثِّلُوا بِقَتِيلٍ.


3. In Hadith narrated from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Jundab from his father who has said the following: “Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, in every battlefield we faced our enemies issued his commandments and said, ‘You must not fight the people before they attack you; you by the grace of Allah possess authority and good cause. Your allowing them to attack you first is another valid point in support of the good cause. When you defeat them you must not pursue the fleeing, you must not hurt the wounded and you must not expose anyone’s privacy.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (8/370)



4- وَفِي حَدِيثِ مَالِكِ بْنِ أَعْيَنَ قَالَ حَرَّضَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) النَّاسَ بِصِفِّينَ فَقَالَ إِنَّ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ دَلَّكُمْ عَلى‏ تِجارَةٍ تُنْجِيكُمْ مِنْ عَذابٍ أَلِيمٍ وَتُشْفِي بِكُمْ عَلَى الْخَيْرِ الإيمَانِ بِاللهِ وَالْجِهَادِ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ وَجَعَلَ ثَوَابَهُ مَغْفِرَةً لِلذَّنْبِ وَمَساكِنَ طَيِّبَةً فِي جَنَّاتِ عَدْنٍ وَقَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِنَّ اللهَ يُحِبُّ الَّذِينَ يُقاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِهِ صَفًّا كَأَنَّهُمْ بُنْيانٌ مَرْصُوصٌ فَسَوُّوا صُفُوفَكُمْ كَالْبُنْيَانِ الْمَرْصُوصِ فَقَدِّمُوا الدَّارِعَ وَأَخِّرُوا الْحَاسِرَ وَعَضُّوا عَلَى النَّوَاجِدِ فَإِنَّهُ أَنْبَأُ لِلسُّيُوفِ عَلَى الْهَامِ وَالْتَوُوا عَلَى أَطْرَافِ الرِّمَاحِ فَإِنَّهُ أَمْوَرُ لِلأسِنَّةِ وَغُضُّوا الأبْصَارَ فَإِنَّهُ أَرْبَطُ لِلْجَأْشِ وَأَسْكَنُ لِلْقُلُوبِ وَأَمِيتُوا الأصْوَاتَ فَإِنَّهُ أَطْرَدُ لِلْفَشَلِ وَأَوْلَى بِالْوَقَارِ وَلا تَمِيلُوا بِرَايَاتِكُمْ وَلا تُزِيلُوهَا وَلا تَجْعَلُوهَا إِلا مَعَ شُجْعَانِكُمْ فَإِنَّ الْمَانِعَ لِلذِّمَارِ وَالصَّابِرَ عِنْدَ نُزُولِ الْحَقَائِقِ هُمْ أَهْلُ الْحِفَاظِ وَلا تُمَثِّلُوا بِقَتِيلٍ وَإِذَا وَصَلْتُمْ إِلَى رِجَالِ الْقَوْمِ فَلا تَهْتِكُوا سِتْراً وَلا تَدْخُلُوا دَاراً وَلا تَأْخُذُوا شَيْئاً مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ إِلا مَا وَجَدْتُمْ فِي عَسْكَرِهِمْ وَلا تُهَيِّجُوا امْرَأَةً بِأَذًى وَإِنْ شَتَمْنَ أَعْرَاضَكُمْ وَسَبَبْنَ أُمَرَاءَكُمْ وَصُلَحَاءَكُمْ فَإِنَّهُنَّ ضِعَافُ الْقُوَى وَالأنْفُسِ وَالْعُقُولِ وَقَدْ كُنَّا نُؤْمَرُ بِالْكَفِّ عَنْهُنَّ وَهُنَّ مُشْرِكَاتٌ وَإِنْ كَانَ الرَّجُلُ لَيَتَنَاوَلُ الْمَرْأَةَ فَيُعَيَّرُ بِهَا وَعَقِبُهُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ أَهْلَ الْحِفَاظِ هُمُ الَّذِينَ يَحُفُّونَ بِرَايَاتِهِمْ وَيَكْتَنِفُونَهَا وَيَصِيرُونَ حِفَافَيْهَا وَوَرَاءَهَا وَأَمَامَهَا وَلا يُضَيِّعُونَهَا لا يَتَأَخَّرُونَ عَنْهَا فَيُسَلِّمُوهَا وَلا يَتَقَدَّمُونَ عَلَيْهَا فَيُفْرِدُوهَا رَحِمَ اللهُ امْرَأً وَاسَى أَخَاهُ بِنَفْسِهِ وَلَمْ يَكِلْ قِرْنَهُ إِلَى أَخِيهِ فَيَجْتَمِعَ قِرْنُهُ وَقِرْنُ أَخِيهِ فَيَكْتَسِبَ بِذَلِكَ اللائِمَةَ وَيَأْتِيَ بِدَنَاءَةٍ وَكَيْفَ لا يَكُونُ كَذَلِكَ وَهُوَ يُقَاتِلُ الاثْنَيْنِ وَهَذَا مُمْسِكٌ يَدَهُ قَدْ خَلَّى قِرْنَهُ عَلَى أَخِيهِ هَارِباً مِنْهُ يَنْظُرُ إِلَيْهِ وَهَذَا فَمَنْ يَفْعَلْهُ يَمْقُتْهُ اللهُ فَلا تَعَرَّضُوا لِمَقْتِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَإِنَّمَا مَمَرُّكُمْ إِلَى اللهِ وَقَدْ قَالَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَنْ يَنْفَعَكُمُ الْفِرارُ إِنْ فَرَرْتُمْ مِنَ الْمَوْتِ أَوِ الْقَتْلِ وَإِذاً لا تُمَتَّعُونَ إِلا قَلِيلا وَايْمُ اللهِ لَئِنْ فَرَرْتُمْ مِنْ سُيُوفِ الْعَاجِلَةِ لا تَسْلَمُونَ مِنْ سُيُوفِ الآجِلَةِ فَاسْتَعِينُوا بِالصَّبْرِ وَالصِّدْقِ فَإِنَّمَا يَنْزِلُ النَّصْرُ بَعْدَ الصَّبْرِ فَجَاهِدُوا فِي اللهِ حَقَّ جِهَادِهِ وَلا قُوَّةَ إِلا بِاللهِ وَقَالَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) حِينَ مَرَّ بِرَايَةٍ لأهْلِ الشَّامِ أَصْحَابُهَا لا يَزُولُونَ عَنْ مَوَاضِعِهِمْ فَقَالَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِنَّهُمْ لَنْ يَزُولُوا عَنْ مَوَاقِفِهِمْ دُونَ طَعْنٍ دِرَاكٍ يَخْرُجُ مِنْهُ النَّسِيمُ وَضَرْبٍ يَفْلِقُ الْهَامَ وَيُطِيحُ الْعِظَامَ وَيَسْقُطُ مِنْهُ الْمَعَاصِمُ وَالأكُفُّ حَتَّى تَصَدَّعَ جِبَاهُهُمْ بِعَمْدِ الْحَدِيدِ وَتَنَثَّرَ حَوَاجِبُهُمْ عَلَى الصُّدُورِ وَالأذْقَانِ أَيْنَ أَهْلُ الصَّبْرِ وَطُلابُ الأجْرِ فَسَارَتْ إِلَيْهِ عِصَابَةٌ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ فَعَادَتْ مَيْمَنَتُهُ إِلَى مَوْقِفِهَا وَمَصَافِّهَا وَكَشَفَتْ مَنْ بِإِزَائِهَا فَأَقْبَلَ حَتَّى انْتَهَى إِلَيْهِمْ وَقَالَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِنِّي قَدْ رَأَيْتُ جَوْلَتَكُمْ وَانْحِيَازَكُمْ عَنْ صُفُوفِكُمْ تَحُوزُكُمُ الْجُفَاةُ وَالطُّغَاةُ وَأَعْرَابُ أَهْلِ الشَّامِ وَأَنْتُمْ لَهَامِيمُ الْعَرَبِ وَالسَّنَامُ الأعْظَمُ وَعُمَّارُ اللَّيْلِ بِتِلاوَةِ الْقُرْآنِ وَدَعْوَةِ أَهْلِ الْحَقِّ إِذْ ضَلَّ الْخَاطِئُونَ فَلَوْ لا إِقْبَالُكُمْ بَعْدَ إِدْبَارِكُمْ وَكَرُّكُمْ بَعْدَ انْحِيَازِكُمْ لَوَجَبَ عَلَيْكُمْ مَا يَجِبُ عَلَى الْمُوَلِّي يَوْمَ الزَّحْفِ دُبُرَهُ وَكُنْتُمْ فِيمَا أَرَى مِنَ الْهَالِكِينَ وَلَقَدْ هَوَّنَ عَلَيَّ بَعْضَ وَجْدِي وَشَفَى بَعْضَ حَاجِ صَدْرِي إِذَا رَأَيْتُكُمْ حُزْتُمُوهُمْ كَمَا حَازُوكُمْ فَأَزَلْتُمُوهُمْ عَنْ مَصَافِّهِمْ كَمَا أَزَالُوكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ تَضْرِبُونَهُمْ بِالسُّيُوفِ حَتَّى رَكِبَ أَوَّلُهُمْ آخِرَهُمْ كَالإبِلِ. الْمَطْرُودَةِ الْهِيمِ الآنِّ فَاصْبِرُوا نَزَلَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ السَّكِينَةُ وَثَبَّتَكُمُ اللهُ بِالْيَقِينِ وَلْيَعْلَمِ الْمُنْهَزِمُ بِأَنَّهُ مُسْخِطُ رَبِّهِ وَمُوبِقُ نَفْسِهِ إِنَّ فِي الْفِرَارِ مَوْجِدَةَ اللهِ وَالذُّلَّ اللازِمَ وَالْعَارَ الْبَاقِيَ وَفَسَادَ الْعَيْشِ عَلَيْهِ وَإِنَّ الْفَارَّ لَغَيْرُ مَزِيدٍ فِي عُمُرِهِ وَلا مَحْجُوزٍ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ يَوْمِهِ وَلا يَرْضَى رَبُّهُ وَلَمَوْتُ الرَّجُلِ مَحْقاً قَبْلَ إِتْيَانِ هَذِهِ الْخِصَالِ خَيْرٌ مِنَ الرِّضَا بِالتَّلْبِيسِ بِهَا وَالإقْرَارِ عَلَيْهَا وَفِي كَلامٍ لَهُ آخَرَ وَإِذَا لَقِيتُمْ هَؤُلاءِ الْقَوْمَ غَداً فَلا تُقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّى يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فَإِذَا بَدَءُوا بِكُمْ فَانْهُدُوا إِلَيْهِمْ وَعَلَيْكُمُ السَّكِينَةَ وَالْوَقَارَ وَعَضُّوا عَلَى الأضْرَاسِ فَإِنَّهُ أَنْبَأُ لِلسُّيُوفِ عَنِ الْهَامِ وَغُضُّوا الأبْصَارَ وَمُدُّوا جِبَاهَ الْخُيُولِ وَوُجُوهَ الرِّجَالِ وَأَقِلُّوا الْكَلامَ فَإِنَّهُ أَطْرَدُ لِلْفَشَلِ وَأَذْهَبُ بِالْوَهَلِ وَوَطِّنُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ عَلَى الْمُبَارَزَةِ وَالْمُنَازَلَةِ وَالْمُجَادَلَةِ وَاثْبُتُوا وَاذْكُرُوا اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ كَثِيراً فَإِنَّ الْمَانِعَ لِلذِّمَارِ عِنْدَ نُزُولِ الْحَقَائِقِ هُمْ أَهْلُ الْحِفَاظِ الَّذِينَ يَحُفُّونَ بِرَايَاتِهِمْ وَيَضْرِبُونَ حَافَتَيْهَا وَأَمَامَهَا وَإِذَا حَمَلْتُمْ فَافْعَلُوا فِعْلَ رَجُلٍ وَاحِدٍ وَعَلَيْكُمْ بِالتَّحَامِي فَإِنَّ الْحَرْبَ سِجَالٌ لا يَشُدُّونَ عَلَيْكُمْ كَرَّةً بَعْدَ فَرَّةٍ وَلا حَمْلَةً بَعْدَ جَوْلَةٍ وَمَنْ أَلْقَى إِلَيْكُمُ السَّلَمَ فَاقْبَلُوا مِنْهُ وَاسْتَعِينُوا بِالصَّبْرِ فَإِنَّ بَعْدَ الصَّبْرِ النَّصْرَ مِنَ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِنَّ الأرْضَ للهِ يُورِثُها مَنْ يَشاءُ مِنْ عِبادِهِ وَالْعاقِبَةُ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ.


4. In a Hadith from Malik ibn A’yan the following is narrated: “In the battle of Siffin, Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, encouraging people said, ‘Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, has shown you a bargain and a deal which will save you from the painful torment. Belief in Allah and Jihad for the cause of Allah bring you very close to goodness. He makes your reward to be forgiveness of your sins and fine dwellings in paradise of Eden. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, has said, “Allah certainly loves those who fight for His cause and stand firm as solid and strong structures.” (61:4) ‘You must form yourselves in straight lines like solid and strong structures. Allow those with coats of arms to be in front and those without it to be the next. You must fix your back-teeth against each other; it makes the sword strike harder on the head of the enemy. Launch your spears, they move swiftly. Look with a lower angle; it ties down excitement and relaxes the heart. Silence voices; it keeps failure away and it is better for dignity. You must not allow your banners to incline and you must not remove them. You must not allow anyone other than brave people to carry them. The defenders of what is very important, who can exercise patience in difficult conditions, deserve to be the protectors. You must not mutilate those who are killed, and when you reach the men of the enemy you must not expose privacies, you must not enter any house, you must not take anything of their properties except what you find with their army. You must not disturb any woman with mistreatment; and if they use bad words against your honor, men, virtuous ones among you, it is because they suffer from physical, psychological and intellectual weakness. We were ordered to hold our hands back from them and they were pagan women. If a man would take upon women this would remain a flaw in him and in his descendants after him. You must take notice, people capable of protecting important matters deserve to carry the banner to provide it protection and others walk on the sides, behind and in front of them, and they must not lose sight of it (the banner) and must not remain far behind nor must they go far ahead to become separated. I pray to Allah to grant blessings to one who cooperates with his brother (in faith) with his person. One should not leave his peer against his brother so that his peer and his brother fight. This brings regret and humiliation. This inevitably becomes his (enemy’s) fight against two people if he holds his hands back and has left his peer alone against his brother and has run away. He just looks to him and this one. If one does it he has angered Allah. You must not expose yourselves to the anger of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious. “Running away does not benefit you even if you run away from death, or from being killed, because thereafter you will not benefit more than very little.” (33:16) I swear by Allah, if you run away from the swords nearby, you will not escape from the swords later on. You must seek help by exercising patience and truthfulness. Victory comes only after exercising patience. You must do Jihad for the cause of Allah, the way Jihad should be done and there is no power without Allah.’ “He (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, passed by the banner of the people of al-Sham and found them holding their position. He said, ‘They will not move from their position without a blow which is hard and expels the soul out, and a blow that splits the skull, crushes the bones and makes the arms and the hands to fall off so that their forehead is crushed by the iron bars, their eyebrows scatter over their chest and chin. Where are people of patience and seekers of reward?’ A group of the Muslims marched to them. The right flank of this group returned back to the center and exposed those opposite to them. He, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, moved forward until he reached them and said, ‘I saw your attack and retreat away from your positioned lines. It was your moving that provided a chance for the unjust and tyrants of al-Sham. You are the top most among Arab and the great peak, the beauty of the nights because of your recitations of the Holy Quran and the callers from among the people of the truth, while the sinners are lost. Were it not for your advance after your retreat and your regrouping after giving way to the enemy, you could have become subject to what those fleeing from the enemy during an advancing operation need to face for turning their backs to the enemy. I would find you of those being destroyed. My concerns are to a small degree reduced and my chest to a small degree is comforted. This happened when I saw you gain the ground over them as they had against you and you were able to remove them from their positions as they had done to you. I saw you strike them with your sword until their first line was toppled over the last line like the camel driven away. You must exercise patience. Comfort has come upon you and Allah has made you steadfast with certainty, so that the defeated notice that he is making his Lord angry. He hates his own self. In fleeing from the battle there is the anger of Allah, the inevitable humiliation, and a remaining stigma and destruction of ways of one’s living. There is no increase in the longevity of life of the fleeing person, no barrier between him and his day of death, and his Lord does not become happy with him. One’s death with truthfulness before achieving such characteristics is better than remaining with them and dwelling upon them.’ “In another of his speech he, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘When you face these people (the enemy) tomorrow do not fight them before they attack you. When they attack you then rise against them. You must remain calm and dignified. You must fix your backside teeth against the teeth of opposite side. It delivers a harder hit on the skulls. Keep your eyes lower and look at the foreheads of the horses and the faces of men. Reduce your speech; it keeps failure and argumentations away. You must settle your souls up facing the enemy openly, to advance and to attack. You must remain steadfast and speak of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, very often. One who protects what is important in difficult times is of the protecting people who keep their banner on the side and others walk on its sides and in front. When you attack do it with such coordination as if it is one man’s attack. You must be protective; war is bitter. You must not allow them (enemy) to attack you after retreat or to advance to you after an unpredictable move. If one surrenders, accept it from him. Seek help from exercising patience; victory from Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, follows exercising patience. Allah’s servants will inherit the earth and the good end belongs to those who maintain piety before Allah.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (18/371)



5- أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ الْكُوفِيُّ عَنِ ابْنِ جُمْهُورٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ مُفَضَّلِ بْنِ عُمَرَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) وَعَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ الأصَمِّ عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) لأصْحَابِهِ إِذَا لَقِيتُمْ عَدُوَّكُمْ فِي الْحَرْبِ فَأَقِلُّوا الْكَلامَ وَاذْكُرُوا اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَلا تُوَلُّوهُمُ الأدْبَارَ فَتُسْخِطُوا اللهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى وَتَسْتَوْجِبُوا غَضَبَهُ وَإِذَا رَأَيْتُمْ مِنْ إِخْوَانِكُمُ الْمَجْرُوحَ وَمَنْ قَدْ نُكِّلَ بِهِ أَوْ مَنْ قَدْ طَمِعَ عَدُوُّكُمْ فِيهِ فَقُوهُ بِأَنْفُسِكُمْ.


5. Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Kufiy has narrated from ibn Jumhur from his father from Muhammad ibn Sinan from Mufaddai ibn ‘Umar Aiso ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Asamm has narrated from Hariz from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said to his companions, ‘When you face the enemy during a war you must reduce your speech, remember Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, very often. You must not turn your backs to them; Allah, the most Blessed, the most High, becomes angry with you and you will become subject to His anger. If you see one of your brother wounded or one who is captured by the enemy or the enemy is about to harm him, you must protect him with your persons.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (8/377)