Maʿānī al-ʾAkhbār > The meaning of the salute of the mosque, and the meaning of the prayer and what relates to that from the totality of the narration
Hadith #1

حدثنا أبو الحسن علي بن عبد الله بن أحمد الأسواري، قال: حدثنا أبو يوسف أحمد بن محمد بن القيس السجزي المذكر، قال: حدثنا أبو الحسن عمرو بن حفص قال: حدثني أبو محمد عبيد الله بن محمد بن أسد ببغداد، قال: حدثنا الحسين بن إبراهيم أبو علي ، قال: حدثنا يحيى بن سعيد البصري، قال: حدثنا ابن جريج، عن عطاء، عن عبيد بن عمير الليثي، عن أبي ذر - رحمه الله - قال: دخلت على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وهو في المسجد جالسا وحده، فاغتنمت خلوته، فقال لي: يا أبا ذر إن للمسجد تحية قلت: وما تحيته؟ قال: ركعتان تركعهما، ثم التفت إليه فقلت: يا رسول الله إنك أمرتني بالصلاة فما الصلاة؟ قال: خير موضوع فمن شاء أقل ومن شاء أكثر، قال: قلت: أي الأعمال أحب إلى الله عز وجل؟ قال: إيمان بالله وجهاد في سبيله [قلت: فأي المؤمنين أكمل إيمانا؟ قال: أحسنهم خلقا. قلت: وأي المؤمنين أفضل؟ قال: من سلم المسلمون من لسانه ويده] قلت: فأي الليل أفضل؟ قال: جوف الليل الغابر، قلت: فأي الصلاة أفضل؟ قال: طول القنوت. قلت: فأي الصدقة أفضل؟ قال: جهد من مقل إلى فقير في سر، قلت: فما الصوم؟ قال: فرض مجزي وعند الله أضعاف كثيرة، قلت: فأي الرقاب أفضل؟ قال: أغلاها ثمنا وأنفسها عند أهلها، قلت: فأي الجهاد أفضل؟ قال: من عقر جواده واهريق دمه. قلت: فأي آية أنزلها الله عليك أعظم؟ قال: آية الكرسي. ثم قال: يا أبا ذر ما السماوات السبع في الكرسي إلا كحلقة ملقاة في أرض فلاة وفضل العرش على الكرسي كفضل الفلاة على تلك الحلقة. قلت: يا رسول الله كم النبيون؟ قال: مائة ألف وأربعة وعشرون ألف نبي. قلت: كم المرسلون منهم؟ قال: ثلاث مائة وثلاثة عشر جما غفيرا. قلت: من كان أول الأنبياء؟ قال: آدم، قلت: وكان من الأنبياء مرسلا؟ قال: نعم، خلقه الله بيده ونفخ فيه من روحه، ثم قال: يا أبا ذر، أربعة من الأنبياء سريانيون: آدم، وشيث، وأخنوخ وهو إدريس عليه السلام وهو أول من خط بالقلم، ونوح. وأربعة من العرب: هود، وصالح، وشعيب، ونبيك محمد، وأول نبي من بني إسرائيل موسى وآخرهم عيسى وست مائة نبي. قلت: يا رسول كم أنزل الله تعالى من كتاب؟ قال: مائة كتاب وأربعة كتب: أنزل الله تعالى على شيث عليه السلام خمسين صحيفة، وعلى إدريس ثلاثين صحيفة، وعلى إبراهيم عشرين صحيفة، وأنزل التوراة والإنجيل والزبور والفرقان. قلت: يا رسول الله فما كانت صحف إبراهيم؟ قال: كانت أمثالا كلها: أيها الملك المبتلى المغرور إني لم أبعثك لتجمع الدنيا بعضها على بعض ولكني بعثتك لترد عني دعوة المظلوم فإني لا أردها وإن كانت من كافر. وعلى العاقل ما لم يكن مغلوبا على عقله أن يكون له ساعات: ساعة يناجي فيها ربه عز وجل وساعة يحاسب فيها نفسه، وساعة يتفكر فيما صنع الله تعالى وساعة يخلو فيها بحظ نفسه من الحلال، وإن هذه الساعة عون لتلك الساعات واستجمام للقلوب وتفريغ لها. وعلى العاقل أن يكون بصيرا بزمانه، مقبلا على شأنه، حافظا للسانه، فإنه من حسب كلامه من عمله قل كلامه إلا فيما يعنيه. وعلى العاقل أن يكون طالبا لثلاث‍ [ة]: مرمة لمعاش، وتزود لمعاد، وتلذذ في غير محرم. قلت: يا رسول الله فما كانت صحف موسى؟ قال: كانت عبرا كلها: عجبت لمن أيقن بالموت لم يفرح؟! ولمن أيقن بالنار لم يضحك؟! ولمن يرى الدنيا وتقلبها بأهلها لم يطمئن إليها؟! ولمن أيقن بالقدر لم ينصب ؟! ولمن أيقن بالحساب لم لا يعمل؟!قلت: يا رسول الله هل في أيدينا مما أنزل الله تعالى عليك مما كان في صحف إبراهيم وموسى؟! قال: يا أبا ذر اقرأ: " قد أفلح من تزكى * وذكر اسم ربه فصلى * بل تؤثرون الحياة الدنيا * والآخرة خير وأبقى * إن هذا لفي الصحف الأولى * صحف إبراهيم وموسى " قلت: يا رسول الله أوصني. قال: أوصيك بتقوى الله فإنه رأس الامر كله، قلت: زدني، قال: عليك بتلاوة القرآن وذكر الله كثيرا فإنه ذكر لك في السماء ونور لك في الأرض، قلت: زدني، قال: عليك بطول الصمت فإنه مطردة للشياطين وعون لك على أمر دينك، قلت: زدني، قال: إياك وكثرة الضحك فإنه يميت القلب [ويذهب بنور الوجه، قلت: يا رسول الله زدني، قال: انظر إلى من هو تحتك ولا تنظر إلى من هو فوقك فإنه أجدر أن لا تزدري نعمة الله عليك، قلت: يا رسول الله زدني، قال: صل قرابتك وإن قطعوك]، قلت: زدني، قال: عليك بحب المساكين ومجالستهم، قلت: زدني قال: قل الحق وإن كان مرا، قلت: زدني، قال: لا تخف في الله لومة لائم، قلت: زدني، قال: ليحجزك عن الناس ما تعلم من نفسك ولا تجد عليهم فيما تأتي مثله. ثم قال: كفى بالمرء عيبا أن يكون فيه ثلاث خصال: يعرف من الناس ما يجهل من نفسه، ويستحي لهم مما هو فيه، ويؤذي جليسه فيما لا يعنيه. ثم قال: يا أبا ذر لا عقل كالتدبير، ولا ورع كالكف، ولا حسب كحسن الخلق.

1. We were told by Abu’l-Hasan, Ali bin Abdullah bin Ahmad al-Aswari, that he said: We were told by Abu Yusuf, Ahmad bin Muhammed bin Qais al-Sajzi al-Mudhakkar, that he said: We were told by Abu’l-Hasan, Amru bin Hafs, that he said: I was told by Abu Muhammed, Ubaidullah bin Muhammed bin Asad, in Baghdad, that he said: We were told by Hussain bin Ibrahim, Abu Ali, that he said: We were told by Yahya bin Sa’eed al-Basri, that he said: We were told by Ibn Jareeh, from ‘Ataa’, from ‘Ubaid bin ‘Umayr al-Laithi, from Abu Dharr, may Allah grant him mercy, that he said: I entered into the place of Allah’s Messenger, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, while he was in the mosque, sitting alone, so I took profit from his solitude. He then said to me: O Abu Dharr, indeed, there is a salutation to the mosque. Then I said: And what is its salutation? He said: Two rak’a’s that you perform. He then turned to me, and I said: O Messenger of Allah, you have, indeed, ordered me to pray, so what is the prayer? He said: The best of places, hence, the one who wants may do less, and the one who wants may do more. He said: I said: Which of acts is the most beloved to Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He? He said: Faith in Allah and striving for His sake. I said: Then which of the believers has the most complete faith? He said: Those of them with the best mannerisms. I said: And which of the believers are the best? He said: The one whom Muslims are at safety from his tongue and hand. I said: And which part of the night is the best? He said: The core of the bygone night. I said: And which prayer is the best? He said: The prolonged qunut. I said: And which charity is the best? He said: (To spend) Effort from one destitute to a poor in secret. I said: And what is fasting? He said: A rewarding obligation, and with Allah are many multiples (of it). I said: And which of the necks (in captivity) is the best? He said: That which is of most expensive price, and which is most valuable to its people. I said: And what striving is the best? He said: The one in which one’s horse is slaughtered and one’s blood is shed. Then I said: And which verse whom Allah sent down upon you is the greatest? He said: The verse of the Chair. Then he said: O Abu Dharr, the Heavens are not, as compared to the Chair, except like a small ring thrown into an open land, and the preference of the Throne over the Chair is like preference of the open land over that small ring. I said: O Messenger of Allah, how many are the Prophets? He said: A hundred and twenty-four thousand Prophets. I said: How many are the Messengers among them? He said: Three hundred and thirteen, a numerous abundance. I said: Who was the first of the Prophets? He said: Adam. I said: And was he, from among the Prophets, a Messenger? He said: Yes, Allah created him with His Hand and blew into him from His Spirit. Then he said: O Abu Dharr, four of the Prophets were Syriac: Adam, Sheeth , Akhnoukh , that is Idrees, peace be upon him, and he was the first to write with the pen, and Nuh . And they were four from the Arabs: Hud, Saleh, Shu’ayb and your Prophet, Muhammed. The first Prophet from the sons of Isra’eel was Musa , and the last of them was Isa , and six hundred Prophets. I said: O Messenger of Allah, how many Books did Allah, Exalted is He, send down? He said: A hundred and four books. Allah, Exalted is He, sent down fifty Journals unto Sheeth, peace be upon him, and thirty Journals upon Idrees, and twenty Journals upon Ibrahim, and He sent down the Tawrat , Injeel , Zabour and the Criterion [1]. I said: O Messenger of Allah, and what were the Journals of Ibrahim? He said: They were proverbs, all of them: «O possession that is trialed and lured, indeed, I have not sent you that you might gather this world, some of it above another. However, I have sent you in order that you might respond, on behalf of Me, to the prayer of the oppressed, for indeed, I will not reject it, even if it may be from a disbeliever. Moreover, it is upon the rational, unless his sense of sanity is subjugated, that he has (made for himself) certain hours: an hour in which he confidentially talks to his Lord, Exalted and Glorious is He; an hour in which he puts himself in reckoning; an hour in which he thinks of what Allah, Exalted is He, has done; and an hour in which he secludes himself to (gain) a portion of his right from what is permissible, and indeed, this hour is an assistance to those hours and a relaxation to the hearts and an unloading of them. Moreover, it is upon the rational to be insightful in his age, moving forward upon his matter, preserving to his tongue, for indeed, the one who calculates his speech from his act, his speech will lessen, except for that which concerns him. Moreover, it is upon the rational that he seeks three: a means of amends for livelihood; a means of increasement for the revival; and pleasure in other than what is forbidden.» I said: O Messenger of Allah, and what were the Journals of Musa? He said: They were lessons, all of them: «I am amazed at the one who is certain of death, how can he rejoice? And of the one who is certain of the Fire, why does he smile? And the one who sees this world and its change with its people, why does he seek confidence to it? And the one who is certain of destiny, why does he strive excessively? And of the one who is certain of the Reckoning, why does he not act?» I said: O Messenger of Allah, is there in our hands from what Allah, Exalted is He, has sent down unto you, of that which was in the Journals of Ibrahim and Musa? He said: O Abu Dharr, recite: «Certainly, he has succeeded, the one who gives the alms tax, and mentions the Name of his Lord and prays. Rather, you are preferring the life of this world, whereas the Hereafter is better and more remaining? Indeed, this is, verily, in the first Journals, the Journals of Ibrahim and Musa.» (87:14-19) I said: O Messenger of Allah, bequeath to me. He said: I bequeath you to (establish) fear of Allah, for indeed, it is the head of the matter, all of it. I said: Increase me. He said: It is upon you to recite the Qur’an and to mention Allah in abundance, for indeed, it is (a cause to) mentioning of you in Heaven and a light for you on earth. I said: Increase me. He said: It is upon you to prolong silence, for indeed, it is (a means of) expelling devils and an assistance to you for the matters of your religion. I said: Increase me. He said: Beware from much laughing, for indeed, it causes the heart to die. I said: Increase me. He said: It is upon you to love the needy and sit with them. I said: Increase me. He said: Say the truth, even if it is bitter. I said: Increase me. He said: Do not fear, for the sake of Allah, the blame of a blamer. I said: Increase me. He said: Let yourself be constrained from people due to what you know about yourself, and do not find upon people (in search for blemish) in that which you do. He then said: It is sufficient for an individual’s blemish that there are three traits in him: that he knows about people that which he is unaware of (that he possesses) himself; that he is embarrassed to them from that which he himself is in; and that he harms the one he sits with by that which does not concern him. He then said: O Abu Dharr, there is no awareness like reflection; no piety like abstention; and no nobility like good mannerisms.