26. Finding a Proper Recipient of Benevolent Assistance

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ سَيْفِ بْنِ عَمِيرَةَ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) لِمُفَضَّلِ بْنِ عُمَرَ يَا مُفَضَّلُ إِذَا أَرَدْتَ أَنْ تَعْلَمَ أَ شَقِيٌّ الرَّجُلُ أَمْ سَعِيدٌ فَانْظُرْ سَيْبَهُ وَمَعْرُوفَهُ إِلَى مَنْ يَصْنَعُهُ فَإِنْ كَانَ يَصْنَعُهُ إِلَى مَنْ هُوَ أَهْلُهُ فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ إِلَى خَيْرٍ وَإِنْ كَانَ يَصْنَعُهُ إِلَى غَيْرِ أَهْلِهِ فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَيْسَ لَهُ عِنْدَ الله خَيْرٌ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Sayf ibn ‘Ami rah who has said the following: “Abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, once said to Mufaddal ibn ’Umar, ’O Mufaddal, if you want to know whether a man is the most wicked or most fortunate, find out to whom he provides Benevolent Assistance. If he finds a properly deserving recipient, it is information for you that good consequences await him; if he provides Benevolent Assistance to those who do not deserve it, notice that there is not anything good for him before Allah.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/158)



2ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ مُفَضَّلِ بْنِ عُمَرَ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) يَا مُفَضَّلُ إِذَا أَرَدْتَ أَنْ تَعْلَمَ إِلَى خَيْرٍ يَصِيرُ الرَّجُلُ أَمْ إِلَى شَرٍّ انْظُرْ أَيْنَ يَضَعُ مَعْرُوفَهُ فَإِنْ كَانَ يَضَعُ مَعْرُوفَهُ عِنْدَ أَهْلِهِ فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ يَصِيرُ إِلَى خَيْرٍ وَإِنْ كَانَ يَضَعُ مَعْرُوفَهُ عِنْدَ غَيْرِ أَهْلِهِ فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَيْسَ لَهُ فِي الآخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلاقٍ.


2. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Muhammad ibn Sinan from Mufaddal ibn ‘Umar who has said the following: “Abu ’Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, once said to me, ‘O Mufaddal, if you want to know whether a man ends up as good or wicked, consider where he places his Benevolent Assistance. If he provides such assistance for a properly deserving recipient, he is headed toward a good direction; if he provides it for an undeserving recipient, then that is proof that there is not anything for him on the Day of Judgment.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/159)



3ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ عَمْرِو بْنِ سُلَيْمَانَ الْبَجَلِيِّ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ شُعَيْبِ بْنِ مِيثَمٍ التَّمَّارِ عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ الْمَدَائِنِيِّ عَنْ رَجُلٍ عَنْ أَبِي مِخْنَفٍ الأَزْدِيِّ قَالَ أَتَى أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ صَلَوَاتُ الله عَلَيْهِ رَهْطٌ مِنَ الشِّيعَةِ فَقَالُوا يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ لَوْ أَخْرَجْتَ هَذِهِ الأَمْوَالَ فَفَرَّقْتَهَا فِي هَؤُلاءِ الرُّؤَسَاءِ وَالأَشْرَافِ وَفَضَّلْتَهُمْ عَلَيْنَا حَتَّى إِذَا اسْتَوْسَقَتِ الأُمُورُ عُدْتَ إِلَى أَفْضَلِ مَا عَوَّدَكَ الله مِنَ الْقَسْمِ بِالسَّوِيَّةِ وَالْعَدْلِ فِي الرَّعِيَّةِ فَقَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) أَ تَأْمُرُونِّي وَيْحَكُمْ أَنْ أَطْلُبَ النَّصْرَ بِالظُّلْمِ وَالْجَوْرِ فِيمَنْ وُلِّيتُ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الإِسْلامِ لا وَالله لا يَكُونُ ذَلِكَ مَا سَمَرَ السَّمِيرُ وَمَا رَأَيْتُ فِي السَّمَاءِ نَجْماً وَالله لَوْ كَانَتْ أَمْوَالُهُمْ مَالِي لَسَاوَيْتُ بَيْنَهُمْ فَكَيْفَ وَإِنَّمَا هِيَ أَمْوَالُهُمْ قَالَ ثُمَّ أَزَمَ سَاكِتاً طَوِيلاً ثُمَّ رَفَعَ رَأْسَهُ فَقَالَ مَنْ كَانَ فِيكُمْ لَهُ مَالٌ فَإِيَّاهُ وَالْفَسَادَ فَإِنَّ إِعْطَاءَهُ فِي غَيْرِ حَقِّهِ تَبْذِيرٌ وَإِسْرَافٌ وَهُوَ يَرْفَعُ ذِكْرَ صَاحِبِهِ فِي النَّاسِ وَيَضَعُهُ عِنْدَ الله وَلَمْ يَضَعِ امْرُؤٌ مَالَهُ فِي غَيْرِ حَقِّهِ وَعِنْدَ غَيْرِ أَهْلِهِ إِلاَّ حَرَمَهُ الله شُكْرَهُمْ وَكَانَ لِغَيْرِهِ وُدُّهُمْ فَإِنْ بَقِيَ مَعَهُ مِنْهُمْ بَقِيَّةٌ مِمَّنْ يُظْهِرُ الشُّكْرَ لَهُ وَيُرِيهِ النُّصْحَ فَإِنَّمَا ذَلِكَ مَلَقٌ مِنْهُ وَكَذِبٌ فَإِنْ زَلَّتْ بِصَاحِبِهِمُ النَّعْلُ ثُمَّ احْتَاجَ إِلَى مَعُونَتِهِمْ وَمُكَافَأَتِهِمْ فَأَلأَمُ خَلِيلٍ وَشَرُّ خَدِينٍ وَلَمْ يَضَعِ امْرُؤٌ مَالَهُ فِي غَيْرِ حَقِّهِ وَعِنْدَ غَيْرِ أَهْلِهِ إِلاَّ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ مِنَ الْحَظِّ فِيمَا أُتِيَ إِلاَّ مَحْمَدَةُ اللِّئَامِ وَثَنَاءُ الأَشْرَارِ مَا دَامَ عَلَيْهِ مُنْعِماً مُفْضِلاً وَمَقَالَةُ الْجَاهِلِ مَا أَجْوَدَهُ وَهُوَ عِنْدَ الله بَخِيلٌ فَأَيُّ حَظٍّ أَبْوَرُ وَأَخْسَرُ مِنْ هَذَا الْحَظِّ وَأَيُّ فَائِدَةِ مَعْرُوفٍ أَقَلُّ مِنْ هَذَا الْمَعْرُوفِ فَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ لَهُ مَالٌ فَلْيَصِلْ بِهِ الْقَرَابَةَ وَلْيُحْسِنْ مِنْهُ الضِّيَافَةَ وَلْيَفُكَّ بِهِ الْعَانِيَ وَالأَسِيرَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ فَإِنَّ الْفَوْزَ بِهَذِهِ الْخِصَالِ مَكَارِمُ الدُّنْيَا وَشَرَفُ الآخِرَةِ.


3. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn abu ‘Abd Allah from Muhammad ibn Ali from Ahmad ibn ‘Amr ibn Sulayman al-Bajaliy from Isma‘il ibn al-Hassan ibn Isma‘il ibn Shu’ayb ibn Mitham al-Tammar from Ibrahim ibn Ishaq al-Mada’iniy from a man from abu Mikhnaf al-Azdiy who has said the following: “Once a group of Shi`a people came to ’Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, with the following request: ‘O ’Amir al-Mu’minin, we request you to distribute the wealth at your disposal (public treasury) among the chiefs and elite people. In so doing, they will receive preference, which will strengthen your affairs. Thereafter, you can reassume your program of equal distribution of the treasury among people as Allah has commanded you to do.’ ’Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, then said, ‘Do you, fie upon you, make me to achieve victory through doing injustice to Muslim people, whose ruler and high authority I have become? By Allah, I will not do so as long as there is day and night and one star in the sky (is left). By Allah, even if their wealth (public treasury) was my personal wealth, I still would distribute it among them by equal measures; in fact, it (public treasury) is their wealth.’ He (the Imam) remained silent for a long time. He then raised his head and said, ‘Whoever of you is wealthy must avoid spending in a wasteful, wrongful, extravagant manner and for causes of falsehood. In so doing, one enhances the name of his friend among people, but brings it low before Allah. Whoever spends his wealth for the causes of falsehood or undeserving recipients, Allah deprives him of the blessings of their thanks and appreciation. They will love people other than such a benevolent person. Even if certain ones among them express their appreciation, thanks and good advice, it is no more than meaningless flattery and false expressions. If the shoes of their companion slip and he becomes needy of their support and returning the favor, he receives blames as a wicked friend. One of you must not spend his property for the causes of falsehood and for the undeserving recipients; otherwise, he receives no more than lip service from those who want all powers for themselves. Only wicked people may applaud him as long as he provides them favors. Only ignorant people may offer him meaningless praise. They may call him the most generous person, while in fact, in the sight of Allah he is a stingy one. No share, in fact, is more wicked and of greater loss than this share. What meaningful gain can I make through this kind of Benevolent Assistance? Whoever among you is wealthy should therefore maintain good relations with his relatives, serve his guests, provide relief to the suffering people, the captives and those who have lost their supply while on a journey; success in such matters is a noble achievement in this world and an honor in the next life.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/159)



4ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ جَابِرٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) يَقُولُ لَوْ أَنَّ النَّاسَ أَخَذُوا مَا أَمَرَهُمُ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بِهِ فَأَنْفَقُوهُ فِيمَا نَهَاهُمُ الله عَنْهُ مَا قَبِلَهُ مِنْهُمْ وَلَوْ أَخَذُوا مَا نَهَاهُمُ الله عَنْهُ فَأَنْفَقُوهُ فِيمَا أَمَرَهُمُ الله بِهِ مَا قَبِلَهُ مِنْهُمْ حَتَّى يَأْخُذُوهُ مِنْ حَقٍّ وَيُنْفِقُوهُ فِي حَقٍّ.


4. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Muhammad ibn Sinan from Isma‘il ibn Jabir who has said the following: “I heard Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, say, ‘If people achieve what Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, has commanded them to achieve, but spend where Allah has prohibited such spending, it is not accepted. If people achieve what Allah has prohibited and spend on matters that Allah has commanded them to spend on, this also is not accepted. He accepts only what they earn in a rightful manner and spend on a rightful recipient.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/160)



5ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ عَنْ أَبِي جَمِيلَةَ عَنْ ضُرَيْسٍ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) إِنَّمَا أَعْطَاكُمُ الله هَذِهِ الْفُضُولَ مِنَ الأَمْوَالِ لِتُوَجِّهُوهَا حَيْثُ وَجَّهَهَا الله وَلَمْ يُعْطِكُمُوهَا لِتَكْنِزُوهَا.


5. Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Ahmad ibn abu ‘Abd Allah from Musa ibn al-Qasim from abu Jamilah from Durays who has said the following: “I heard abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, say, ‘Allah has granted you the extra wealth so that you spend it the way Allah wants you to spend. He has not given you this to keep for safe keeping.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/160)