3. Salah (Prayer) Is Made Obligatory (Chapters 3-15, practical rules about prayer are best expressed in the form of fatwa.)

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ جَمِيعاً عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) عَمَّا فَرَضَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مِنَ الصَّلاَةِ فَقَالَ خَمْسُ صَلَوَاتٍ فِي اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ فَقُلْتُ فَهَلْ سَمَّاهُنَّ وَبَيَّنَهُنَّ فِي كِتَابِهِ قَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ الله تَعَالَى لِنَبِيِّهِ (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) أَقِمِ الصَّلاةَ لِدُلُوكِ الشَّمْسِ إِلى‏ غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ وَدُلُوكُهَا زَوَالُهَا فَفِيمَا بَيْنَ دُلُوكِ الشَّمْسِ إِلَى غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ أَرْبَعُ صَلَوَاتٍ سَمَّاهُنَّ الله وَبَيَّنَهُنَّ وَوَقَّتَهُنَّ وَغَسَقُ اللَّيْلِ هُوَ انْتِصَافُهُ ثُمَّ قَالَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى وَقُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ إِنَّ قُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ كانَ مَشْهُوداً فَهَذِهِ الْخَامِسَةُ وَقَالَ الله تَعَالَى فِي ذَلِكَ أَقِمِ الصَّلاةَ طَرَفَيِ النَّهارِ وَطَرَفَاهُ الْمَغْرِبُ وَالْغَدَاةُ وَزُلَفاً مِنَ اللَّيْلِ وَهِيَ صَلاَةُ الْعِشَاءِ الآخِرَةِ وَقَالَ تَعَالَى حافِظُوا عَلَى الصَّلَواتِ وَالصَّلاةِ الْوُسْطى‏ وَهِيَ صَلاَةُ الظُّهْرِ وَهِيَ أَوَّلُ صَلاَةٍ صَلاَّهَا رَسُولُ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَهِيَ وَسَطُ النَّهَارِ وَوَسَطُ الصَّلاَتَيْنِ بِالنَّهَارِ صَلاَةِ الْغَدَاةِ وَصَلاَةِ الْعَصْرِ وَفِي بَعْضِ الْقِرَاءَةِ حافِظُوا عَلَى الصَّلَواتِ وَالصَّلاةِ الْوُسْطى‏ صَلاَةِ الْعَصْرِ وَقُومُوا لله قانِتِينَ قَالَ وَنَزَلَتْ هَذِهِ الآيَةُ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ وَرَسُولُ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فِي سَفَرِهِ فَقَنَتَ فِيهَا رَسُولُ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَتَرَكَهَا عَلَى حَالِهَا فِي السَّفَرِ وَالْحَضَرِ وَأَضَافَ لِلْمُقِيمِ رَكْعَتَيْنِ وَإِنَّمَا وُضِعَتِ الرَّكْعَتَانِ اللَّتَانِ أَضَافَهُمَا النَّبِيُّ (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ لِلْمُقِيمِ لِمَكَانِ الْخُطْبَتَيْنِ مَعَ الإِمَامِ فَمَنْ صَلَّى يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ فِي غَيْرِ جَمَاعَةٍ فَلْيُصَلِّهَا أَرْبَعَ رَكَعَاتٍ كَصَلاَةِ الظُّهْرِ فِي سَائِرِ الأيَّامِ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Hammad ibn ‘Isa and Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa and Muhammad ibn ’Isma‘il from af-Fadl ibn Shadhan all Hammad ibn ‘Isa from Hariz from Zurarah who has said the following: “I once asked abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about how much of Salah (prayer) Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has made obligatory. He (the Imam) said, ‘During one day and night five Salah (prayer) are made obligatory.’ I then asked, ‘Has He named and explained them in His book?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, Allah, most High has said to His Holy Prophet, “Perform Salah (prayer) after the sun declines to the west, on midday until the darkness of the night.” (17: 78). The sun declines on midday. There are four Salah (prayer) between midday and the darkness of the night. Allah has named, explained and timed them. Darkness of night is in midnight. He, most Blessed, most High has then said, “. . . and the recitation (performing Salah (prayer)) at dawn and recitation at dawn was witnessed (attended by the angels of the day and those of the nights).” These are five Salah (prayers). Allah, most High about this issue has said, “Perform Salah (prayer) on both ends of the day, [which is sunset and morning], and in a part of the night.” (11:116) This is al-Tsha’ Salah (prayer) He, most High has said, “Preserve Salah (prayer) especially the middle Salah (prayer).” (2:239) Middle Salah (prayer) is al- Dhuhr Salah (prayer) which is the first Salah (prayer) the Messenger of Allah performed. It is in the middle of two Salah (prayer) during the day, the morning and al-‘Asr Salah (prayer). In some of the recitations it is said, “Preserve Salawat (prayers) and the middle Salah (prayer).” Middle Salah (prayer) is al-‘Asr Salah (prayer).’ About the words of Allah, “Stand up praying before Allah,” he (the Imam) said, ‘This verse was revealed on Friday when the Messenger of Allah was on a journey. The Messenger of Allah prayed before Allah on Friday and left it in that condition during a journey or when at home. For those at home he added two Rak‘ats. He reduced two Rak‘at which the Holy Prophet, had added on Friday for people when at home, because of the two sermons which a prayer leader delivers. Those who perform Friday prayer without congregation, they perform it four Rak‘at like al-Dhuhr Salah (prayer) in other days.’”




2ـ وَبِإِسْنَادِهِ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ كَانَ الَّذِي فَرَضَ الله عَلَى الْعِبَادِ مِنَ الصَّلاَةِ عَشْرَ رَكَعَاتٍ وَفِيهِنَّ الْقِرَاءَةُ وَلَيْسَ فِيهِنَّ وَهْمٌ يَعْنِي سَهْواً فَزَادَ رَسُولُ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) سَبْعاً وَفِيهِنَّ الْوَهْمُ وَلَيْسَ فِيهِنَّ قِرَاءَةٌ.


2. Through the chain of his narrators Hammad has narrated from Hariz from Zurarah who has said the following: “Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Of Salah (prayer) Allah has made ten Rak‘at obligatory on His servants. In such Salah (prayer) there are the recitations; thus, conjectures, mistakes in such Salah (prayer) are not acceptable. The Messenger of Allah added seven Rak‘ats in which conjectures, mistakes are dealt with according to certain rules, but there are no recitations in them.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/22)



3ـ وَبِإِسْنَادِهِ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) فَرَضَ الله الصَّلاَةَ وَسَنَّ رَسُولُ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) عَشَرَةَ أَوْجُهٍ صَلاَةَ الْحَضَرِ وَالسَّفَرِ وَصَلاَةَ الْخَوْفِ عَلَى ثَلاَثَةِ أَوْجُهٍ وَصَلاَةَ كُسُوفِ الشَّمْسِ وَالْقَمَرِ وَصَلاَةَ الْعِيدَيْنِ وَصَلاَةَ الاسْتِسْقَاءِ وَالصَّلاَةَ عَلَى الْمَيِّتِ.


3. Through the chain of his narrators Hammad has narrated from Hariz from Zurarah who has said the following: “‘Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Allah has made Salah (prayer) obligatory. The Messenger of Allah has established ten kinds of traditions in Salah (prayer): Salah (prayer) at home and during a journey. Salah (prayer) due to fear is of three kinds. There is Salah (prayer) because of sun eclipse and moon eclipse. There is Salah (prayer) of the two ‘Id. There is Salah (prayer) for rain and (lastly) Salah (prayer) for a deceased.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/23)



4ـ حَمَّادٌ عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) فِي قَوْلِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِنَّ الصَّلاةَ كانَتْ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ كِتاباً مَوْقُوتاً أَيْ مَوْجُوباً.


4. Hammad has narrated from Hariz from Zurarah from who has said the following: “About the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, ‘Salah (prayer) in Mawqut (with certain timing) form was written on believers’ abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘it means obligatory.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/24)



5ـ حَمَّادٌ عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) عَنِ الْفَرْضِ فِي الصَّلاَةِ فَقَالَ الْوَقْتُ وَالطَّهُورُ وَالْقِبْلَةُ وَالتَّوَجُّهُ وَالرُّكُوعُ وَالسُّجُودُ وَالدُّعَاءُ قُلْتُ مَا سِوَى ذَلِكَ قَالَ سُنَّةٌ فِي فَرِيضَةٍ.


5. Hammad has narrated from Hariz from Zurarah from who has said the following: “I once asked abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about what is obligatory in Salah (prayer). He (the Imam) said, ‘Time, al-Tahur (cleansing), facing al-Qiblah (al-Ka‘bah), paying attention, al-Ruku‘, al-Sujud and praying. The rest are optional in an obligatory duty.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/24)



6ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ لِلصَّلاَةِ أَرْبَعَةُ آلاَفِ حَدٍّ. وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ أُخْرَى لِلصَّلاَةِ أَرْبَعَةُ آلاَفِ بَابٍ.


6. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Hammad ibn ‘Isa who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Salah (prayer) has four thousand limits (rules).”’ “In another Hadith it is said that in Salah (prayer) there are four thousand doors (chapters).”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن وآخره مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/25)



7ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ أُذَيْنَةَ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ عَشْرُ رَكَعَاتٍ رَكْعَتَانِ مِنَ الظُّهْرِ وَرَكْعَتَانِ مِنَ الْعَصْرِ وَرَكْعَتَا الصُّبْحِ وَرَكْعَتَا الْمَغْرِبِ وَرَكْعَتَا الْعِشَاءِ الآخِرَةِ لاَ يَجُوزُ الْوَهْمُ فِيهِنَّ وَمَنْ وَهَمَ فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنْهُنَّ اسْتَقْبَلَ الصَّلاَةَ اسْتِقْبَالاً وَهِيَ الصَّلاَةُ الَّتِي فَرَضَهَا الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ وَفَوَّضَ إِلَى مُحَمَّدٍ (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فَزَادَ النَّبِيُّ (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فِي الصَّلاَةِ سَبْعَ رَكَعَاتٍ وَهِيَ سُنَّةٌ لَيْسَ فِيهَا قِرَاءَةٌ إِنَّمَا هُوَ تَسْبِيحٌ وَتَهْلِيلٌ وَتَكْبِيرٌ وَدُعَاءٌ فَالْوَهْمُ إِنَّمَا يَكُونُ فِيهِنَّ فَزَادَ رَسُولُ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فِي صَلاَةِ الْمُقِيمِ غَيْرِ الْمُسَافِرِ رَكْعَتَيْنِ فِي الظُّهْرِ وَالْعَصْرِ وَالْعِشَاءِ الآخِرَةِ وَرَكْعَةً فِي الْمَغْرِبِ لِلْمُقِيمِ وَالْمُسَافِرِ.


7. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from ‘Umar ibn ’Udhaynah from Zurarah who has said the following: “Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘There are ten Rak‘at in Salah (prayer). There are two for al- Dhuhr, two for al-‘Asr, two Rak‘at of Morning, two Rak‘at of al-Maghrib and two Rak‘at of al-‘Isha’ al-Akhirah. In these many of Salah (prayer) conjectures (mistakes) are not acceptable. If one faces conjectures in such Salah (prayer), he performs it again. They are Salah (prayer) which Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, made obligatory on believers in al-Quran. He (Allah) delegated Muhammad, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, and he (the Holy prophet) increased seven Rak‘at. They are of Sunnah and have no recitations. They have Tasbih (Allah is free of all defects), Tahlil, (no one deserves worship except Allah) Takbir (Allah is great beyond description), and prayer. Conjectures in these Rak‘at are (dealt with according to certain rules). The Messenger of Allah increased two Rak‘at for those at home in al- Dhuhr, al-‘Asr, al-‘Isha’, al-Akhirah and one Rak‘at to al-Maghrib for those at home as well as for those on a journey.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/26)



8ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ الصَّلاَةُ ثَلاَثَةُ أَثْلاَثٍ ثُلُثٌ طَهُورٌ وَثُلُثٌ رُكُوعٌ وَثُلُثٌ سُجُودٌ.


8. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Acts of Salah (prayer) fall in three categories; They are Tahur (cleansing), Ruku‘ (bowing down on one’s knees), and Sujud (prostration).”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/26)