3. The Clay from which the Believers and Unbelievers are made (additional)

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1ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ دَاوُدَ الْعِجْلِيِّ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ حُمْرَانَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِنَّ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى حَيْثُ خَلَقَ الْخَلْقَ خَلَقَ مَاءً عَذْباً وَمَاءً مَالِحاً أُجَاجاً فَامْتَزَجَ الْمَاءَانِ فَأَخَذَ طِيناً مِنْ أَدِيمِ الأرْضِ فَعَرَكَهُ عَرْكاً شَدِيداً فَقَالَ لأصْحَابِ الْيَمِينِ وَهُمْ كَالذَّرِّ يَدِبُّونَ إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ بِسَلامٍ وَقَالَ لأصْحَابِ الشِّمَالِ إِلَى النَّارِ وَلا أُبَالِي ثُمَّ قَالَ أَ لَسْتُ بِرَبِّكُمْ قالُوا بَلى‏ شَهِدْنا أَنْ تَقُولُوا يَوْمَ الْقِيامَةِ إِنَّا كُنَّا عَنْ هذا غافِلِينَ ثُمَّ أَخَذَ الْمِيثَاقَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّينَ فَقَالَ أَ لَسْتُ بِرَبِّكُمْ وَأَنَّ هَذَا مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولِي وَأَنَّ هَذَا عَلِيٌّ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ قَالُوا بَلَى فَثَبَتَتْ لَهُمُ النُّبُوَّةُ وَأَخَذَ الْمِيثَاقَ عَلَى أُولِي الْعَزْمِ أَنَّنِي رَبُّكُمْ وَمُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولِي وَعَلِيٌّ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَأَوْصِيَاؤُهُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ وُلاةُ أَمْرِي وَخُزَّانُ عِلْمِي (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) وَأَنَّ الْمَهْدِيَّ أَنْتَصِرُ بِهِ لِدِينِي وَأُظْهِرُ بِهِ دَوْلَتِي وَأَنْتَقِمُ بِهِ مِنْ أَعْدَائِي وَأُعْبَدُ بِهِ طَوْعاً وَكَرْهاً قَالُوا أَقْرَرْنَا يَا رَبِّ وَشَهِدْنَا وَلَمْ يَجْحَدْ آدَمُ وَلَمْ يُقِرَّ فَثَبَتَتِ الْعَزِيمَةُ لِهَؤُلاءِ الْخَمْسَةِ فِي الْمَهْدِيِّ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لآِدَمَ عَزْمٌ عَلَى الإقْرَارِ بِهِ وَهُوَ قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَلَقَدْ عَهِدْنا إِلى‏ آدَمَ مِنْ قَبْلُ فَنَسِيَ وَلَمْ نَجِدْ لَهُ عَزْماً قَالَ إِنَّمَا هُوَ فَتَرَكَ ثُمَّ أَمَرَ نَاراً فَأُجِّجَتْ فَقَالَ لأصْحَابِ الشِّمَالِ ادْخُلُوهَا فَهَابُوهَا وَقَالَ لأصْحَابِ الْيَمِينِ ادْخُلُوهَا فَدَخَلُوهَا فَكَانَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ بَرْداً وَسَلاماً فَقَالَ أَصْحَابُ الشِّمَالِ يَا رَبِّ أَقِلْنَا فَقَالَ قَدْ أَقَلْتُكُمُ اذْهَبُوا فَادْخُلُوا فَهَابُوهَا فَثَمَّ ثَبَتَتِ الطَّاعَةُ وَالْوَلايَةُ وَالْمَعْصِيَةُ.


1. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Dawud al-’Ijli from Zurara from Humran from abu Ja’far (a.s.) who has said the following: “Abu Ja’far (a.s.) has said, ‘As Allah, the Most Holy the Most High, created the creation. He created sweet water and a very salty water and then mixed the two together. Then He took a (kind of) clay from the surface of the earth and kneaded it intensely. He then said to the people of the right, as they crawled about like particles, “To paradise (you go) in peace.” He then said to the people of the left hand, “To the fire (you go) and I am not concerned.” Then He asked, “Am I not your Lord?” They all said, “Yes, You are our Lord we testify.” Allah said, “I make you to witness this) so that on the Day of Judgment you will not say, ‘We were unaware of this.’” (7:172) ‘Then He made the prophets to form the covenant. He asked them, “Am 1 not your Lord and is not this Muhammad, My messenger and is not this Ali, the commander of the believers?” They said, “Yes, it is just as You said.” This established their prophethood. He then made the ‘Ulu al-’Azm messengers to testify and acknowledge this fact: “I am your Lord, Muhammad is My messenger, Ali is the commander of the believers and his successors, recipients of divine supreme covenant, after him are people who possess My Authority and are the reservoir of My knowledge. That al-Mahdi (a.s.) is one whom I will make to lend support to My religion. Through him I will establish My kingdom on earth and make My enemies to face justice for their crimes. Through him I will make them to worship Me willingly or otherwise.” The prophets altogether said, “Yes, Lord we testify to these facts and bear witness.” Adam did not refuse and did not affirm (verbally) the fact about al-Mahdi (a.s.) so he was not included in the group of five ‘Ulu al-’Azm messengers of Allah. Adam did not have the resolve to affirm the facts about al-Mahdi, recipient of divine supreme covenant. Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, has said in the Holy Quran, “We had made a covenant with Adam before but he forgot all about it and we did not find in him a firm resolve.” (20:115) He said that it was so but he ignored it. He then created a fire that blazed and told the people of the left hand to enter in the fire. They were afraid thereby. He said to the people of the right hand, “Enter in the fire.” They entered in the fire and it was cool and peaceful to them. The people of the left hand then said, “Lord, forgive us and reduce our sins.” The Lord said, “I have forgiven you but you must go in the fire.” They were afraid. Thus, with this the obedience, authority and disobedience came to take place.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (7/22)



2ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ حَبِيبٍ السِّجِسْتَانِيِّ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَمَّا أَخْرَجَ ذُرِّيَّةَ آدَمَ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) مِنْ ظَهْرِهِ لِيَأْخُذَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْمِيثَاقَ بِالرُّبُوبِيَّةِ لَهُ وَبِالنُّبُوَّةِ لِكُلِّ نَبِيٍّ فَكَانَ أَوَّلَ مَنْ أَخَذَ لَهُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْمِيثَاقَ بِنُبُوَّتِهِ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) ثُمَّ قَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لآِدَمَ انْظُرْ مَا ذَا تَرَى قَالَ فَنَظَرَ آدَمُ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) إِلَى ذُرِّيَّتِهِ وَهُمْ ذَرٌّ قَدْ مَلَئُوا السَّمَاءَ قَالَ آدَمُ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) يَا رَبِّ مَا أَكْثَرَ ذُرِّيَّتِي وَلأمْرٍ مَا خَلَقْتَهُمْ فَمَا تُرِيدُ مِنْهُمْ بِأَخْذِكَ الْمِيثَاقَ عَلَيْهِمْ قَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَعْبُدُونَنِي لا يُشْرِكُونَ بِي شَيْئاً وَيُؤْمِنُونَ بِرُسُلِي وَيَتَّبِعُونَهُمْ قَالَ آدَمُ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) يَا رَبِّ فَمَا لِي أَرَى بَعْضَ الذَّرِّ أَعْظَمَ مِنْ بَعْضٍ وَبَعْضَهُمْ لَهُ نُورٌ كَثِيرٌ وَبَعْضَهُمْ لَهُ نُورٌ قَلِيلٌ وَبَعْضَهُمْ لَيْسَ لَهُ نُورٌ فَقَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ كَذَلِكَ خَلَقْتُهُمْ لأبْلُوَهُمْ فِي كُلِّ حَالاتِهِمْ قَالَ آدَمُ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) يَا رَبِّ فَتَأْذَنُ لِي فِي الْكَلامِ فَأَتَكَلَّمَ قَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ تَكَلَّمْ فَإِنَّ رُوحَكَ مِنْ رُوحِي وَطَبِيعَتَكَ [ مِنْ ] خِلافِ كَيْنُونَتِي قَالَ آدَمُ يَا رَبِّ فَلَوْ كُنْتَ خَلَقْتَهُمْ عَلَى مِثَالٍ وَاحِدٍ وَقَدْرٍ وَاحِدٍ وَطَبِيعَةٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَجِبِلَّةٍ وَاحِدَةً وَأَلْوَانٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَأَعْمَارٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَأَرْزَاقٍ سَوَاءٍ لَمْ يَبْغِ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ بَيْنَهُمْ تَحَاسُدٌ وَلا تَبَاغُضٌ وَلا اخْتِلافٌ فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنَ الأشْيَاءِ قَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَا آدَمُ بِرُوحِي نَطَقْتَ وَبِضَعْفِ طَبِيعَتِكَ تَكَلَّفْتَ مَا لا عِلْمَ لَكَ بِهِ وَأَنَا الْخَالِقُ الْعَالِمُ بِعِلْمِي خَالَفْتُ بَيْنَ خَلْقِهِمْ وَبِمَشِيئَتِي يَمْضِي فِيهِمْ أَمْرِي وَإِلَى تَدْبِيرِي وَتَقْدِيرِي صَائِرُونَ لا تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِي إِنَّمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالإنْسَ لِيَعْبُدُونِ وَخَلَقْتُ الْجَنَّةَ لِمَنْ أَطَاعَنِي وَعَبَدَنِي مِنْهُمْ وَاتَّبَعَ رُسُلِي وَلا أُبَالِي وَخَلَقْتُ النَّارَ لِمَنْ كَفَرَ بِي وَعَصَانِي وَلَمْ يَتَّبِعْ رُسُلِي وَلا أُبَالِي وَخَلَقْتُكَ وَخَلَقْتُ ذُرِّيَّتَكَ مِنْ غَيْرِ فَاقَةٍ بِي إِلَيْكَ وَإِلَيْهِمْ وَإِنَّمَا خَلَقْتُكَ وَخَلَقْتُهُمْ لأبْلُوَكَ وَأَبْلُوَهُمْ أَيُّكُمْ أَحْسَنُ عَمَلاً فِي دَارِ الدُّنْيَا فِي حَيَاتِكُمْ وَقَبْلَ مَمَاتِكُمْ فَلِذَلِكَ خَلَقْتُ الدُّنْيَا وَالآخِرَةَ وَالْحَيَاةَ وَالْمَوْتَ وَالطَّاعَةَ وَالْمَعْصِيَةَ وَالْجَنَّةَ وَالنَّارَ وَكَذَلِكَ أَرَدْتُ فِي تَقْدِيرِي وَتَدْبِيرِي وَبِعِلْمِيَ النَّافِذِ فِيهِمْ خَالَفْتُ بَيْنَ صُوَرِهِمْ وَأَجْسَامِهِمْ وَأَلْوَانِهِمْ وَأَعْمَارِهِمْ وَأَرْزَاقِهِمْ وَطَاعَتِهِمْ وَمَعْصِيَتِهِمْ فَجَعَلْتُ مِنْهُمُ الشَّقِيَّ وَالسَّعِيدَ وَالْبَصِيرَ وَالأعْمَى وَالْقَصِيرَ وَالطَّوِيلَ وَالْجَمِيلَ وَالدَّمِيمَ وَالْعَالِمَ وَالْجَاهِلَ وَالْغَنِيَّ وَالْفَقِيرَ وَالْمُطِيعَ وَالْعَاصِيَ وَالصَّحِيحَ وَالسَّقِيمَ وَمَنْ بِهِ الزَّمَانَةُ وَمَنْ لا عَاهَةَ بِهِ فَيَنْظُرُ الصَّحِيحُ إِلَى الَّذِي بِهِ الْعَاهَةُ فَيَحْمَدُنِي عَلَى عَافِيَتِهِ وَيَنْظُرُ الَّذِي بِهِ الْعَاهَةُ إِلَى الصَّحِيحِ فَيَدْعُونِي وَيَسْأَلُنِي أَنْ أُعَافِيَهُ وَيَصْبِرُ عَلَى بَلائِي فَأُثِيبُهُ جَزِيلَ عَطَائِي وَيَنْظُرُ الْغَنِيُّ إِلَى الْفَقِيرِ فَيَحْمَدُنِي وَيَشْكُرُنِي وَيَنْظُرُ الْفَقِيرُ إِلَى الْغَنِيِّ فَيَدْعُونِي وَيَسْأَلُنِي وَيَنْظُرُ الْمُؤْمِنُ إِلَى الْكَافِرِ فَيَحْمَدُنِي عَلَى مَا هَدَيْتُهُ فَلِذَلِكَ خَلَقْتُهُمْ لأبْلُوَهُمْ فِي السَّرَّاءِ وَالضَّرَّاءِ وَفِيمَا أُعَافِيهِمْ وَفِيمَا أَبْتَلِيهِمْ وَفِيمَا أُعْطِيهِمْ وَفِيمَا أَمْنَعُهُمْ وَأَنَا الله الْمَلِكُ الْقَادِرُ وَلِي أَنْ أَمْضِيَ جَمِيعَ مَا قَدَّرْتُ عَلَى مَا دَبَّرْتُ وَلِي أَنْ أُغَيِّرَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ مَا شِئْتُ إِلَى مَا شِئْتُ وَأُقَدِّمَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ مَا أَخَّرْتُ وَأُؤَخِّرَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ مَا قَدَّمْتُ وَأَنَا الله الْفَعَّالُ لِمَا أُرِيدُ لا أُسْأَلُ عَمَّا أَفْعَلُ وَأَنَا أَسْأَلُ خَلْقِي عَمَّا هُمْ فَاعِلُونَ.


2. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad and Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from Hisham ibn Salim from Habib al-Sajistani who has said the following: “I heard abu Ja’far (a.s.) saying, ‘There was a time when Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, took the descendents of Adam from his back to establish a covenant with them to testify that He is their Lord and to believe in the prophethood of all the prophets. The first among the prophets whose prophethood Allah wanted them to accept through a covenant was Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant. Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, then said to Adam, “Look (to find) what you can see.” ‘The Imam then said, “Adam then looked and saw his descendents appearing as small particles that filled the sky. Adam then said, ‘Lord, how huge in number my descendents are! For what purpose have You created them and for what reason did You make them to establish a covenant with You?’” Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, replied, “So that they worship Me and do not consider anything else as My equal and so that they believe in My messengers and follow them (for guidance).” Adam then asked, “Lord, why is it that I see certain ones of the particles are greater, others have a great deal of lights, yet others among them have very little light and still others among them have no lights at all?” Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, replied, “Thus, I have created them to place them to test in every condition that they will live.” Adam then asked, “My Lord, will You grant me permission to speak so I may express myself?” Allah, the Majestic the Glorious said, “Speak up; your spirit is from My spirit but your nature is different from My being.” Adam then asked, “Lord, had You created them all just like each other, by the same measure, the same nature, of likewise design, of the same color, of equal life span, of equal amount of means of living they would not act against each other. No jealousy, animosity and differences would exist among them over anything.” Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, said, “O Adam, through My spirit you just spoke and due to the weakness of your nature you made an effort to give an opinion about that of which you have no knowledge. I Am the Creator of the world. I knowingly have created each one different from the others and through My Own way I will make My commands to take effect and they will continue existing through My plans and measures. There will be no changes in My creation. I have created the Jinn and human beings only to worship Me. I have created paradise for those who obey and worship Me and follow My messengers. I have no regrets in what 1 have done. I have created the fire for those who disbelieve, disobey Me and do not follow My messengers and I have no regrets in it. I have created you and your descendents not because I ever need you or your descendents in anyway or form. I have created you and created them to test you and test them to see which ones among you do good deeds in the worldly life before your deaths. For this reason I have created the world and the life thereafter, life, death, obedience, disobedience, paradise and the fire. This is how I willed in My measure and plan. Through My all-pervasive knowledge in them I have placed differences in their forms, bodies, colors, lifespan, means of living, obedience and disobedience. I, thus, have made certain ones of them to be unfortunate or very fortunate. Certain ones among them will have eyesight or be blind, others among them will be of short size or tall ones, beautiful or otherwise, knowledgeable or ignorant, wealthy or poor, obedient or disobedient, of good health or suffering from illness, of defective bodies or free of bodily defects. In this way those of perfect bodies will look at the defective ones and thank Me for the perfect body that 1 have given them and those with defective bodies will look at the perfect ones and will pray to Me and ask Me to grant them good health and exercise patience when and in the way I test them. Thus, I will grant them good rewards. The wealthy ones after looking to the poor ones will thank Me and appreciate My favors. When the poor ones look to the wealthy ones they pray to Me and ask Me favors. It is as such so that the believers will look to the unbelievers and thank Me for the guidance that I have granted them. For such reasons I have created them. I test them in ease and in hardships and in good health that I grant them and in the matters with which I test them, in the matters of what I grant them and in the matters that 1 refuse them. I am Allah, the powerful King. It is all up to Me to allow all of My measures and plans to take form or change them as I wish to the time that I wish. I may change the sequel of the timing of my measures and plans and allow, that which comes first to come last and vice versa. I am Allah, and I execute whatever I will. I am not questioned for whatever I do but 1 question My creatures about their deeds.’””


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (7/24)



3ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنْ صَالِحِ بْنِ عُقْبَةَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ الْجُعْفِيِّ وَعُقْبَةَ جَمِيعاً عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ خَلَقَ الْخَلْقَ فَخَلَقَ مَنْ أَحَبَّ مِمَّا أَحَبَّ وَكَانَ مَا أَحَبَّ أَنْ خَلَقَهُ مِنْ طِينَةِ الْجَنَّةِ وَخَلَقَ مَنْ أَبْغَضَ مِمَّا أَبْغَضَ وَكَانَ مَا أَبْغَضَ أَنْ خَلَقَهُ مِنْ طِينَةِ النَّارِ ثُمَّ بَعَثَهُمْ فِي الظِّلالِ فَقُلْتُ وَأَيُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ الظِّلالُ فَقَالَ أَ لَمْ تَرَ إِلَى ظِلِّكَ فِي الشَّمْسِ شَيْئاً وَلَيْسَ بِشَيْ‏ءٍ ثُمَّ بَعَثَ مِنْهُمُ النَّبِيِّينَ فَدَعَوْهُمْ إِلَى الإقْرَارِ بِالله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَهُوَ قَوْلُهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَلَئِنْ سَأَلْتَهُمْ مَنْ خَلَقَهُمْ لَيَقُولُنَّ الله ثُمَّ دَعَوْهُمْ إِلَى الإقْرَارِ بِالنَّبِيِّينَ فَأَقَرَّ بَعْضُهُمْ وَأَنْكَرَ بَعْضٌ ثُمَّ دَعَوْهُمْ إِلَى وَلايَتِنَا فَأَقَرَّ بِهَا وَالله مَنْ أَحَبَّ وَأَنْكَرَهَا مَنْ أَبْغَضَ وَهُوَ قَوْلُهُ فَما كانُوا لِيُؤْمِنُوا بِما كَذَّبُوا بِهِ مِنْ قَبْلُ ثُمَّ قَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) كَانَ التَّكْذِيبُ ثَمَّ.


3. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from Muhammad ibn ‘Isma’il from Salih ibn ‘Aqaba from ‘Abd Allah ibn Muhammad al-Ju’fi and ‘Aqaba together from abu Ja’far (a.s.) who has said the following: “Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, created the creation. He created His most beloved ones from that which He loved most. What was most beloved to Him was the fact that he created His most beloved ones from the clay of paradise. He created those whom He hated most from that which he hated most. What was most hated to Him was the fact that he created from the clay of the fire and then sent them to the shadows. I asked him, ‘What are the shadows?’ He replied, ‘Have you not seen your own shadow in a sunny day that looks like a thing but is nothing? Allah then raised from them the prophets who called them to believe in Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, as mentioned in His, words, “When you ask them who has created them they will say, ‘Allah.” (31:25) He then called them to express their belief in the prophets. Some expressed their belief as such and others among them did not do so. He then called them to express their (Wala’) belief and support to us (A hi al-Bayt). I swear by Allah, those whom He loved expressed their belief that we were the people who possess Divine Authority and only those whom He hated refused to express such beliefs as it is said in the following verse of the Holy Quran. “They do not express faith in what they before had refused to have faith in.’” (7:101) Abu Ja’far (a.s.) then said, ‘Rejection (to have faith in us) was then.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (30/ 7)