16. Rules about Business Losses

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1ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ مَنْصُورِ بْنِ حَازِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي الرَّبِيعِ الشَّامِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) فِي رَجُلٍ اشْتَرَى مَتَاعاً فَكَسَدَ عَلَيْهِ مَتَاعُهُ وَقَدْ كَانَ زَكَّى مَالَهُ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَشْتَرِيَ بِهِ هَلْ عَلَيْهِ زَكَاةٌ أَوْ حَتَّى يَبِيعَهُ فَقَالَ إِنْ كَانَ أَمْسَكَهُ لِيَلْتَمِسَ الْفَضْلَ عَلَى رَأْسِ الْمَالِ فَعَلَيْهِ الزَّكَاةُ.


1. Muhammad ibn ’Isma‘il has narrated, from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan, from Safwan ibn Yahya, from Mansur ibn Hazim, from abu Rabi‘ al- Shamiy who has said the following: “I once asked abu ’Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who purchases a certain kind of goods but its value falls. He had paid Zakat before purchasing such asset. Is there Zakat on him or Zakat becomes due when he sells it? He (the Imam) said, ’If he had held it to increase his capital, he is required to pay Zakat.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/51)



2ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) عَنْ رَجُلٍ اشْتَرَى مَتَاعاً وَكَسَدَ عَلَيْهِ وَقَدْ كَانَ زَكَّى مَالَهُ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَشْتَرِيَ الْمَتَاعَ مَتَى يُزَكِّيهِ فَقَالَ إِنْ كَانَ أَمْسَكَ مَتَاعَهُ يَبْتَغِي بِهِ رَأْسَ مَالِهِ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ زَكَاةٌ وَإِنْ كَانَ حَبَسَهُ بَعْدَ مَا يَجِدُ رَأْسَ مَالِهِ فَعَلَيْهِ الزَّكَاةُ بَعْدَ مَا أَمْسَكَهُ بَعْدَ رَأْسِ الْمَالِ قَالَ وَسَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يُوضَعُ عِنْدَهُ الأمْوَالُ يَعْمَلُ بِهَا فَقَالَ إِذَا حَالَ الْحَوْلُ فَلْيُزَكِّهَا.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from Hariz from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who purchases a certain kind of goods and its value falls. He had paid Zakat of the asset with which he paid for the goods. When is he required to pay Zakat? He (the Imam) said, ‘If he is holding it to preserve his capital, Zakat is not due but if he holds it after getting back his capital, he then is required to pay Zakat, with a view to the fact that he holds it after getting back his capital.’ I asked him (the Imam) about a man with whom assets are kept in deposit and he uses them in business. He (the Imam) said, ’If one year passes he is required to pay Zakat.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/51)



3ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَكُونُ عِنْدَهُ الْمَتَاعُ مَوْضُوعاً فَيَمْكُثُ عِنْدَهُ السَّنَةَ وَالسَّنَتَيْنِ أَوْ أَكْثَرَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ قَالَ لَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ زَكَاةٌ حَتَّى يَبِيعَهُ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَكُونَ أُعْطِيَ بِهِ رَأْسَ مَالِهِ فَيَمْنَعَهُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ الْتِمَاسُ الْفَضْلِ فَإِذَا هُوَ فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ وَجَبَتْ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ أُعْطِيَ بِهِ رَأْسَ مَالِهِ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ زَكَاةٌ حَتَّى يَبِيعَهُ وَإِنْ حَبَسَهُ بِمَا حَبَسَهُ فَإِذَا هُوَ بَاعَهُ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْهِ زَكَاةُ سَنَةٍ وَاحِدَةٍ.


3. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from Sama‘ah who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who has an asset in stock which remains with him for one year or more time. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not subject to Zakat until he sells it, unless he has paid for it from his capital and has kept it on hold expecting an increase. If that is the case then it is subject to Zakat. If he has not paid for it from his capital, it is not subject to Zakat until he sells it. If he has kept it in stock in substance when he sells it then he is required to pay Zakat of one year only.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/52)



4ـ سَمَاعَةُ قَالَ وَسَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَكُونُ مَعَهُ الْمَالُ مُضَارَبَةً هَلْ عَلَيْهِ فِي ذَلِكَ الْمَالِ زَكَاةٌ إِذَا كَانَ يَتَّجِرُ بِهِ فَقَالَ يَنْبَغِي لَهُ أَنْ يَقُولَ لأَصْحَابِ الْمَالِ زَكُّوهُ فَإِنْ قَالُوا إِنَّا نُزَكِّيهِ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ غَيْرُ ذَلِكَ وَإِنْ هُمْ أَمَرُوهُ أَنْ يُزَكِّيَهُ فَلْيَفْعَلْ قُلْتُ أَ رَأَيْتَ لَوْ قَالُوا إِنَّا نُزَكِّيهِ وَالرَّجُلُ يَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُمْ لاَ يُزَكُّونَهُ فَقَالَ إِذَا هُمْ أَقَرُّوا بِأَنَّهُمْ يُزَكُّونَهُ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ غَيْرُ ذَلِكَ وَإِنْ هُمْ قَالُوا إِنَّا لاَ نُزَكِّيهِ فَلاَ يَنْبَغِي لَهُ أَنْ يَقْبَلَ ذَلِكَ الْمَالَ وَلاَ يَعْمَلَ بِهِ حَتَّى يُزَكُّوهُ. وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ أُخْرَى عَنْهُ إِلاَّ أَنْ تَطِيبَ نَفْسُكَ أَنْ تُزَكِّيَهُ مِنْ رِبْحِكَ قَالَ وَسَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَرْبَحُ فِي السَّنَةِ خَمْسَمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ وَسِتَّمِائَةٍ وَسَبْعَمِائَةٍ هِيَ نَفَقَتُهُ وَأَصْلُ الْمَالِ مُضَارَبَةٌ قَالَ لَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ فِي الرِّبْحِ زَكَاةٌ.


4. Sama‘ah has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who has a certain asset for profit-sharing purposes. Is such asset subject to Zakat if used in business? He (the Imam) said, ‘He must ask the shareholders to pay Zakat and if they said that they pay Zakat, he then is not required to do anything more than that. If they ask him to pay Zakat then he must pay.’ I then said, ‘What happens if they said that we pay but he knows that they do not pay?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘If they confirm that they pay, he then is not required to do anything more than that, but if they say that they do not pay Zakat, then it is proper for him not to accept the asset to work with it in business.’” In another Hadith from him (the Imam) it is said that if he out of his own choice and from his own share of profit pays Zakat he can do so. I then asked him (the Imam) about a man who gains five hundred dirham profit in one year. Six and seven hundred is its expenses and the capital for profit sharing. He (the Imam) said, ‘Zakat is not due on profits.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق وآخره مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/52)



5ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ مَرَّارٍ عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنِ الْعَلاَءِ بْنِ رَزِينٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ أَنَّهُ قَالَ كُلُّ مَالٍ عَمِلْتَ بِهِ فَعَلَيْكَ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ إِذَا حَالَ عَلَيْهِ الْحَوْلُ قَالَ يُونُسُ تَفْسِيرُ ذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ كُلُّ مَا عُمِلَ لِلتِّجَارَةِ مِنْ حَيَوَانٍ وَغَيْرِهِ فَعَلَيْهِ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ.


5. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ’Isma‘il ibn Marrar from Yunus from al-‘Ala’ ibn Razin from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said the following: “He (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Any asset with which you work is subject to Zakat when one year passes.’ Yunus has said that the explanation for it is that whatever asset is used in business, animals or other assets, it is subject to Zakat.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/53)



6ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ عَمَّارٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) الرَّجُلُ يَشْتَرِي الْوَصِيفَةَ يُثَبِّتُهَا عِنْدَهُ لِتَزِيدَ وَهُوَ يُرِيدُ بَيْعَهَا أَ عَلَى ثَمَنِهَا زَكَاةٌ قَالَ لاَ حَتَّى يَبِيعَهَا قُلْتُ فَإِذَا بَاعَهَا يُزَكِّي ثَمَنَهَا قَالَ لاَ حَتَّى يَحُولَ عَلَيْهِ الْحَوْلُ وَهُوَ فِي يَدِهِ.


6. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn abu Nasr from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from Ishaq ibn ‘Ammar who has said the following: “I once asked abu Ibrahim, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who keeps a certain asset in stock expecting increase and he wants to sell it. Is what is paid for it subject to Zakat? He (the Imam) said, ‘No, it is not subject to Zakat until he sells it and one year passes with the asset in his possession.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/53)



7ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ إِدْرِيسَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ حَكِيمٍ عَنْ خَالِدِ بْنِ الْحَجَّاجِ الْكَرْخِيِّ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) عَنِ الزَّكَاةِ فَقَالَ مَا كَانَ مِنْ تِجَارَةٍ فِي يَدِكَ فِيهَا فَضْلٌ لَيْسَ يَمْنَعُكَ مِنْ بَيْعِهَا إِلاَّ لِتَزْدَادَ فَضْلاً عَلَى فَضْلِكَ فَزَكِّهِ وَمَا كَانَتْ مِنْ تِجَارَةٍ فِي يَدِكَ فِيهَا نُقْصَانٌ فَذَلِكَ شَيْ‏ءٌ آخَرُ.


7. Ahmad ibn Idris has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar from Safwan ibn Yahya from Muhammad ibn Hakim from Khalid ibn al-Hajjaj al-Karkhiy who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about Zakat. He (the Imam) said, ‘Whatever asset you have for doing business which increases and there is no obstacle for you to sell, except expecting increase over increase, then you must pay Zakat. Whatever you have for business in which there are losses then it is a different issue.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول أو حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/53)



8ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ لاَ تَأْخُذَنَّ مَالاً مُضَارَبَةً إِلاَّ مَالاً تُزَكِّيهِ أَوْ يُزَكِّيهِ صَاحِبُهُ وَقَالَ إِنْ كَانَ عِنْدَكَ مَتَاعٌ فِي الْبَيْتِ مَوْضُوعٌ فَأُعْطِيتَ بِهِ رَأْسَ مَالِكَ فَرَغِبْتَ عَنْهُ فَعَلَيْكَ زَكَاتُهُ.


8. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn abu Hamzah from abu Basir who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Do not accept an asset for profit-sharing business unless you pay its Zakat or the shareholder pays.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘If you have an asset in stock in your home for which you are offered payment for your capital but you ignored to receive it, you are required to pay its Zakat.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/54)



9ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْخَالِقِ قَالَ سَأَلَهُ سَعِيدٌ الأعْرَجُ وَأَنَا أَسْمَعُ فَقَالَ إِنَّا نَكْبِسُ الزَّيْتَ وَالسَّمْنَ نَطْلُبُ بِهِ التِّجَارَةَ فَرُبَّمَا مَكَثَ عِنْدَنَا السَّنَةَ وَالسَّنَتَيْنِ هَلْ عَلَيْهِ زَكَاةٌ قَالَ فَقَالَ إِنْ كُنْتَ تَرْبَحُ فِيهِ شَيْئاً أَوْ تَجِدُ رَأْسَ مَالِكَ فَعَلَيْكَ زَكَاتُهُ وَإِنْ كُنْتَ إِنَّمَا تَرَبَّصُ بِهِ لأَنَّكَ لاَ تَجِدُ إِلاَّ وَضِيعَةً فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكَ زَكَاتُهُ حَتَّى يَصِيرَ ذَهَباً أَوْ فِضَّةً فَإِذَا صَارَ ذَهَباً أَوْ فِضَّةً فَزَكِّهِ لِلسَّنَةِ الَّتِي اتَّجَرْتَ فِيهَا.


9. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Hakam from ’Isma‘il ibn ‘Abd al-Khaliq who has said the following: “Once Sa‘id al-’A‘raj asked him (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, when I was listening, ‘We stock oil and ghee for business and it remains with us for one year or two years. Is there Zakat on it? He (the Imam) said, ‘If you make profit or find your capital, you must pay Zakat, but if you are just waiting because you do not find other asset, then Zakat is not due on it until it is sold for gold or silver. When it becomes gold or silver, then pay Zakat of the year in which you did business.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/54)