48. Undesirability (unlawfulness) of Fast on a Journey

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1ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَبْدِيِّ عَنْ عُبَيْدِ بْنِ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَوْلُ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَمَنْ شَهِدَ مِنْكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ قَالَ مَا أَبْيَنَهَا مَنْ شَهِدَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ وَمَنْ سَافَرَ فَلا يَصُمْهُ.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from ‘Abd al-’Aziz al-‘Abdiy from ‘Ubayd ibn Zurarah who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, ‘Whoever among you is present (at home) in the month of Ramadan must fast.’ (2:185) He (the Imam) said, ‘It cannot be more vivid than this, those present must fast and those on a journey must not fast.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/326)



2ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ سَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ قَالَ رَسُولُ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ تَصَدَّقَ عَلَى مَرْضَى أُمَّتِي وَمُسَافِرِيهَا بِالتَّقْصِيرِ وَالإِفْطَارِ أَ يَسُرُّ أَحَدَكُمْ إِذَا تَصَدَّقَ بِصَدَقَةٍ أَنْ تُرَدَّ عَلَيْهِ.


2. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn abu ‘Umayr from certain persons of his people who has said the following: “I once, heard abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, state this Hadith: ‘The Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, has said that Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has granted a charity to those of my followers who are not in good health and those on a journey to reduce their Salat (prayer) and stop fasting. Does it make any of you happy to reject a charity given to you?”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/327)



3ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ بْنِ عُتْبَةَ عَنْ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ عَمَّارٍ عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ أَبِي الْعَلاءِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ الصَّائِمُ فِي السَّفَرِ فِي شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ كَالْمُفْطِرِ فِيهِ فِي الْحَضَرِ ثُمَّ قَالَ إِنَّ رَجُلاً أَتَى النَّبِيَّ (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ الله أَصُومُ شَهْرَ رَمَضَانَ فِي السَّفَرِ فَقَالَ لا فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ الله إِنَّهُ عَلَيَّ يَسِيرٌ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ تَصَدَّقَ عَلَى مَرْضَى أُمَّتِي وَمُسَافِرِيهَا بِالإِفْطَارِ فِي شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ أَ يُعْجِبُ أَحَدَكُمْ لَوْ تَصَدَّقَ بِصَدَقَةٍ أَنْ تُرَدَّ عَلَيْهِ.


3. Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Hakam from ‘Abd al-Malik ibn ‘Utbah from Ishaq ibn ‘Ammar from Yahya ibn abu al-‘Ala’ who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘One who fasts on a journey in the month of Ramadan is like one who invalidates his fast while at home.’ He (the Imam) then said, ‘Once a man came to the Holy prophet, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, and asked, “O Messenger of Allah, can I fast in the month of Ramadan on a journey?” He (the Messenger of Allah) replied, “No, you cannot fast on a journey.” He said, “O Messenger of Allah, it is very easy for me.” The Messenger of Allah said, “Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has given charity to those of my followers who are on a journey and those who are not in a good health to stop fasting in the month of Ramadan. Does it make any of you feel happy to reject a charity granted to you?””’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق على الظه ر - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/327)



4ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ صَالِحِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ أَبَانِ بْنِ تَغْلِبَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) خِيَارُ أُمَّتِي الَّذِينَ إِذَا سَافَرُوا أَفْطَرُوا وَقَصَّرُوا وَإِذَا أَحْسَنُوا اسْتَبْشَرُوا وَإِذَا أَسَاءُوا اسْتَغْفَرُوا وَشِرَارُ أُمَّتِي الَّذِينَ وُلِدُوا فِي النِّعَمِ وَغُذُّوا بِهِ يَأْكُلُونَ طَيِّبَ الطَّعَامِ وَيَلْبَسُونَ لَيِّنَ الثِّيَابِ وَإِذَا تَكَلَّمُوا لَمْ يَصْدُقُوا.


4. Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Salih ibn Sa‘id from Aban ibn Taghlib who has said the following: “Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has stated this Hadith: ‘The Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, has said, “The virtuous among my followers are those who, when on a journey, stop fasting and reduce their Salat (prayer), when receiving a favor they take it as good news and when doing a sin ask for forgiveness. The evildoers among my followers are those who are born in bounties and feed on it, who eat fine food, wear soft clothes and when speaking do not tell the truth.’””


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/327)



5ـ أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الأَشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ عِيصِ بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ إِذَا خَرَجَ الرَّجُلُ فِي شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ مُسَافِراً أَفْطَرَ وَقَالَ إِنَّ رَسُولَ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) خَرَجَ مِنَ الْمَدِينَةِ إِلَى مَكَّةَ فِي شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ وَمَعَهُ النَّاسُ وَفِيهِمُ الْمُشَاةُ فَلَمَّا انْتَهَى إِلَى كُرَاعِ الْغَمِيمِ دَعَا بِقَدَحٍ مِنْ مَاءٍ فِيمَا بَيْنَ الظُّهْرِ وَالْعَصْرِ فَشَرِبَ وَأَفْطَرَ ثُمَّ أَفْطَرَ النَّاسُ مَعَهُ وَثَمَّ أُنَاسٌ عَلَى صَوْمِهِمْ فَسَمَّاهُمُ الْعُصَاةَ وَإِنَّمَا يُؤْخَذُ بِآخِرِ أَمْرِ رَسُولِ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه).


5. Abu Ali al-Ash’ariy has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar from Safwan ibn Yahya ‘Is ibn al-Qasim who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘When a man goes out on a journey in the month of Ramadan he stops fasting.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘The Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, once in the month of Ramadan left al-Madinah for Makkah along with people, among them were those who walked on foot. When they arrived at Kura‘ al-Ghaym (name of a place) He (the Messenger of Allah) asked for a bowl of water between al-Zuhr and al-‘ Asr time, he drank and stopped fasting, then people stopped fasting along with him. Certain people continued fasting. He (the Messenger of Allah) called them disobedient ones. It is the last commandment of the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, which is effective.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/328)



6ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ سَمَّى رَسُولُ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) قَوْماً صَامُوا حِينَ أَفْطَرَ وَقَصَّرَ عُصَاةً وَقَالَ هُمُ الْعُصَاةُ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَإِنَّا لَنَعْرِفُ أَبْنَاءَهُمْ وَأَبْنَاءَ أَبْنَائِهِمْ إِلَى يَوْمِنَا هَذَا.


6. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Hammad from Hariz from Zurarah who has said the following: “Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, named a people ‘disobedient’ when they fasted when he stopped fasting and reduced his Salat (prayer).’ He (the Imam) then said, ‘They are disobedient till this day and will remain so till the Day of Judgment. I know their children and the children of their children up to this, our day.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/328)



7ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ سَلَمَةَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ سَمَاعَةَ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ حَكِيمٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) يَقُولُ لَوْ أَنَّ رَجُلاً مَاتَ صَائِماً فِي السَّفَرِ مَا صَلَّيْتُ عَلَيْهِ.


7. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Salmah ibn al-Khattab from Sulayman ibn Sama‘ah, from Ali ibn ‘Isma‘il from Muhammad ibn Hakim who has said the following: “I once heard abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, say, ‘If a man while on a journey and fasting dies, I will not perform Salat (prayer) (of dead people) for him.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/328)