Maʿānī al-ʾAkhbār > The meaning of baheera, sa’iba, waseela and haam
Hadith #1

حدثنا أبي - رحمه الله - قال: حدثنا محمد بن يحيى العطار، عن محمد بن أحمد بن يحيى الأشعري، عن العباس بن معروف، عن صفوان بن يحيى، عن ابن مسكان، عن محمد بن مسلم، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام في قول الله عز وجل: " ما جعل الله من بحيرة ولا سائبة ولا وصيلة ولا حام " قال: إن أهل الجاهلية كانوا إذا ولدت الناقة ولدين في بطن واحد قالوا: وصلت، فلا يستحلون ذبحها ولا أكلها، وإذا ولدت عشرا جعلوها سائبة، ولا يستحلون ظهرها ولا أكلها، و " الحام " فحل الإبل لم يكونوا يستحلونه فأنزل الله عز وجل أنه لم يكن يحرم شيئا من ذلك.

1. We were told by my father, may Allah grant him mercy, that he said: We were told by Muhammed bin Yahya al-‘Attar, from Muhammed bin Ahmad bin Yahya al-Ash’ari, from Abbas bin Ma’ruf, from Safwan bin Yahya, from Ibn Maskan, from Muhammed bin Muslim, from Abu Abdillah, peace be upon him, with regards to the saying of Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He: «Allah has not instituted baheera, nor sa’iba, nor waseela, nor haam.» (5:103) He said: Indeed, the people of the Jahiliya, when a female camel gave birth to two children in one belly [1], they would say: «She connected» and they would not consider it allowable to slaughter it, nor eat it. If she gave birth to ten, they would make it a sa’iba, and they would not permit its back [2] nor to eat it. The haam [3] is the male camel which they did not consider allowable. Then Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, sent down that He had not forbidden anything of that.



Hadith #2

وقد روي أن البحيرة الناقة إذا أنتجت خمسة أبطن فإن كان الخامس ذكرا نحروه فأكله الرجال والنساء، وإن كان الخامس أنثى بحروا أذنها أي شقوه وكانت حراما على النساء والرجال لحمها ولبنها، وإذا مات حلت للنساء، والسائبة البعير يسيب بنذر يكون على الرجل إن سلمه الله عز وجل من مرض أو بلغه منزله أن يفعل ذلك، والوصيلة من الغنم كانوا إذا ولدت الشاة سبعة أبطن فإن كان السابع ذكرا ذبح فأكل منه الرجال والنساء، وإن كانت أنثى تركت في الغنم، وإن كان ذكرا وأنثى قالوا: وصلت أخاها فلم تذبح وكان لحومها حراما على النساء إلا أن يكون يموت منها شئ فيحل أكلها للرجال والنساء، والحام الفحل إذا ركب ولد ولده قالوا: قد حمى ظهره. وقد يروى أن الحام هو من الإبل إذا أنتج عشرة أبطن، قالوا: قد حمى ظهره فلا يركب ولا يمنع من كلاء ولا ماء.

It has been narrated that baheera is the female camel when having produced five bellies, and if the fifth was a male, they would slaughter it and it would be eaten by men and women, and if the fifth was a female, they slit its ear, meaning that they cut it, and its flesh and milk would be forbidden for women and men, and if it [1] died (naturally), it would be allowed for women. The sa’iba is the male camel that walks freely due to an oath that is upon a man if Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, saves him from an illness or makes him reach his home. The waseela from sheep is a sheep that would give birth to seven bellies. If the seventh was a male, he would be slaughtered, and men and women would eat from him, and if it was a female, it would be left among the sheep, and if it a male and a female, they said: «It has connected with its brother» and it would not be slaughtered, and its flesh would be forbidden for women, except if something dies from it, and so, it would then be allowed to eat for men and women. The haam is the male when a boy rides his sons. They would say: «His back is heated» . It may be narrated that the haam is the camel that has produced ten bellies, due to which they would say: «His back is heated» and so it would not be ridden, nor prevented from care nor water.