17. The Case of One Who Eats or Drinks but Has Doubts About Its Taking Place before or after Dawn

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) أَنَّهُ سُئِلَ عَنْ رَجُلٍ تَسَحَّرَ ثُمَّ خَرَجَ مِنْ بَيْتِهِ وَقَدْ طَلَعَ الْفَجْرُ وَتَبَيَّنَ قَالَ يُتِمُّ صَوْمَهُ ذَلِكَ ثُمَّ لْيَقْضِهِ فَإِنْ تَسَحَّرَ فِي غَيْرِ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ بَعْدَ الْفَجْرِ أَفْطَرَ ثُمَّ قَالَ إِنَّ أَبِي كَانَ لَيْلَةً يُصَلِّي وَأَنَا آكُلُ فَانْصَرَفَ فَقَالَ أَمَّا جَعْفَرٌ فَقَدْ أَكَلَ وَشَرِبَ بَعْدَ الْفَجْرِ فَأَمَرَنِي فَأَفْطَرْتُ ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمَ فِي غَيْرِ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who eats Suhur (breakfast in the morning before dawn), then comes out of his house to find out when it has already become dawn. He (the Imam) said, ‘He is required to complete that fast then make Qada’ (compensatory fast) for it; however if such breakfast is in a time other than the month of Ramadan and after dawn one must not fast.’ He (the Imam) then said, ‘Once during the night my father was performing Salat (prayer) and I was eating Suhur (breakfast in the morning before dawn). He ended and said, ‘Ja’far has eaten and drunk after dawn.’ So he commanded me and I did not fast that day which was not of the month of Ramadan.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/262)



2ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ بْنِ مِهْرَانَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ رَجُلٍ أَكَلَ وَشَرِبَ بَعْدَ مَا طَلَعَ الْفَجْرُ فِي شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ فَقَالَ إِنْ كَانَ قَامَ فَنَظَرَ فَلَمْ يَرَ الْفَجْرَ فَأَكَلَ ثُمَّ عَادَ فَرَأَى الْفَجْرَ فَلْيُتِمَّ صَوْمَهُ وَلا إِعَادَةَ عَلَيْهِ وَإِنْ كَانَ قَامَ فَأَكَلَ وَشَرِبَ ثُمَّ نَظَرَ إِلَى الْفَجْرِ فَرَأَى أَنَّهُ قَدْ طَلَعَ الْفَجْرُ فَلْيُتِمَّ صَوْمَهُ وَيَقْضِي يَوْماً آخَرَ لأَنَّهُ بَدَأَ بِالأَكْلِ قَبْلَ النَّظَرِ فَعَلَيْهِ الإِعَادَةُ.


2. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from Sama‘ah ibn Mehran who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who eats and drinks after dawn in the month of Ramadan. He (the Imam) said, ‘If he got up and looked but did not see the dawn then ate then returned and saw that it was dawn, he is required to complete that fast and there is no Qada’ (compensatory fast) on him. If he gets up, eats and drinks, and then looks to the dawn that is already there, he is required to complete that fast and make Qada’ (compensatory fast) for one other day because he ate first, then went to find out about dawn, thus fast of one day is necessary.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/263)



3ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ عَمَّارٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) آمُرُ الْجَارِيَةَ أَنْ تَنْظُرَ طَلَعَ الْفَجْرُ أَمْ لا فَتَقُولُ لَمْ يَطْلُعْ فَآكُلُ ثُمَّ أَنْظُرُهُ فَأَجِدُهُ قَدْ طَلَعَ حِينَ نَظَرَتْ قَالَ تُتِمُّ يَوْمَكَ ثُمَّ تَقْضِيهِ أَمَا إِنَّكَ لَوْ كُنْتَ أَنْتَ الَّذِي نَظَرْتَ مَا كَانَ عَلَيْكَ قَضَاؤُهُ.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Mu‘awiyah ibn ‘Ammar who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of my fasting when I asked the girl to look if it was dawn yet and she said that it was not dawn, yet and I ate; then I looked and saw that it was dawn. He (the Imam) said, ‘You are required to complete that fast and make Qada’ (compensatory fast for it); however, if you yourself had looked first before eating there would have been no Qada’ (compensatory fast) upon you.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/263)



4ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ عِيصِ بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) عَنْ رَجُلٍ خَرَجَ فِي شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ وَأَصْحَابُهُ يَتَسَحَّرُونَ فِي بَيْتٍ فَنَظَرَ إِلَى الْفَجْرِ وَنَادَاهُمْ فَكَفَّ بَعْضُهُمْ وَظَنَّ بَعْضُهُمْ أَنَّهُ يَسْخَرُ فَأَكَلَ فَقَالَ يُتِمُّ صَوْمَهُ وَيَقْضِي.


4. Muhammad ibn ‘Isma‘il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from Safwan ibn Yahya from ‘Is ibn al-Qasim who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who along with his friends go for Suhur (breakfast in the morning before dawn) in a house. He looks toward dawn and asks them to stop eating. Certain ones among them stop and others think that he is joking and he eats. He (the Imam) said, ‘He completes that fast and makes its Qada’ (compensatory fast) also.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول كالصحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/264)



5ـ صَفْوَانُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ عَمَّارٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) يَكُونُ عَلَيَّ الْيَوْمُ وَالْيَوْمَانِ مِنْ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ فَأَتَسَحَّرُ مُصْبِحاً أُفْطِرُ ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمَ وَأَقْضِي مَكَانَ ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمِ يَوْماً آخَرَ أَوْ أُتِمُّ عَلَى صَوْمِ ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمِ وَأَقْضِي يَوْماً آخَرَ فَقَالَ لا بَلْ تُفْطِرُ ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمَ لأَنَّكَ أَكَلْتَ مُصْبِحاً وَتَقْضِي يَوْماً آخَرَ.


5. From Safwan ibn Yahya has narrated from Ishaq ibn ‘Ammar who has said the following: “I once asked abu Ibrahim, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of my fasting that I owe one or two days of the month of Ramadan. I eat Suhur (breakfast in the morning before dawn) but it is already dawn. Is it necessary for me to eat that day instead of fasting and make Qada’ (compensatory fast) of that day on another day or complete that fast and then make Qada’ (compensatory fast) on another day? He (the Imam) said, ‘No, but you eat in that day; you ate after dawn. You must make Qada’ (compensatory fast) for it on another day.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/264)



6ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ أَبِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ رَجُلٍ شَرِبَ بَعْدَ مَا طَلَعَ الْفَجْرُ وَهُوَ لا يَعْلَمُ فِي شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ قَالَ يَصُومُ يَوْمَهُ ذَلِكَ وَيَقْضِي يَوْماً آخَرَ وَإِنْ كَانَ قَضَاءً لِرَمَضَانَ فِي شَوَّالٍ أَوْ فِي غَيْرِهِ فَشَرِبَ بَعْدَ الْفَجْرِ فَلْيُفْطِرْ يَوْمَهُ ذَلِكَ وَيَقْضِي.


6. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn abu Hamzah who has said the following: “I once asked abu Ibrahim, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who drinks after dawn and he does not know that it is the month of Ramadan. He (the Imam) said, ‘He is required to fast that day and make Qada’ (compensatory fast for it) on another day and if it is a Qada’ (compensatory fast) of the month of Ramadan in the month of Shawwal or other times and he drinks after dawn, he eats in that day and makes Qada 5 (compensatory fast for it) on another day. ‘“


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/264)



7ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ بْنِ مِهْرَانَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ رَجُلَيْنِ قَامَا فَنَظَرَا إِلَى الْفَجْرِ فَقَالَ أَحَدُهُمَا هُوَ ذَا وَقَالَ الآخَرُ مَا أَرَى شَيْئاً قَالَ فَلْيَأْكُلِ الَّذِي لَمْ يَسْتَبِنْ لَهُ الْفَجْرُ وَقَدْ حَرُمَ عَلَى الَّذِي زَعَمَ أَنَّهُ رَأَى الْفَجْرَ إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَقُولُ كُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ.


7. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from Sama‘ah ibn Mehran who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of two men who both look toward dawn and one of them say, ‘There is dawn/ but the other one says, ‘I do not see anything/ He (the Imam) said, ‘The one who does not see any dawn, eats but eating is unlawful for one who thinks he has seen the dawn. Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, says, ‘Eat and drink until the white thread appears from the dark thread of dawn/ (2:187)”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/265)