Maʿānī al-ʾAkhbār > The meaning of haqila, muzabana, ‘araya, mukhabarat, mukhadhara, munabadha, mulamasa, the selling of pebble and other things that were declared forbidden
Hadith #1

أخبرني أبو الحسين محمد بن هارون الزنجاني، قال: حدثنا علي بن عبد العزيز، عن أبي عبيد القاسم بن سلام بأسانيد متصلة إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وآله في أخبار متفرقة أنه نهى عن المحاقلة والمزابنة، فالمحاقلة بيع الزرع وهو في سنبله بالبر وهو مأخوذ من الحقل، والحقل هو الذي تسميه أهل العراق: " القراح " ويقال في مثل: " لا تنبت البقلة الا الحقلة " والمزابنة بيع التمر في رؤوس النخل بالتمر، ورخص النبي صلى الله عليه وآله في العرايا واحدها عرية وهي النخلة يعريها صاحبها رجلا محتاجا، والاعراء أن يجعل له ثمرة عامها يقول: رخص لرب النخل أن يبتاع من تلك النخلة من المعرا بتمر لموضع حاجته، قال: وكان النبي صلى الله عليه وآله إذا بعث الخراص قال: خففوا في الخرص فإن في المال العرية والوصية.

1. We were told by Abu’l-Hussain, Muhammed bin Harun al-Zanjani, that he said: I was told by Ali bin Abdul-Aziz, from Abu Ubaid, Qasem bin Salam, with connected chains of narrators (reaching) to the Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, in scattered reports that he forbade muhaqala and muzabana. Muhaqala is to tell cultivation while it is in its spike in the wild. It stems from haql. Haql is what the people of Iraq call qurah. It is said, in a proverb: «A leguminous plant does not vegetate except a haqla.» Muzabana is to sell dates that are on the top of palm trees, with dates. The Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, licensed with regards to ‘araya, whose singular form is ‘ariya, and it is a palm tree whose owner strips it in accordance to his need. The stripping (of palm trees) is that one permits its fruit for a year. He says: «He licensed for the owner of the palm tree that he sells, from that palm tree, what has been stripped, with dates, in accordance to his need. He said: When the Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, used to send the estimator, he said: Take it lightly with estimation, for indeed, in the property lies what is stripped and what is to be bequeathed.



Hadith #2

قال: ونهى صلى الله عليه وآله عن المخابرة، وهي المزارعة بالنصف والثلث والربع وأقل من ذلك وأكثر وهو الخبر أيضا وكان أبو عبيد يقول: لهذا سمي الأكار الخبير لأنه يخبر الأرض والمخابرة: المواكرة، والخبرة: الفعل، والخبير: الرجل، ولهذا سمي الأكار لأنه يؤاكر الأرض أي يشقها. ونهى صلى الله عليه وآله عن المحاضرة وهو أن تباع الثمار قبل أن يبدو صلاحها وهي خضر بعد، ويدخل في المخاضرة أيضا بيع الرطاب والبقول وأشباهما. ونهى عن بيع التمر قبل أن يزهو، وزهزه أن يحمر أو يصفر. وفي حديث آخر: نهى عن بيعه قبل أن يشقح. و يقال: " يشقح " والتشقيح هو الزهو أيضا وهو معنى قوله: " حتى تأمن العاهة " والعاهة الآفة تصيبه.

He said: He, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, also forbade mukhadhara, and that is to sell fruits before they appear to be fine while they are still green. It is also included, in the (act of) mukhadhara, the selling of dates, leguminous plants and their likes. He also forbade the selling of dates before it is perfected, and its perfection is that it becomes red or yellow. In another narration, he forbade the selling of it before it is cleared. It is said: «It is cleared», and clearing also means perfection, and that is the meaning of his saying: «Until you are assured from (that it has a) defect». A defect refers to a misfortune.



Hadith #3

ونهى صلى الله عليه وآله عن المنابذة والملامسة وبيع الحصاة. ففي كل واحدة منها قولان، أما المنابذة فيقال: إنها أن يقول الرجل لصاحبه: انبذ إلي الثوب أو غيره من المتاع أو أنبذه إليك وقد وجب البيع بكذا وكذا. ويقال: إنما هو أن يقول الرجل: إذا نبذت الحصاة فقد وجب البيع وهو معنى قوله أنه نهى عن بيع الحصاة. والملامسة أن تقول: إذا لمست ثوبي أو لمست ثوبك فقد وجب البيع بكذا وكذا. ويقال: بل هو أن يلمس المتاع من وراء الثوب ولا ينظر إليه فيقع البيع على ذلك وهذه بيوع كان أهل الجاهلية يتبايعونها فنهى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله عنها لأنها غرر كلها.

He, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, also forbade munabadha, mulamasa and the selling of pebble. With regards to each one of them, there are two opinions. As for munabadha, it is said: It is that a man says to his companion: «Throw me the robe» - or another merchandise – or «I will throw it to you, and the sale has become obliged (to be executed) by such-and-such». It is also said: It is only that a man says: «If the pebbles are thrown (for sale), the sale has become obliged. That is the meaning of his saying that he forbade the selling of pebbles. Mulamasa is that you say: «If you touch my robe, or I touch your robe, the sale has become obliged by such-and-such». It is also said: Rather, it is that one touches the merchandise from behind the robe by which it is not looked upon, and that the sale is performed on the basis of that. These sales were carried out by the people of the Jahiliya, and so the Messenger of Allah, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, forbade them because they were all deceptions.



Hadith #4

ونهى صلى الله عليه وآله عن المجر وهو أن يباع البعير أو غيره بما في بطن الناقة. ويقال: منه أمجرت في البيع إمجارا.

He, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, also forbade majr, and that is to sell a camel or other with what is in the belly of a female camel. It is said: «One performed imjar in the sale, a (true act of) imjar.»



Hadith #5

ونهى صلى الله عليه وآله عن الملاقيح والمضامين، فالملاقيح ما في البطون وهي الأجنة والواحدة منها " ملقوحة " وأما المضامين فمما في أصلاب الفحول وكانوا يبيعون الجنين في بطن الناقة وما يضرب الفحل في عامه أو في أعوام.

He, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, also forbade malaqeeh [1] and madhameen [2]. Malaqeeh are those in bellies, and they are fetuses, and a singular is malqouha. As for madhameen, they are those in the spines of males. They used to sell the fetus that is in the belly of a female camel, and what a male ejaculates within a year or several years.



Hadith #6

ونهى صلى الله عليه وآله عن بيع حبل الحبلة. فمعناه ولد ذلك الجنين الذي في بطن الناقة، و قال غيره: هو نتاج النتاج وذلك غرر.

He, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, also forbade the selling of that which is carried (by pregnancy) by that which is carried by the pregnant. Its meaning is the child of that fetus that is in the belly of a female camel. Others said: It is the production of what is (yet) to be produced, and it is a deception.



Hadith #7

وقال صلى الله عليه وآله: ليس منا من لم يتغن بالقرآن. ومعناه: ليس منا من لم يستغن به ولا يذهب به إلى الصوت وقد روي أن من قرأ القرآن فهو غنى لا فقر بعده. وروي أن من أعطى القرآن فظن أن أحدا أعطي أكثر مما أعطي فقد عظم صغيرا وصغر كبيرا، فلا ينبغي لحامل القرآن أن يرى أن أحدا من أهل الأرض أغنى منه ولو ملك الدنيا برحبها. ولو كان كما يقوله أنه الترجيع بالقراءة وحسن الصوت لكانت العقوبة قد عظمت في ترك ذلك أن يكون من لم يرجع صوته بالقراءة فليس من النبي صلى الله عليه وآله حين قال: " ليس منا من لم يتغن القرآن ".

He, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, also said: «He is not from us, the one who does perform taghanni with the Qur’an.» Its meaning is: He is not of us, the one who does not enrich himself with the Qur’an, and does not indicate sound [1]. It has been reported that the one who recites the Qur’an, that it is a wealth after which is no poverty. It has been reported that the one who is given the Qur’an and assumes that someone has been given more than what he has been given, has certainly magnified a small thing and belittled a big thing. Hence, the carrier of the Qur’an should not see that anyone from the people of earth is wealthier than him, even if he was to own the (whole) world with its spaciousness. If it was like how some people say with regards to that it is to resound in recitation and (reciting with) good voice, then surely the punishment would have been magnified if that is abandoned, in the sense that the one who does not resound his voice in recitation is not considered to be from the Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, when he said: « He is not from us, the one who does perform taghanni with the Qur’an.»



Hadith #8

وقال صلى الله عليه وآله: إني قد نهيت عن القراءة في الركوع والسجود فأما الركوع فعظموا الله فيه، وأما السجود فأكثروا فيه من الدعاء فإنه قمن أن يستجاب لكم، قوله صلى الله عليه وآله " قمن " كقولك " جدير وحري " أن يستجاب لكم.

He, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, also said: «Indeed, I have forbidden (Qur’anic) recitation during kneeling and prostration. As for kneeling, magnify Allah during it, and as for prostration, increase prayer in it, for indeed, it is worthy that it is responded to you.» The saying of him, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family: «worthy» is like you would say: «deserving and appropriate that it is responded to you».



Hadith #9

وقال صلى الله عليه وآله: استعيذوا بالله من طبع يهدي إلى طبع، والطبع الدنس والعيب، وكل شين في دين أو دنيا فهو طبع.

He, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, also said: «Seek refuge in Allah from disposition that leads to another disposition.» A disposition [1] is uncleanness and blemish. Every disgrace with regards to religion or this life is a disposition.



Hadith #10

واختصم رجلان إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وآله في مواريث وأشياء قد درست، فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وآله: لعل بعضكم أن يكون ألحن بحجته من بعض فمن قضيت له بشئ من حق أخيه فإنما أقطع له قطعة من النار. فقال له كل واحد من الرجلين: يا رسول الله حقي هذا لصاحبي فقال: ولكن اذهبا فتوخيا ثم استهما، ثم ليحلل كل واحد منكما صاحبه. فقوله: " لعل بعضكم أن يكون ألحن بحجته من بعض " يعني أفطن لها وأجدل، واللحن الفطنة - بفتح الحاء - واللحن - بجزم الحاء -: الخطأ، وقوله: " استهما " أي اقترعا. وهذا حجة لمن قال بالقرعة في الاحكام، وقوله: " اذهبا فتوخيا " يقول: توخيا الحق فكأنه قد أمر الخصمين بالصلح.

Two men went in lawsuit to the Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, with regards to inheritance and things that ceased. The Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, said: Perhaps some of you is more eloquent in his argument than the other, and hence, the one to whom I judge to his favor some from the right of his brother, I will only be dedicating for him a spot from the Fire. Then each one of the two men said to him: O Messenger of Allah, this right of mine is to my companion. Then he said: Go, then fraternize yourselves and then draw lots. Then, let each one of you relieve his companion. His saying: « Perhaps some of you is more eloquent in his argument than the other» means to be smarter and more efficient in arguing. Lahan [1] refers to cleverness, with an accusative Hhaa’, and lahn with a jussive Hhaa’ refers to error. His saying: «draw lots» refers to lot tossing. This is an argument (in jurisprudence) for those who hold the opinion of (the validity of) lot tossing when it comes to (certain) rulings. With regards to his saying: «Go, then fraternize yourselves» he says: Fraternize yourselves with regards to the (disputed) right. It is as if he ordered the two opponents to reconcile.



Hadith #11

ونهى صلى الله عليه وآله عن تقصيص القبور وهو التجصيص وذلك أن الجص يقال له: " القصة " يقال: منه قصصت القبور والبيوت إذا جصصتها.

He, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, also forbade performing taqsees for graves, that is stuccoing. That is due to gypsum being called qussa. It is said, stemming from this: «I performed taqsees to the graves» if I would plaster gypsum on them.



Hadith #12

ونهى صلى الله عليه وآله عن قيل وقال وكثرة السؤال وإضاعة المال ونهى عن عقوق الأمهات ووأد البنات ومنع [ال‍] وهات. يقال: إن قوله: " إضاعة المال " يكون في وجهين: أما أحدهما وهو الأصل فما أنفق في معاصي الله عز وجل من قليل أو كثير وهو السرف الذي عابه الله تعالى ونهى عنه. والوجه الاخر: دفع المال إلى ربه وليس له بموضع. قال الله عز وجل: " وابتلوا اليتامى حتى إذا بلغوا النكاح فإن آنستم منهم رشدا - وهو العقل - فادفعوا إليهم أموالهم " وقد قيل: إن الرشد صلاح في الدين وحفظ المال وأما كثرة السؤال فإنه نهى عن مسألة الناس. أموالهم وقد يكون أيضا من السؤال عن الأمور وكثرة البحث عنها كما قال عز وجل: " لا تسألوا عن أشياء إن تبد لكم تسؤكم "، وأما وأد البنات فإنهم كانوا يدفنون بناتهم أحياء ولهذا كانوا يسمون القبر " صهرا "، وأما قوله: " نهى عن قيل وقال " القال: مصدر، ألا ترى أنه يقول: " عن قيل وقال " فكأنه قال: عن قيل وقول، يقال على هذا: قلت قولا وقيلا وقالا. وفي حرف عبد الله " ذلك عيسى ابن مريم قال الحق " وهو من هذا فكأنه قال: قول الحق.

He, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, also forbade to speak of «it was said, and what is said» abundant asking and wasting of property. He also forbade disobedience towards mothers and burial of girls, and he forbade wihat [1]. It is said: His saying: « wasting of property» comes in two indications: as for one of them, which is the principle, it is what is spent in (acts of) disobedience to Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, be it little or much, and that is the thriftlessness whom Allah, Exalted is He, reproached for and forbade; the other indication is that one pays money to one’s lord while it has no spot (to be spent for). Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, said: «And test the orphans (in ability) until age of marriage. If you are satisfied with them in (terms of) sound judgement – that is rationality – then give to them their property.» (4:6) It was said: Sound judgement is righteousness in terms of religion and maintenance of property. As for much questioning, he forbade people from asking about their properties, and it may also be included, among questioning, commandments and much search for it, like how He, Exalted and Glorious is He, said: «Do not ask about things which if they were visible to you, they would harm you.» (5:101) As for the burial of girls, they used to bury their daughters alive, and that is why they used to call the grave a «son-in-law». As for his saying that he forbade to speak of «it was said, and what is said». «What is said» refers to an infinitive tense. Do you not see that when he says «it was said, and what is said» it is as if he is said: «it was said, and sayings (of people)». It is said, in this regard: «I said a qawl, qeel and qaal [2]». In accordance to the (Qur’anic) recitation of Abdullah [3]: «That is Isa bin Mariam, the Qaal [4] of Truth» (19:34). Stemming from this, it is as if he said: «The Saying of Truth».



Hadith #13

ونهى صلى الله عليه وآله عن التبقر في الأهل والمال. قال الأصمعي: أصل التبقر التوسع والتفتح، ومنه يقال: " بقرت بطنه " إنما هو شققته وفتحته. وسمي أبو جعفر " الباقر " لأنه بقر العلم أي شقه وفتحه.

He, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, forbade (excessive) openness with regards to family and property. Al-Asma’I said: The root of openness is to cause width and cause something to open. It stems from this that one says: «I opened his stomach» when it only refers to: «I slit it and opened it». Abu Ja’far [1] was named the Baqir, because he split the knowledge, meaning that he slit it and opened it.



Hadith #14

ونهى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله أن يدبح الرجل في الصلاة كما يدبح الحمار، ومعناه أن يطأطئ الرجل رأسه في الركوع حتى أخفض من ظهره. وكان صلى الله عليه وآله إذا ركع لم يصوب رأسه ولم يقنعه. معناه أنه لم يرفعه حتى يكون أعلى من جسده ولكن بين ذلك، و " الاقناع " رفع الرأس وإشخاصه، قال الله تعالى: " مهطعين مقنعي رؤسهم " والذي يستحب من هذا أن يستهوي ظهر الرجل ورأسه في الركوع لان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله كان إذا ركع لو صب على ظهره ماء لاستقر. وقال الصادق عليه السلام: لا صلاة لمن لم يقم صلبه في ركوعه وسجوده.

He, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, also forbade that a man performs tadbeeh in prayer like how a donkey performs tadbeeh. Its meaning is that a man lowers his head during kneeling until it becomes lower than (the level of) his back. When he, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, used to kneel, he did not make upright his head nor raise, but it was between that. Raising is to ascend the head and make it in an upright position. Allah, Exalted is He, said: «Racing ahead, their heads raised up» (14:43). What is recommended of this is that a man’s back and hand are leveled during kneeling, because the Messenger of Allah, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, if water was poured on his back while he was kneeling, he would have remained firm. Al-Sadiq, peace be upon him, said: «There is no prayer (that is accepted) for the one who does not make firm his spine during his kneeling and prostration.»



Hadith #15

ونهى صلى الله عليه وآله عن اختناث الأسقية. ومعنى الاختناث أن يثني أفواهها ثم يشرب منها، وأصل الاختناث التكسر ومن هذا سمي المخنث لتكسره، وبه سميت المرأة خنثى. ومعنى الحديث في النهى عن اختناث الأسقية يفسر على وجهين: أحدهما أنه يخاف أن يكون فيه دابة، والذي دار عليه معنى الحديث أنه صلى الله عليه وآله نهى عن أن يشرب من أفواهها.

He, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, also forbade the performing of ikhtinath with waterskins. The meaning of ikhtinath is that one bends their openings and then drinks from it. The root of ikhtinath is to bend. It is from here that the effeminate was named, due to his bending (as in deviation from normative sexuality), and it is from here that a woman may be called a shemale . The meaning of the narration with regards to prohibiting the bending of waterskins has two indications: one of them is that one can be precautious to whether there is an animal inside it; and that which the meaning of the narration circles is that he, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, forbade drinking from its opening.



Hadith #16

ونهى صلى الله عليه وآله عن الجداد بالليل يعني جداد النخل، والجداد الصرم وإنما نهى عنه بالليل لان المساكين لا يحضرونه.

He, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, also forbade jidad during nights, meaning performing jidad to palm trees. Jidad is to crack down. He only forbade it at night because the needy will not attend it (when it is cracked down).



Hadith #17

وقال صلى الله عليه وآله: لا تعضية في ميراث. ومعناه أن يموت الرجل ويدع شيئا أن قسم بين ورثته إذا أراد بعضهم القسمة كان في ذلك ضرر عليهم أو على بعضهم. يقول: فلا يقسم ذلك. وتلك التعضية وهي التفريق وهي مأخوذ من الأعضاء. يقال: عضيت اللحم إذا فرقته وقال الله عز وجل: " الذين جعلوا القرآن عضين " أي آمنوا ببعضه وكفروا ببعض وهذا من التعضية أيضا أنهم فرقوه. والشئ الذي لا يحتمل القسمة مثل الحبة من الجوهر لأنها إن فرقت لم ينتفع بها وكذلك الحمام إذا قسم وكذلك الطيلسان من الثياب وما أشبه ذلك من الأشياء وهذا باب جسيم من الحكم يدخل فيه الحديث الاخر " لا ضرر ولا ضرار في الاسلام " فإن أراد بعض الورثة قسمة ذلك لم يجب إليه ولكنه يباع ثم يقسم ثمنه بينهم.

He, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, also said: There shall be no ta’dhiya with inheritance. Its meaning is that a man dies and leaves something to be divided between the inheritors. If some of them would want it to be divided, it would bring about harm upon them or upon some of them. He says: That should not be divided. That (act of) ta’dhiya, and that is to seprate, and it stems from I’dha’. It is said: «I have bitten the meat» in the meaning that one separates it. Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, said: «Those who made the Qur’an into portions» (15:91) meaning that they believed in some of it and disbelieved in some of it, and that is also from (the act of) ta’dhiya; they divided it. A thing that is not possible to be divided, is as a seed from a substance, because if it was to be divided, one cannot benefit from it. Likewise, it is if a pigeon is divided, and so it is with a pallium robe, and the likes of it from things. This is a thick chapter relating to the ruling, and under it falls the other narration: «There shall be no harm nor cause of harm in Islam». Hence, if some inheritors wanted to divide that, it would not be given to him. However, it could be sold and then its worth could be divided among them.



Hadith #18

ونهى صلى الله عليه وآله عن لبستين: اشتمال الصماء، وأن يحتبي الرجل بثوب ليس بين فرجه وبين السماء شئ. قال الأصمعي: اشتمال الصماء عند العرب أن يشتمل الرجل بثوبه فيجلل ه جسده كله ولا يرفع منه جانبا فيخرج منه يده، وأما الفقهاء فإنهم يقولون: هو أن يشتمل الرجل بثوب واحد ليس عليه غيره، ثم يرفعه من أحد جانبيه فيضعه على منكبه يبدو منه فرجه. وقال الصادق صلوات الله عليه: التحاف الصماء هو أن يدخل الرجل رداءه تحت إبطه ثم يجعل طرفيه على منكب واحد وهذا هو التأويل الصحيح دون ما خالفه.

He, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, also forbade two types of wearing clothes: ishtimal-us-ssammaa’; and that a man wraps himself with a robe and that there is nothing between his genital and the sky. Al-Asma’I said: Isthimal-us-ssammaa’, among the Arabs, is that a man wraps himself with a robe by which all of his body is covered and he does not raise any side of it, and so he takes his hand out of it. As for the jurists, they say: It is that a man wraps himself with one robe, and that nothing else is on him, and that he raises it from one of his sides and places it on his shoulder by which his genital appears. Al-Sadiq, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, said: «Iltihaf-us-ssammaa’ is that a man makes his garment go under his underarm and then make its sides on one shoulder. This is the correct interpretation, and not the one that opposed it.»



Hadith #19

ونهى صلى الله عليه وآله عن ذبائح الجن وذبائح الجن أن يشتري الدار أو يستخرج العين أو ما أشبه ذلك فيذبح له ذبيحة للطيرة. قال أبو عبيد: معناه أنهم كانوا يتطيرون إلى هذا الفعل مخافة إن لم يذبحوا أو يطعموا أن يصيبهم فيها شئ من الجن فأبطل النبي صلى الله عليه وآله هذا نهى عنه.

He, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, also forbade that which is slaughtered for the jinns. (The meaning of) That which is slaughtered for the jinns, is that one buys a house, extracts a core and the likes of that, and that one slaughters an (animal of) offering due to that in haste. Abu Ubaida said: Its meaning is that they used to haste to (perform) this act out of fear that if they do not slaughter or feed (from it), something would afflict them from the jinns. Hence, the Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family.



Hadith #20

وقال صلى الله عليه وآله: لا يوردن ذو عاهة على مصح. يعني الرجل يصيب إبله الجرب أو الداء فقال: لا يوردنها على مصح وهو الذي إبله وماشيته صحاح بريئة من العاهة. قال أبو عبيد: وجهه عندي - والله أعلم - أنه خاف أن ينزل بهذه الصحاح من الله عز وجل ما نزل بتلك فيظن المصح أن تلك أعدتها فيأثم في ذلك.



Hadith #21

وقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: لا تصروا الإبل والغنم. من اشترى مصراة فهو بآخر النظرين إن شاء ردها ورد معها صاعا من تمر. المصراة يعني الناقة أو البقرة أو الشاة قد صرى اللبن في ضرعها يعني حبس فيه وجمع ولم يحلب أياما، وأصل التصرية حبس الماء وجمعه، يقال: منه صريت المال وصريته ويقال: " ماء صرى " مقصورا ويقال: منه سميت المصراة كأنها مياه اجتمعت.

The Messenger of Allah, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, said: «Do not perform tasriya to camels and sheep. The one who buys a misrat, he is (in the legal position) to have the last of the two decisions (relating to sale). If he wants, he can return it and return along with it a ssaa’ of dates.» A misrat [1] means a camel, cow or sheep whose milk has been subject to tasriya in its udder, meaning that it has been restrained in it and not been milked for days. The root of tasriya is (the meaning of) restraining water and gathering it. It is said from it: «I have performed tasriya for the water» and it is said: «Water that has been subject to tasriya» in a short manner [2]. It is also said that from this, it was named misrat, as if water had accumulated in it.



Hadith #22

وفي حديث آخر " من اشترى محفلة فردها فليرد معها صاعا " وإنما سميت محفلة لان اللبن حفل في ضرعها واجتمع، وكل شئ كثرته فقد حفلته، ومنه قيل: " قد أحفل القوم " إذا اجتمعوا وكثروا، ولهذا سمي محفل القوم وجمع المحفل: محافل.

In another narration: «The one who buys a muhaffala and returns it, let him return a ssaa’ with it.» It was only named muhaffala because the milk was subject to tahfeel and accumulated in its udder. Everything that you increase, you would have performed tahfeel to it. It is from it that it was said: «The people assembled » if they gather and increase. It was for this that an assembly of the people was named, and the plural of an assembly is assemblies .



Hadith #23

وقوله صلى الله عليه وآله: " لا خلابة " يعني الخداعة يقال: خلبته أخلبه خلابة إذا خدعته. وأتى عمر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله فقال: إنا نسمع أحاديث من يهود تعجبنا فترى أن نكتب بعضها؟ فقال: أمتهوكون كما تهوكت اليهود والنصارى؟ لقد جئتكم بها بيضاء نقية ولو كان موسى حيا ما وسعه إلا اتباعي. قوله: " متهوكون " أي متحيرون، يقول: أمتحيرون أنتم في الاسلام لا تعرفون دينكم حتى تأخذوه من اليهود والنصارى؟ ومعناه أنه كره أخذ العلم من أهل الكتاب. وأما قول: " جئتكم بها بيضاء نقيه " فإنه أراد الملة الحنيفية فلذلك جاء التأنيث كقول الله عز وجل: " وذلك دين القيمة " إنما هي الملة الحنيفية.

The saying of him, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family: «There shall be no captivation » means deception. It is said: «I captivated him , I captivate him , a (performance of) captivation » if I would deceive him. Umar once came to the Messenger of Allah, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, and said: Indeed, we are hearing narrations, from Jews, which amaze uz. Do you see that we should write some of them? He said: Are you bewildered like how the Jews and the Christians were bewildered? I have certainly come to you with it (while it, the Message, is) white and clean. If Musa was alive, he would have no option but to follow me. His saying: «bewildered» means confused. He says: Are you confused with regards to Islam, that you do not know your religion, in order for you to take it from the Jews and the Christians? Its meaning is that he disliked (for Muslims) to take knowledge from the People of the Book. As for his saying: «I have certainly come to you with it white and clean» he indicated the orthodox Religion, and that is why the feminine form is mentioned [1], similar to the saying of Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He: «And that is the correct [2] Religion.» (98:5)



Hadith #24

وقد قال صلى الله عليه وآله: لقد هممت أن أنهي عن الغيلة. والغيلة هو الغيل وهو أن يجامع الرجل المرأة وهي مرضع. يقال منه: قد أغال الرجل وأغيل ، والولد مغال و مغيل.

He, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, also said: «I have certainly intended to forbid the gheela.» Gheela refers to gheel, and that is when a man has intercourse with a woman while she is breastfeeding. From this it is said of a man: aghal or ugheel. The child is then called mughal and mugheel.



Hadith #25

ونهى صلى الله عليه وآله عن الارفاء وهي كثرة التدهن.

He, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, also forbade irfa’, and that is much smearing of (liquid) substances (on the body).



Hadith #26

وقال صلى الله عليه وآله: إياكم والقعود بالصعدات إلا من أدى حقها. الصعدات الطرق وهو مأخوذ من الصعيد والصعيد التراب وجمع الصعيد الصعد ثم الصعدات جمع الجمع كما يقال: طريق وطرق ثم طرقات. قال الله عز وجل: " فتيمموا صعيد طيبا " فالتيمم التعمد للشئ، يقال منه: أمت فلانا [فأنا] أؤمه أما وتأممته وتيممته، كله تعمدته وقصدت له. وقد روي عن الصادق عليه السلام أنه قال: الصعيد الموضع المرتفع، و الطيب [الموضع] الذي ينحدر عنه الماء.

He, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, also said: «Beware from sitting on the ssa’dat, except for the one whose right has been fulfilled.» Ssa’dat are roads, and it stems from ssa’eed, and ssa’eed is sand. The plural of ssa’eed is ssa’d, then furthermore, ssa’dat is the plural of the pluralized, like how it is said: Tareeq [1], turuq and then turuqat. Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, said: «Then perform Tayammum with good sand.» (4:43) Tayammum is to intentionally turn to something. From this it is said: «He performed amm to such-a-person» and «then I performed amm to him, (in an act of) an amm» and «I performed ta’ammum to him» and «I performed tayammum to him». All of it means: I intended for him and I sought to him. It has been narrated of al-Sadiq, peace be uon him, that he said: «The ssa’eed is the high spot, and tayib is the spot from which waters pours down.»



Hadith #27

وقال صلى الله عليه وآله: لا غرار في صلاة ولا تسليم. الغرار النقصان، أما في الصلاة ففي ترك إتمام ركوعها وسجودها ونقصان اللبث في ركعة عن اللبث في الركعة الأخرى، ومنه قول الصادق عليه السلام: " الصلاة ميزان، من وفى استوفى " ومنه قول النبي صلى الله عليه وآله: " الصلاة مكيال فمن وفى وفي له ". فهذا الغرار في الصلاة، وأما الغرار في التسليم فأن يقول الرجل: السلام عليك [أ] ويرده فيقول: وعليك، ولا يقول: وعليكم السلام. ويكره تجاوز الحد في الرد كما يكره الغرار، وذلك أن الصادق عليه السلام سلم على رجل فقال له الرجل: وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته ومغفرته ورضوانه. فقال: لا تجاوزوا بنا قول الملائكة لأبينا إبراهيم عليه السلام: " رحمة الله وبركاته عليكم أهل البيت إنه حميد مجيد ".

He, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, also said: «There shall be no hasting in (performance of) prayer nor the sending of peace.» To haste is to cause (some) shortening. As for prayer, it is (perfomed) in (the acts of) abandoning the completion of its kneeling, prostration and shortening the lingering in one rak’a from lingering in another rak’a. From this, its transmitted of al-Sadiq, peace be upon him: «The prayer is a scale of measurement; the one who fulfils, shall be fulfilled.» From this is also the saying of the Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family: «The prayer is a gauge; the one who fulfils, to him shall it be fulfilled.» This is with regards to haste during prayer. As for haste during the sending of peace, it is that a man says: «Peace be upon you [1]» or that he responds to it and says: «And upon you [2]», and that he does not say: «And upon you [3] be peace». It is disliked to exceed the limitation during response, like how it is disliked to haste (by shortening). That is because al-Sadiq, peace be upon him, sent peace upon a man, to which the man said: «And upon you is peace and the mercy of Allah, and His blessings, forgivenesses and satisfaction». He then said: «Do not exceed with us the saying of the Angels to our father, Ibrahim, peace be upon him: The mercy of Allah and His blessings be upon you, the Household. He is, indeed, Praiseworthy, Commendable.» (11:73)



Hadith #28

وقال صلى الله عليه وآله: لا تناجشوا ولا تدابروا. معناه أن يزيد الرجل الرجل في ثمن السلعة وهو لا يريد شراءها ولكن ليسمعه غيره فيزيد لزيادته، والناجش الخائن. وأما التدابر فالمصارمة والهجران مأخوذ من أن يولي الرجل صاحبه دبره ويعرض عنه بوجهه.

He, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, also said: «Do not perform tanajush nor tadabur.» Its meaning is that a man increases to another man the price of a merchandise while he does not want to buy it, but in order for another to hear him and bid due to his bidding. One who performs tanajush is a traitor. As for tadabur, it is quarreling and severance of relation. It stems from that a man turns his backside to his companion and turns his face from him.



Hadith #29

وإن رجلا حلب عند النبي صلى الله عليه وآله ناقة فقال له النبي صلى الله عليه وآله: دع داعي اللبن.يقول: أبق في الضرع شيئا لا تستوعبه كله في الحلب فإن الذي تبقيه به يدعو ما فوقه من اللبن وينزله وإذا استقصى كلما في الضرع أبطأ عليه الدر بعد ذلك.

A man, at the presence of the Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, once milked a female camel, and so the Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, said to him: «Leave that which attracts (more of) the milk.» He is saying: Leave in the udder some, and do not include it all during the milking, because that which you will leave in it will attract what is above it of milk and it will cause it to flow down. If one includes all that is in the udder, the milking will be slower for him after that.



Hadith #30

وكره صلى الله عليه وآله الشكال في الخيل. يعني أن يكون ثلاث قوائم منه محجلة و واحدة مطلقة. وإنما اخذ هذا من الشكال الذي يشكل به الخيل شبه به لان الشكال إنما يكون في ثلاث قوائم وأن يكون الثلاث مطلقه ورجل محجلة وليس يكون الشكال إلا في الرجل ولا يكون في اليد.

He, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, also disliked shikal in horses. It means that three standing legs of a horse have anklets and that one is free. It stems from shikal, that which a horse is being decorated with. It was likened to it because shikal is only performed in three standing legs while the three are free and one has anklets. Shikal is not performed except in the foot, and it is not performed to a hand.