51. Optional Fasting on a Journey and Qada’ (compensatory fast) of Fasting Missed on a Journey

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1ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ مَنْصُورِ بْنِ الْعَبَّاسِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ وَاسِعٍ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ سَهْلٍ عَنْ رَجُلٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ خَرَجَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) مِنَ الْمَدِينَةِ فِي أَيَّامٍ بَقِينَ مِنْ شَعْبَانَ فَكَانَ يَصُومُ ثُمَّ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ وَهُوَ فِي السَّفَرِ فَأَفْطَرَ فَقِيلَ لَهُ تَصُومُ شَعْبَانَ وَتُفْطِرُ شَهْرَ رَمَضَانَ فَقَالَ نَعَمْ شَعْبَانُ إِلَيَّ إِنْ شِئْتُ صُمْتُ وَإِنْ شِئْتُ لا وَشَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ عَزْمٌ مِنَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَلَيَّ الإِفْطَارُ.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Mansur ibn al-‘Abbas from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn Wash from ‘Isma‘il ibn Sahl from a man who has said the following: “Once abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, commenced a journey just a few days before the end of the month of al-Sha‘ban and he (the Imam) was fasting. The month of Ramadan then started while he (the Imam) was still on his journey but he stopped fasting. He (the Imam) was asked, ‘How is it that you have been fasting in the month of al-Sha‘ban and stopped fasting in the month of Ramadan?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘In the case of the month of al-Sha‘ban it is up to me to fast or not to fast: however, in the case of the month of Ramadan it is the commandment of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, to stop fasting (on a journey).’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/332)



2ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ هِلالٍ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ عُذَافِرٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) أَصُومُ هَذِهِ الثَّلاثَةَ الأَيَّامِ فِي الشَّهْرِ فَرُبَّمَا سَافَرْتُ وَرُبَّمَا أَصَابَتْنِي عِلَّةٌ فَيَجِبُ عَلَيَّ قَضَاؤُهَا قَالَ فَقَالَ لِي إِنَّمَا يَجِبُ الْفَرْضُ فَأَمَّا غَيْرُ الْفَرْضِ فَأَنْتَ فِيهِ بِالْخِيَارِ قُلْتُ بِالْخِيَارِ فِي السَّفَرِ وَالْمَرَضِ قَالَ فَقَالَ الْمَرَضُ قَدْ وَضَعَهُ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَنْكَ وَالسَّفَرُ إِنْ شِئْتَ فَاقْضِهِ وَإِنْ لَمْ تَقْضِهِ فَلا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكَ.


2. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ahmad ibn Hilal from ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman from ‘Adhafir who has said the following: “I once said to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, that I fast these three days of the month but perhaps I travel or become ill, am I required to complete its Qada’ (compensatory fast)? He (the Imam) said, ‘Qada’ (compensatory fast) is obligatory for obligatory fast which is missed. In the case of optional fast it is up to you.’ I then asked, ‘Is it up to one’s choice even when on a journey and in illness?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘In the case of illness Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has exempted you, but in the case of journey you can complete its Qada’ (compensatory fast) and if you did not do so it is not harmful.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/332)



3ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ سَعْدِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ الأَشْعَرِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ صَوْمِ ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فِي الشَّهْرِ هَلْ فِيهِ قَضَاءٌ عَلَى الْمُسَافِرِ قَالَ لا.


3. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Khalid from Sa‘d ibn Sa‘d al-Ash’ariy who has said the following: “I once asked al-Rida’, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of the three days’ fasting every month, if Qada’ (compensatory fast) is required from a traveler. He (the Imam) said, ‘No, he is not required to fast.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/332)



4ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْمَرْزُبَانِ بْنِ عِمْرَانَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِلرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) أُرِيدُ السَّفَرَ فَأَصُومُ لِشَهْرِيَ الَّذِي أُسَافِرُ فِيهِ قَالَ لا قُلْتُ فَإِذَا قَدِمْتُ أَقْضِيهِ قَالَ لا كَمَا لا تَصُومُ كَذَلِكَ لا تَقْضِي.


4. Ahmad ibn Muhammad has narrated from al-Marzuban ibn ‘Imran who has said the following: “I once asked al-Rida’, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, that I like to travel; can I fast in the month in which I am on a journey? He (the Imam) said, ‘No, you cannot do so.’ ‘Can I complete its Qada’ (compensatory fast) when I come home?’ I asked. He (the Imam) said, ‘No, just as you cannot fast in the same way you cannot carry out its Qada’ (compensatory fast).”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/333)



5ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ بِلالٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ بَسَّامٍ الْجَمَّالِ عَنْ رَجُلٍ قَالَ كُنْتُ مَعَ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) فِيمَا بَيْنَ مَكَّةَ وَالْمَدِينَةِ فِي شَعْبَانَ وَهُوَ صَائِمٌ ثُمَّ رَأَيْنَا هِلالَ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ فَأَفْطَرَ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ أَمْسِ كَانَ عَنْ شَعْبَانَ وَأَنْتَ صَائِمٌ وَالْيَوْمُ مِنْ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ وَأَنْتَ مُفْطِرٌ فَقَالَ إِنَّ ذَاكَ تَطَوُّعٌ وَلَنَا أَنْ نَفْعَلَ مَا شِئْنَا وَهَذَا فَرْضٌ فَلَيْسَ لَنَا أَنْ نَفْعَلَ إِلاَّ مَا أُمِرْنَا.


5. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ali ibn Bilal from al-Hassan ibn Bassam al-Jammal from a man who has said the following: “I once was with abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, between Makkah and al-Madinah in the month of al-Sha‘ban and he (the Imam) was fasting; then we saw the crescent of the month of Ramadan and he (the Imam) stopped fasting. I then said, ‘I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, yesterday was of the month of al-Sha‘ban and you were fasting, but today is of the month of Ramadan and you are not fasting. He (the Imam) said, ‘That was optional and it is up to us to do what we want, but this is obligatory and we have no choice but to do what we are commanded to do.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/333)