15. Self-Abnegation (Giving Preference to Others Over One’s Self)

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1ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) عَنِ الرَّجُلِ لَيْسَ عِنْدَهُ إِلاَّ قُوتُ يَوْمِهِ أَ يَعْطِفُ مَنْ عِنْدَهُ قُوتُ يَوْمِهِ عَلَى مَنْ لَيْسَ عِنْدَهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَيَعْطِفُ مَنْ عِنْدَهُ قُوتُ شَهْرٍ عَلَى مَنْ دُونَهُ وَالسَّنَةُ عَلَى نَحْوِ ذَلِكَ أَمْ ذَلِكَ كُلُّهُ الْكَفَافُ الَّذِي لا يُلامُ عَلَيْهِ فَقَالَ هُوَ أَمْرٌ إِنَّ أَفْضَلَكُمْ فِيهِ أَحْرَصُكُمْ عَلَى الرَّغْبَةِ وَالأَثَرَةِ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ فَإِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَقُولُ وَيُؤْثِرُونَ عَلى‏ أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَلَوْ كانَ بِهِمْ خَصاصَةٌ وَالأَمْرُ الآخَرُ لا يُلامُ عَلَى الْكَفَافِ وَالْيَدُ الْعُلْيَا خَيْرٌ مِنَ الْيَدِ السُّفْلَى وَابْدَأْ بِمَنْ تَعُولُ.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad, from ibn Khalid from ‘Uthman from ibn ‘Isa from Sama‘ah, who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, this question: ‘There is one who has sustenance for only one day, or for only one month or one year. Should he give preference to another person who does not have sustenance even for one day, or one month or one year, or in all cases, is there no blame in not giving preference because of sustenance being barely enough for himself? 5 He (the Imam) said, ‘There are two issues. Those of you who are more inclined to giving preference to others over themselves are excellent. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, has said, “They give preference to others over themselves even though they themselves are in dire need.” (59:9) The other issue is that in not giving preference to others over themselves, they are not blamed; however, a providing hand has the upper hand over a non-providing hand, but you must begin with your dependents.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/145)



2ـ قَالَ وَحَدَّثَنَا بَكْرُ بْنُ صَالِحٍ عَنْ بُنْدَارَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ الطَّبَرِيِّ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ سُوَيْدٍ السَّائِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ أَوْصِنِي فَقَالَ آمُرُكَ بِتَقْوَى الله ثُمَّ سَكَتَ فَشَكَوْتُ إِلَيْهِ قِلَّةَ ذَاتِ يَدِي وَقُلْتُ وَالله لَقَدْ عَرِيتُ حَتَّى بَلَغَ مِنْ عُرْيَتِي أَنَّ أَبَا فُلانٍ نَزَعَ ثَوْبَيْنِ كَانَا عَلَيْهِ وَكَسَانِيهِمَا فَقَالَ صُمْ وَتَصَدَّقْ قُلْتُ أَتَصَدَّقُ مِمَّا وَصَلَنِي بِهِ إِخْوَانِي وَإِنْ كَانَ قَلِيلاً قَالَ تَصَدَّقْ بِمَا رَزَقَكَ الله وَلَوْ آثَرْتَ عَلَى نَفْسِكَ.


2. The narrator of the above Hadith has said that narrated to us Bakr ibn Salih from Bandar ibn Muhammad al-Tabariy from Ali ibn Suwayd al-Sa’iy who has said the following: “I once said to abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘Please instruct me with good advice.’ He said, ‘I advise you to observe piety before Allah.’ He was silent for a while. I then complained to him about my poverty, saying, ‘By Allah, I do not have any clothes, and it is so much that abu so and so took off two pieces of his clothes so I can wear them.’ He said, ‘Fast and give charity.’ I then asked, ‘Should I give charity from what my friends have given to me, even if it is so little?’ He replied, ‘Give charity from what Allah has provided you, even if you have to give preference to others over yourself.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/146)



3ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سَمَاعَةَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَحَدِهِمَا (عَلَيْهِما السَّلاَم) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ أَيُّ الصَّدَقَةِ أَفْضَلُ قَالَ جُهْدُ الْمُقِلِّ أَ مَا سَمِعْتَ قَوْلَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَيُؤْثِرُونَ عَلى‏ أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَلَوْ كانَ بِهِمْ خَصاصَةٌ تَرَى هَاهُنَا فَضْلاً.


3. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn abu Nasr from Muhammad ibn Sama‘ah from abu Basir from one of the two Imam abu Ja’far or abu ‘Abd Allah, recipients of divine supreme covenant who has said the following: “I asked him (the Imam), ‘What kind of charity is more excellent?’ He said, ‘It is the kind of charity that one provides after doing his utmost. Have you heard the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, “They give preference to others over themselves even though they are in dire need?” (59:9) It is this kind of charity giving in which you can see excellence.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/146)