19. Giving Charity After an Appeal From a Recipient

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ هَارُونَ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ مَسْعَدَةَ بْنِ صَدَقَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) أَنَّ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ صَلَوَاتُ الله عَلَيْهِ بَعَثَ إِلَى رَجُلٍ بِخَمْسَةِ أَوْسَاقٍ مِنْ تَمْرِ الْبُغَيْبِغَةِ وَكَانَ الرَّجُلُ مِمَّنْ يَرْجُو نَوَافِلَهُ وَيُؤَمِّلُ نَائِلَهُ وَرِفْدَهُ وَكَانَ لا يَسْأَلُ عَلِيّاً (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) وَلا غَيْرَهُ شَيْئاً فَقَالَ رَجُلٌ لأَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) وَالله مَا سَأَلَكَ فُلانٌ وَلَقَدْ كَانَ يُجْزِئُهُ مِنَ الْخَمْسَةِ الأَوْسَاقِ وَسْقٌ وَاحِدٌ فَقَالَ لَهُ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) لا كَثَّرَ الله فِي الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ضَرْبَكَ أُعْطِي أَنَا وَتَبْخَلُ أَنْتَ لله أَنْتَ إِذَا أَنَا لَمْ أُعْطِ الَّذِي يَرْجُونِي إِلاَّ مِنْ بَعْدِ الْمَسْأَلَةِ ثُمَّ أُعْطِيهِ بَعْدَ الْمَسْأَلَةِ فَلَمْ أُعْطِهِ ثَمَنَ مَا أَخَذْتُ مِنْهُ وَذَلِكَ لأَنِّي عَرَّضْتُهُ أَنْ يَبْذُلَ لِي وَجْهَهُ الَّذِي يُعَفِّرُهُ فِي التُّرَابِ لِرَبِّي وَرَبِّهِ عِنْدَ تَعَبُّدِهِ لَهُ وَطَلَبِ حَوَائِجِهِ إِلَيْهِ فَمَنْ فَعَلَ هَذَا بِأَخِيهِ الْمُسْلِمِ وَقَدْ عَرَفَ أَنَّهُ مَوْضِعٌ لِصِلَتِهِ وَمَعْرُوفِهِ فَلَمْ يُصَدِّقِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِي دُعَائِهِ لَهُ حَيْثُ يَتَمَنَّى لَهُ الْجَنَّةَ بِلِسَانِهِ وَيَبْخَلُ عَلَيْهِ بِالْحُطَامِ مِنْ مَالِهِ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ الْعَبْدَ قَدْ يَقُولُ فِي دُعَائِهِ اللهمَّ اغْفِرْ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ فَإِذَا دَعَا لَهُمْ بِالْمَغْفِرَةِ فَقَدْ طَلَبَ لَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ فَمَا أَنْصَفَ مَنْ فَعَلَ هَذَا بِالْقَوْلِ وَلَمْ يُحَقِّقْهُ بِالْفِعْلِ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Harun ibn Muslim from Mas’adah ibn Sadaqah who has said the following: “Abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that once, ’Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, decided to give five Awsaq (a certain amount of) dates from al-Bughaybighah (a place in al-Madinah) to a man who had hoped to benefit from the generosity of the Imam and his gifts. However, he would not appeal before the Imam or other people for any help. A man said to ’Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al- Salam, ‘This man has not appealed before you. One is enough for him instead of five Awsaq.’ ’Amir al-Mu’minin then said, ‘I wish Allah will not create more people like you among the believers. Why do you exercise stinginess about the charity that I have decided to give to a needy person? You must take notice, for the sake of Allah! If I give charity to a person who expects to receive charity from me only after his appeal, I, in fact, have not given him the cost of what I have already taken from him. Such cost is my causing him to risk the dignity of his face, which he places on the ground before my Lord and his Lord during his worship and his appeal before Him for his needs. With this kind of dealing with a Muslim whom one knows as deserving of one’s charity and gifts, one has not proved oneself as truthful before Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, in one’s prayer when one appeals verbally before Allah to admit one’s Muslim brother into Paradise. On the other hand, one exercises stinginess in matters of worthless worldly belongings. This happens when a servant of Allah says in his prayer, ‘O Allah, grant forgiveness to male and female believers.’ Appealing for forgiveness is asking Paradise for male and female believers. It is unjust not to support one’s words with one’s deeds.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/150)



2ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ إِدْرِيسَ وَغَيْرُهُ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ نُوحِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الله عَنِ الذُّهْلِيِّ رَفَعَهُ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ الْمَعْرُوفُ ابْتِدَاءٌ وَأَمَّا مَنْ أَعْطَيْتَهُ بَعْدَ الْمَسْأَلَةِ فَإِنَّمَا كَافَيْتَهُ بِمَا بَذَلَ لَكَ مِنْ وَجْهِهِ يَبِيتُ لَيْلَتَهُ أَرِقاً مُتَمَلْمِلاً يَمْثُلُ بَيْنَ الرَّجَاءِ وَالْيَأْسِ لا يَدْرِي أَيْنَ يَتَوَجَّهُ لِحَاجَتِهِ ثُمَّ يَعْزِمُ بِالْقَصْدِ لَهَا فَيَأْتِيكَ وَقَلْبُهُ يَرْجُفُ وَفَرَائِصُهُ تَرْعُدُ قَدْ تَرَى دَمَهُ فِي وَجْهِهِ لا يَدْرِي أَ يَرْجِعُ بِكَأْبَةٍ أَمْ بِفَرَحٍ.


2. Ahmad ibn Idris and others have narrated from Muhammad ibn Ahmad from Ahmad ibn Nuh ibn ‘Abd Allah from al-Dhuhliy in a marfu‘ who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that charity is that which is given before an appeal by the recipient. Giving charity after an appeal by the recipient is compensation for using the dignity of his face when he appealed and his passing the night worried and anxious in hope and despair without knowing which direction to go for his needs. He then decides to come before you with his heart beating fast and his muscles shaking. You can see (the color of) his blood on his face. He does not know whether he will turn back sadly or with happiness.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرفوع - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/150)



3ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ صَنْدَلٍ عَنْ يَاسِرٍ عَنِ الْيَسَعِ بْنِ حَمْزَةَ قَالَ كُنْتُ فِي مَجْلِسِ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) أُحَدِّثُهُ وَقَدِ اجْتَمَعَ إِلَيْهِ خَلْقٌ كَثِيرٌ يَسْأَلُونَهُ عَنِ الْحَلالِ وَالْحَرَامِ إِذْ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ رَجُلٌ طُوَالٌ آدَمُ فَقَالَ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ الله رَجُلٌ مِنْ مُحِبِّيكَ وَمُحِبِّي آبَائِكَ وَأَجْدَادِكَ (عَلَيْهِم السَّلاَم) مَصْدَرِي مِنَ الْحَجِّ وَقَدِ افْتَقَدْتُ نَفَقَتِي وَمَا مَعِي مَا أَبْلُغُ مَرْحَلَةً فَإِنْ رَأَيْتَ أَنْ تُنْهِضَنِي إِلَى بَلَدِي وَلله عَلَيَّ نِعْمَةٌ فَإِذَا بَلَغْتُ بَلَدِي تَصَدَّقْتُ بِالَّذِي تُوَلِّينِي عَنْكَ فَلَسْتُ مَوْضِعَ صَدَقَةٍ فَقَالَ لَهُ اجْلِسْ رَحِمَكَ الله وَأَقْبَلَ عَلَى النَّاسِ يُحَدِّثُهُمْ حَتَّى تَفَرَّقُوا وَبَقِيَ هُوَ وَسُلَيْمَانُ الْجَعْفَرِيُّ وَخَيْثَمَةُ وَأَنَا فَقَالَ أَ تَأْذَنُونَ لِي فِي الدُّخُولِ فَقَالَ لَهُ سُلَيْمَانُ قَدَّمَ الله أَمْرَكَ فَقَامَ فَدَخَلَ الْحُجْرَةَ وَبَقِيَ سَاعَةً ثُمَّ خَرَجَ وَرَدَّ الْبَابَ وَأَخْرَجَ يَدَهُ مِنْ أَعْلَى الْبَابِ وَقَالَ أَيْنَ الْخُرَاسَانِيُّ فَقَالَ هَا أَنَا ذَا فَقَالَ خُذْ هَذِهِ الْمِائَتَيْ دِينَارٍ وَاسْتَعِنْ بِهَا فِي مَئُونَتِكَ وَنَفَقَتِكَ وَتَبَرَّكْ بِهَا وَلا تَصَدَّقْ بِهَا عَنِّي وَاخْرُجْ فَلا أَرَاكَ وَلا تَرَانِي ثُمَّ خَرَجَ فَقَالَ لَهُ سُلَيْمَانُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ لَقَدْ أَجْزَلْتَ وَرَحِمْتَ فَلِمَا ذَا سَتَرْتَ وَجْهَكَ عَنْهُ فَقَالَ مَخَافَةَ أَنْ أَرَى ذُلَّ السُّؤَالِ فِي وَجْهِهِ لِقَضَائِي حَاجَتَهُ أَ مَا سَمِعْتَ حَدِيثَ رَسُولِ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) الْمُسْتَتِرُ بِالْحَسَنَةِ يَعْدِلُ سَبْعِينَ حَجَّةً وَالْمُذِيعُ بِالسَّيِّئَةِ مَخْذُولٌ وَالْمُسْتَتِرُ بِهَا مَغْفُورٌ لَهُ أَ مَا سَمِعْتَ قَوْلَ الأُوَلِ. مَتَى آتِهِ يَوْماً لأَطْلُبَ حَاجَةً رَجَعْتُ إِلَى أَهْلِي وَوَجْهِي بِمَائِهِ‏.


3. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn Sandal from Yasir from al-Yasa’ ibn Hamzah who has said the following: “Once I was in the presence of abu al-Hassan al-Rida, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, and I was speaking to him before a large gathering that wanted to ask him about lawful and unlawful matters. At such time, a tall man of fair complexion came in and offered his greetings of peace, addressing the Imam as ‘O child of the Messenger of Allah, I am from those who love you and your ancestors. I am coming from Hajj. I have lost my supplies as well as whatever was with me. I cannot reach my destination. If you consider it proper, help me so I can go home. It will be a great favor to me. When I arrive home, I will give as charity whatever amount you ask me to give; I am an undeserving recipient of charity.’ The Imam said, ‘Sit down. May Allah grant you blessing.’ He then spoke to people until they left. Only he (the Imam), Sulayman al-Ja’fariy, Khaythamah and I remained. The Imam then asked, ‘Can I go inside?’ Sulayman said, ‘Allah has already given priority to your affairs.’ He went inside where he remained for a while before he came out and closed the door. He then stretched his hand from the top of the door and said, ‘Where is the man from Khuransan?’ The man replied, ‘Here I am.’ The Imam said, ‘Get this two hundred dinar, use it for expenses and enjoy its blessings. You must not give any charity on my behalf. You may leave before I see you or you see me.’ Then the Imam came out, and Sulayman said, ‘I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, you have been generous and kind to him. Why did you hide your face from him?’ The Imam replied, ‘I was afraid to see the effect of humiliation on his face due to appealing for help. Consider the words of the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, that say, “Giving charity out of public sight is equal in reward to seventy times performing Hajj. One who publicizes sins is disgraced, and those who do not do so are granted forgiveness.” Consider the words of the people who lived long before: “Whenever during a day I come to him to appeal for help, I return home without any damage to the dignity of my face.’””


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/151)



4ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بِإِسْنَادٍ ذَكَرَهُ عَنِ الْحَارِثِ الْهَمْدَانِيِّ قَالَ سَامَرْتُ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ صَلَوَاتُ الله عَلَيْهِ فَقُلْتُ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَرَضَتْ لِي حَاجَةٌ قَالَ فَرَأَيْتَنِي لَهَا أَهْلاً قُلْتُ نَعَمْ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ قَالَ جَزَاكَ الله عَنِّي خَيْراً ثُمَّ قَامَ إِلَى السِّرَاجِ فَأَغْشَاهَا وَجَلَسَ ثُمَّ قَالَ إِنَّمَا أَغْشَيْتُ السِّرَاجَ لِئَلاَّ أَرَى ذُلَّ حَاجَتِكَ فِي وَجْهِكِ فَتَكَلَّمْ فَإِنِّي سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) يَقُولُ الْحَوَائِجُ أَمَانَةٌ مِنَ الله فِي صُدُورِ الْعِبَادِ فَمَنْ كَتَمَهَا كُتِبَتْ لَهُ عِبَادَةٌ وَمَنْ أَفْشَاهَا كَانَ حَقّاً عَلَى مَنْ سَمِعَهَا أَنْ يَعْنِيَهُ.


4. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from his sources, which he has mentioned, from af-Hur af-Hamadaniy who has said the following: “Once, I was speaking to ’Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, and said, ‘O ’Amir al-Mu’minin, I need something.’ He said, ‘Do you think I can help you?’ I replied, ‘Yes, O ’Amir al-Mu’minin.’ He said, ‘May Allah grant you good reward on my behalf.’ He then went to the lantern and turned it off, sat down and said, ‘I turned the lantern off so I cannot see the effect of humiliation due to your appeal for help on your face as you speak. I have heard the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, say, “Needs are trust of Allah in His servants’ chests. For those who keep such trust out of public sight, the reward for worship is written for them; for those who make such trust public, it then becomes necessary for those who come to know it to help.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/151)



5ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي الأَصْبَغِ عَنْ بُنْدَارَ بْنِ عَاصِمٍ رَفَعَهُ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ قَالَ مَا تَوَسَّلَ إِلَيَّ أَحَدٌ بِوَسِيلَةٍ وَلا تَذَرَّعَ بِذَرِيعَةٍ أَقْرَبَ لَهُ إِلَى مَا يُرِيدُهُ مِنِّي مِنْ رَجُلٍ سَلَفَ إِلَيْهِ مِنِّي يَدٌ أَتْبَعْتُهَا أُخْتَهَا وَأَحْسَنْتُ رَبَّهَا فَإِنِّي رَأَيْتُ مَنْعَ الأَوَاخِرِ يَقْطَعُ لِسَانَ شُكْرِ الأَوَائِلِ وَلا سَخَتْ نَفْسِي بِرَدِّ بِكْرِ الْحَوَائِجِ وَقَدْ قَالَ الشَّاعِرُ. وَإِذَا بُلِيتَ بِبَذْلِ وَجْهِكَ سَائِلاً فَابْذُلْهُ لِلْمُتَكَرِّمِ الْمِفْضَالإِنَّ الْجَوَادَ إِذَا حَبَاكَ بِمَوْعِدٍ أَعْطَاكَهُ سَلِساً بِغَيْرِ مِطَالٍ‏وَ إِذَا السُّؤَالُ مَعَ النَّوَالِ قَرَنْتَهُ رَجَحَ السُّؤَالُ وَخَفَّ كُلُّ نَوَالٍ‏.


5. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Muhammad ibn abu al-Asbagh from Bandar ibn ‘Asem in a marfu‘ manner who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that the best means and recourse of approaching me for help is the appeal of a man who has received help from me once, then asks for help again. My hands have done a good deed for him before the Lord. I have found denying a later appeal for help cuts off the appreciation for the favor already received. I dislike for my soul to deny help for the second time, which may cause to discontinue the appreciation for the earlier help and favor. It is just as the poet has said: “If you face to risk the dignity of your face, you should face such risk before a kind and generous person. If a generous person promises to do a favor for you and he does it in time without any delays; and if the favor comes as soon as an appeal is made, the appeal becomes more preferable than the favor.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/152)