Maʿānī al-ʾAkhbār > The meaning of the Trusts that were presented upon the Heavens, the earth and the mountains, but which they refused to carry and feared, and which the human being carried
Hadith #1

حدثنا أحمد بن محمد بن الهيثم العجلي - رضي الله عنه - قال، حدثنا أبو العباس أحمد ين يحيى بن زكريا القطان، قال: حدثنا أبو محمد بكر بن عبد الله بن حبيب، قال: حدثنا تميم بن بهلول، عن أبيه، عن محمد بن سنان، عن المفضل بن عمر، قال: قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: إن الله تبارك وتعالى خلق الأرواح قبل الأجساد بألفي عام، فجعل أعلاها و أشرفها أرواح محمد وعلي وفاطمة والحسن والحسين والأئمة [بعدهم] صلوات الله عليهم فعرضها على السماوات والأرض والجبال فغشيها نورهم، فقال الله تبارك وتعالى للسماوات والأرض والجبال: هؤلاء أحبائي، وأوليائي، وحججي على خلقي، وأئمة بريتي، ما خلقت خلقا هو أحب إلي منهم، ولمن تولاهم خلقت جنتي، ولمن خالفهم وعاداهم خلقت ناري، فمن ادعى منزلتهم مني ومحلهم من عظمتي عذبته عذابا لا أعذبه أحدا من العالمين و جعلته مع المشركين في أسفل درك من ناري، ومن أقر بولايتهم ولم يدع منزلتهم مني ومكانهم من عظمتي جعلته معهم في روضات جناتي، وكان لهم فيها ما يشاؤون عندي، و أبحتهم كرامتي، وأحللتهم جواري، وشفعتهم في المذنبين من عبادي وإمائي، فولايتهم أمانة عند خلقي فأيكم يحملها بأثقالها ويدعيها لنفسه دون خيرتي؟ فأبت السماوات و الأرض والجبال أن يحملنها وأشفقن من ادعاء منزلتها وتمني محلها من عظمة ربها، فلما أسكن الله عز وجل آدم وزوجته الجنة قال لهما: " كلا منها رغدا حيث شئتما ولا تقربا هذه الشجرة - يعني شجرة الحنطة - فتكونا من الظالمين " فنظرا إلى منزلة محمد وعلي وفاطمة والحسن والحسين والأئمة بعدهم صلوات الله عليهم فوجداها أشرف منازل أهل الجنة، فقالا: يا ربنا لمن هذه المنزلة؟ فقال الله جل جلاله: ارفعا رؤوسكما إلى ساق عرشي فرفعا رؤوسهما فوجدا اسم محمد وعلي وفاطمة والحسن والحسين والأئمة بعدهم صلوات الله عليهم مكتوبة على ساق العرش بنور من نور الجبار جل جلاله، فقالا: يا ربنا ما أكرم أهل هذه المنزلة عليك، وما أحبهم إليك، وما أشرفهم لديك! فقال الله جل جلاله: لولا هم ما خلقتكما، هؤلاء خزنة علمي، وأمنائي على سري، إياكما أن تنظرا إليهم بعين الحسد وتتمنيا منزلتهم عندي ومحلهم من كرامتي فتدخلا بذلك في نهيي وعصياني فتكونا من الظالمين! قالا: ربنا ومن الظالمون؟ قال: المدعون لمنزلتهم بغير حق. قالا: ربنا فأرنا منازل ظالميهم في نارك حتى نراها كما رأينا منزلتهم في جنتك. فأمر الله تبارك وتعالى النار فأبرزت جميع ما فيها من ألوان النكال والعذاب وقال عز وجل: مكان الظالمين لهم المدعين لمنزلتهم في أسفل درك منها كلما أرادوا أن يخرجوا منها أعيدوا فيها وكلما نضجت جلودهم بدلوا سواها ليذوقوا العذاب يا آدم ويا حواء لا تنظرا إلى أنواري وحججي بعين الحسد فأهبطكما عن جواري وأحل بكما هواني، فوسوس لهما الشيطان ليبدي لهما ما ووري عنهما من سوآتهما وقال: ما نهاكما ربكما عن هذه الشجرة إلا أن تكونا ملكين أو تكونا من الخالدين وقاسمهما إني لكما لمن الناصحين فدلاهما بغرور وحملهما على تمنى منزلتهم فنظرا إليهم بعين الحسد فخذلا حتى أكلا من شجرة الحنطة فعاد مكان ما أكلاه شعيرا فأصل الحنطة كلها مما لم يأكلاه وأصل الشعير كله مما عاد مكان ما أكلاه، فلما أكلا من الشجرة طار الحلي والحلل عن أجسادهما وبقيا عريانين و طفقا يخصفان عليهما من ورق الجنة وناداهما ربهما ألم أنهكما عن تلكما الشجرة وأقل لكما: إن الشيطان لكما عدو مبين؟ فقالا: ربنا ظلمنا أنفسنا وإن لم تغفر لنا وترحمنا لنكونن من الخاسرين، قال: اهبطا من جواري فلا يجاورني في جنتي من يعصيني فهبطا موكولين إلى أنفسهما في طلب المعاش، فلما أراد الله عز وجل أن يتوب عليهما جاءهما جبرئيل فقال لهما: إنكما إنما ظلمتما أنفسكما بتمني منزلة من فضل عليكما فجزاؤكما ما قد عوقبتما به من الهبوط من جوار الله عز وجل إلى أرضه فسلا ربكما بحق الأسماء التي رأيتموها على ساق العرش حتى يتوب عليكما، فقالا، اللهم إنا نسألك بحق الأكرمين عليك محمد وعلي وفاطمة والحسن والحسين والأئمة عليهم السلام إلا تبت علينا ورحمتنا فتاب الله عليهما إنه هو التواب الرحيم فلم يزل أنبياء الله بعد ذلك يحفظون هذه الأمانة ويخبرون بها أوصياءهم والمخلصين من أممهم فيأبون حملها ويشفقون من ادعائها وحملها الانسان الذي قد عرف، فأصل كل ظلم منه إلى يوم القيامة، وذلك قول الله عز وجل: " إنا عرضنا الأمانة على السماوات والأرض والجبال فأبين أن يحملنها وأشفقن منها وحملها الانسان إنه كان ظلوما جهولا ".

1. We were told by Ahmad bin Muhammed bin Haitham al-‘Ajali, may Allah be pleased with him, that he said: We were told by Abu’l-Abbas, Ahmad bin Yahya bin Zakariya al-Qattan, that he said: We were told by Abu Muhammed, Bikr bin Abdullah bin Habib, that he said: We were told by Tamim bin Buhlul, from his father, from Muhammed bin Sinan, from Mufaddal bin Umar, that he said: Abu Abdillah, peace be upon him, said: Indeed, Allah, Blessed and Exalted is He, created the souls before the bodies by two thousand years, and He made the most sublime and honored of them the souls of Muhammed, Ali, Fatima, Hasan, Hussain and the Imams after them, Allah’s blessings be upon them. Then he presented it upon the Heavens, the earth and the mountains, and their light covered them, and Allah, Blessed and Exalted is He, said to the Heavens, the earth and the mountains: These are My Beloved, My Viceregents, My Proof upon My creation and the Imams of My living creatures. I have not created a creation that is more beloved to Me than them; to those who befriend them, I have created My Paradise, and to those who oppose them and antagonize them, I have created My Fire. Hence, the one who proclaims their rank from Me and position from My Mightiness, I will torment him a torment I will not torment anyone from all the worlds, and I will make him among the polytheists in the lowest level of My Fire, and the one who acknowledges their Divine Authority and does not proclaim their rank from Me and position from My Mightiness, I will make him among them in the Gardens of My Paradise, and they will have in it what they wish from Me, and I will permit for them My Generosity, allow for them My Vicinity and I will intercede for them among the sinners of My servants and maids. Thus, their Divine Authority is a trust for My creation. So, who of you will carry it with its weights and proclaim it for himself, other than My Chosen? Then the Heavens, the earth and the mountains refused to carry it, and they feared from proclaiming its rank and wishing for its position from the Mightiness of their Lord. Then, when Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, made Adam and his wife settle in the Garden, He said to them both: «Eat, both of you, from it abundantly how you wish, and do not come near this tree» - referring to the tree of wheat - «lest you become among the wrongdoers.» (2:35) Then they looked at the rank of Muhammed, Ali, Fatima, Hasan, Hussain and the Imams after them, Allah’s blessings be upon them, and they found them the most honored ranks of the people of the Garden, so they said: O our Lord, to whom is this rank? Then Allah, Glorified be His Glory, said: Raise, both of you, your heads towards the leg of My Throne. So they raised their heads and found the name of Muhammed, Ali, Fatima, Hasan, Hussain and the Imams after them, Allah’s blessings be upon them, written on the leg of the Throne with a Light from the Light of the Omnipotent, Glorified be His Glory, and said: O our Lord, how dignified are the people of this rank to You, and how beloved are they to You, and how honored are them to You. Then Allah, Glorified be His Glory, said: Were it not for them, I would not have created both of you. These are the Keeprs of My Knowledge and My Trustees over My Secret; beware, both of you, from looking at them with the eye of jealousy and wishing their rank to Me and their position from My Generosity, lest you enter into My prohibition and disobedience, by which you become among the wrongdoers. They said: Our Lord, and who are the wrongdoers? He said: The proclaimers of their rank without right. They said: Our Lord, then show us the ranks of their wringers in Your Fire that we might see them, like how we saw their rank in Your Garden. Then Allah, Blessed and Exalted is He, ordered the Fire and it displayed all that was in it from the kinds of exemplary punishment and torture, and He, Exalted and Glorious is He, said: The place of those who wrong them, those who proclaimed their rank, are in the lowest level of it; whenever they want to exit it, they are returned to it, and whenever their skins grow, they are replaced by others, that they might taste the torment. O Adam and O Hawwa’, do not look at My Lights and Proofs with the eye of jealousy, lest I make you descend from My Vicinity and afflict you with My ignominy. Then the Devil whispered to them to make apparent to them what was ignited of them with regards to their misdeeds, and he said: The prohibition to you of your Lord from this tree is for not but if you are two Angels or among the ever-dwelling. He then swore to them: Indeed, I am to you, from the advisors. Then he lead them with conceit and carried them to wish for their rank, and they looked at them with the eye of jealously, and so, they were abandoned until they ate from the tree of wheat. Then, the spot from which they ate turned into barley, and the root of the wheat was all from that which they did not eat, and the root of the barley was all from that which returned in the spot they ate from. Then, when they ate from the tree, the ornaments and the covers flew away from their bodies and they remained naked, and they immediately began mending them with leaves of the Garden. Their Lord then called to them: Did I not forbid you from that tree and say to you: Indeed, the Devil is to you a clear enemy? Then they said: Our Lord, we have wronged ourselves, and if You do not forgive us and grant us mercy, we will, verily, be among the loosers. He said: Descend from My Vicinity, for they will not be near Me in My Garden, those who disobey Me. Then they descended, having been entrusted to themselves with regards to seeking sustenance. When Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, wanted to accept their repentance, Jibra’eel came to them and said to them: Indeed, you only wronged yourselves by wishing for the rank of those who were preferred over you, and hence, your reward is what you have been punished with regarding descendance from the Vicinity of Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, to His ground. Therefore, ask your Lord by the Names which you saw on the leg of the Throne that He might accept your repentance. Then they said: O Allah, indeed, we ask you by those who are the Most Dignified to you, Muhammed, Ali, Fatima, Hasan, Hussain and the Imams, peace be upon them, that, pleadingly, You accept our repentance and grant us mercy. Then Allah accepted their repentance, He is, indeed, the Acceptor of Repentance, the All-Merciful. The Prophets of Allah did not cease, guarding this trust and informing with it to their Successors and the sincere from their nations, but they would refuse to carry it and are frightened from proclaiming it, and it has been carried by the human being who knows. Hence, the origin of every wrong-doing is from it, till the Day of Resurrection, and that is the saying of Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He: «Indeed, We presented the trust upon the Heavens, the earth and the mountains, but they refused to carry it and feared it, and it was carried by the human being. He is, indeed, wrong-doing, ignorant.» (33:72)



Hadith #2

حدثنا محمد بن موسى بن المتوكل - رضي الله عنه - قال: حدثنا عبد الله بن جعفر الحميري، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن الحسن بن علي بن فضال، عن مروان بن مسلم، عن أبي بصير، قال: سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن قول الله عز وجل: " إنا عرضنا الأمانة على السماوات والأرض والجبال فأبين أن يحملنها وأشفقن منها وحملها الانسان إنه كان ظلوما جهولا " قال: الأمانة: الولاية، والانسان: أبو الشرور المنافق.

2. We were told by Muhammed bin Musa bin Mutawakkil, may Allah be pleased with him, that he said: We were told by Abdullah bin Ja’far al-Himyari, from Ahmad bin Muhammed bin Isa, from Hasan bin Ali bin Faddal, from Marwan bin Muslim, from Abu Baseer, that he said: I asked Abu Abdillah, peace be upon him, about the saying of Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He: «Indeed, We presented the trust upon the Heavens, the earth and the mountains, but they refused to carry it and feared it, and it was carried by the human being. He is, indeed, wrong-doing, ignorant.» (33:72) He said: The trust is the Divine Authority, and the human being is the one of evils, the hypocrite.



Hadith #3

حدثنا أحمد بن زياد بن جعفر الهمداني، قال: حدثنا علي بن إبراهيم بن هاشم، عن أبيه، عن علي بن معبد، عن الحسين بن خالد، قال: سألت أبا الحسن علي بن موسى الرضا عليهم السلام عن قول الله عز وجل: " إنا عرضنا الأمانة على السماوات والأرض والجبال فأبين أن يحملنها - الآية - " فقال: الأمانة: الولاية، من ادعاها بغير حق كفر.

3. We were told by Ahmad bin Ziyad bin Ja’far al-Hamdani, that he said: We were told by Ali bin Ibrahim bin Hashim, from his father, from Ali bin Ma’bad, from Hussain bin Khalid, that he said: I asked Abu’l-Hasan, Ali bin Musa al-Rida, peace be upon them both, about the saying of Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He: «Indeed, We presented the trust upon the Heavens, the earth and the mountains, but they refused to carry it and feared it, and it was carried by the human being. He is, indeed, wrong-doing, ignorant.» (33:72) So he said: The trust is the Divine Authority; he who proclaims it without right, has disbelieved.