18. What Is Dawn, When Does It Come and When Is It Unlawful to Eat?

Back to book

1ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنِ الْعَلاءِ بْنِ رَزِينٍ عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ بَكْرٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ أَذَّنَ ابْنُ أُمِّ مَكْتُومٍ لِصَلاةِ الْغَدَاةِ وَمَرَّ رَجُلٌ بِرَسُولِ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَهُوَ يَتَسَحَّرُ فَدَعَاهُ أَنْ يَأْكُلَ مَعَهُ فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ الله قَدْ أَذَّنَ الْمُؤَذِّنُ لِلْفَجْرِ فَقَالَ إِنَّ هَذَا ابْنُ أُمِّ مَكْتُومٍ وَهُوَ يُؤَذِّنُ بِلَيْلٍ فَإِذَا أَذَّنَ بِلالٌ فَعِنْدَ ذَلِكَ فَأَمْسِكْ.


1. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from al-‘Ala’ ibn Razin from Musa ibn Bakr from Zurarah who has said the following: “Abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that ibn ‘Umm Maktum once said Adhan for the morning Salat (prayer) and a man passed by the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, who was eating. He (the Messenger of Allah) invited the man to eat Suhur (breakfast in the morning before dawn). He said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, Mu’adhdhin has said Adhan for the morning Salat (prayer).’ The Messenger of Allah said, ‘Ibn ‘Umm Maktum says Adhan in the night; when Bilal says Adhan, then you must stop eating.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/266)



2ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ عَطِيَّةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ الْفَجْرُ هُوَ الَّذِي إِذَا رَأَيْتَهُ مُعْتَرِضاً كَأَنَّهُ بَيَاضُ سُورَى.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Ali ibn ‘ Atiyyah who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Dawn is when you see it, widthwise, like the whiteness of the suray (canal) (Euphrates river).”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/266)



3ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) عَنِ الْخَيْطِ الأَبْيَضِ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الأَسْوَدِ فَقَالَ بَيَاضُ النَّهَارِ مِنْ سَوَادِ اللَّيْلِ قَالَ وَكَانَ بِلالٌ يُؤَذِّنُ لِلنَّبِيِّ (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَابْنُ أُمِّ مَكْتُومٍ وَكَانَ أَعْمَى يُؤَذِّنُ بِلَيْلٍ وَيُؤَذِّنُ بِلالٌ حِينَ يَطْلُعُ الْفَجْرُ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) إِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ صَوْتَ بِلالٍ فَدَعُوا الطَّعَامَ وَالشَّرَابَ فَقَدْ أَصْبَحْتُمْ.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from and Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad all from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of ‘The white twine from the black twine.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It is the whiteness of the day out of the blackness of the night.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Bilal and ibn ‘Umm Maktum would say Adhan for the Holy prophet. Ibn ‘Umm Maktum was blind and would say Adhan in the night. Bilal, however, would say Adhan when it was dawn. The Holy prophet said, ‘When you hear the voice of Bilal then stop eating and drinking, because you are in the morning.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/266)



4ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ وَأَحْمَدُ بْنُ إِدْرِيسَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ جَمِيعاً عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنِ ابْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَحَدِهِمَا (عَلَيْهِما السَّلاَم) فِي قَوْلِ الله تَعَالَى أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ لَيْلَةَ الصِّيامِ الرَّفَثُ إِلى‏ نِسائِكُمْ الآيَةَ فَقَالَ نَزَلَتْ فِي خَوَّاتِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ الأَنْصَارِيِّ وَكَانَ مَعَ النَّبِيِّ (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فِي الْخَنْدَقِ وَهُوَ صَائِمٌ فَأَمْسَى وَهُوَ عَلَى تِلْكَ الْحَالِ وَكَانُوا قَبْلَ أَنْ تَنْزِلَ هَذِهِ الآيَةُ إِذَا نَامَ أَحَدُهُمْ حُرِّمَ عَلَيْهِ الطَّعَامُ وَالشَّرَابُ فَجَاءَ خَوَّاتٌ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ حِينَ أَمْسَى فَقَالَ هَلْ عِنْدَكُمْ طَعَامٌ فَقَالُوا لا لا تَنَمْ حَتَّى نُصْلِحَ لَكَ طَعَاماً فَاتَّكَأَ فَنَامَ فَقَالُوا لَهُ قَدْ فَعَلْتَ قَالَ نَعَمْ فَبَاتَ عَلَى تِلْكَ الْحَالِ فَأَصْبَحَ ثُمَّ غَدَا إِلَى الْخَنْدَقِ فَجَعَلَ يُغْشَى عَلَيْهِ فَمَرَّ بِهِ رَسُولُ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فَلَمَّا رَأَى الَّذِي بِهِ أَخْبَرَهُ كَيْفَ كَانَ أَمْرُهُ فَأَنْزَلَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِيهِ الآيَةَ وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ.


4. Muhammad ibn ‘Isma’il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from and Ahmad ibn Idris from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar all from Safwan ibn Yahya from ibn Muskan from abu Basir who has said the following: “This is about the words of Allah, most High, ‘It is lawful for you to have carnal relation with your wives during the night of the fast. . . .’ (2:187) One of the two Imam, (abu Ja’far or abu ‘Abd Allah), ‘Alayhim al-Salam, has said that it was revealed about the case of Khawwat ibn Jubayr al-Ansariy. He was with the Holy prophet, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, at the time of digging the ditch and fasting. It became evening. At that time, before the revelation of this verse, if anyone slept, eating and drinking became unlawful for him. Khawwat went home to his family in the evening and asked for food. They said that it is not ready yet so you must wait until food is prepared for you. He leaned and fell asleep. They asked him, ‘Did you do it (sleep)?’ He replied, ‘Yes, I did.’ He remained in that condition until the morning, then went to work in the ditches and would faint. The Messenger of Allah passed by and asked about his condition, which he informed him of his story. Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, then sent down this verse, ‘Eat and drink until the white twine appears to you from the black twine in the morning.’ (2:187)”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/266)



5ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ عَاصِمِ بْنِ حُمَيْدٍ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) فَقُلْتُ مَتَى يَحْرُمُ الطَّعَامُ وَالشَّرَابُ عَلَى الصَّائِمِ وَتَحِلُّ الصَّلاةُ صَلاةُ الْفَجْرِ فَقَالَ إِذَا اعْتَرَضَ الْفَجْرُ وَكَانَ كَالْقُبْطِيَّةِ الْبَيْضَاءِ فَثَمَّ يَحْرُمُ الطَّعَامُ وَيَحِلُّ الصِّيَامُ وَتَحِلُّ الصَّلاةُ صَلاةُ الْفَجْرِ قُلْتُ فَلَسْنَا فِي وَقْتٍ إِلَى أَنْ يَطْلُعَ شُعَاعُ الشَّمْسِ فَقَالَ هَيْهَاتَ أَيْنَ تَذْهَبُ تِلْكَ صَلاةُ الصِّبْيَانِ.


5. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Hakam from ‘Asem ibn Humayd from abu Basir who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘When does it become unlawful to eat and drink for one fasting, and when does performing Salat (prayer) of the morning becomes lawful?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘When dawn appears which looks like white Coptic fabrics, then eating and drinking become unlawful for a fasting person and performing the morning Salat (prayer) becomes lawful.’ I then said, ‘So we do not have time until sunrise.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘That is not it at all. Where are you going? That is the time for Salat (prayer) by children.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/267)