171. Straying

Back to book

1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَجَّاجِ عَنْ هَاشِمٍ صَاحِبِ الْبَرِيدِ قَالَ كُنْتُ أَنَا وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مُسْلِمٍ وَأَبُو الْخَطَّابِ مُجْتَمِعِينَ فَقَالَ لَنَا أَبُو الْخَطَّابِ مَا تَقُولُونَ فِيمَنْ لَمْ يَعْرِفْ هَذَا الأمْرَ فَقُلْتُ مَنْ لَمْ يَعْرِفْ هَذَا الأمْرَ فَهُوَ كَافِرٌ فَقَالَ أَبُو الْخَطَّابِ لَيْسَ بِكَافِرٍ حَتَّى تَقُومَ عَلَيْهِ الْحُجَّةُ فَإِذَا قَامَتْ عَلَيْهِ الْحُجَّةُ فَلَمْ يَعْرِفْ فَهُوَ كَافِرٌ فَقَالَ لَهُ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مُسْلِمٍ سُبْحَانَ الله مَا لَهُ إِذَا لَمْ يَعْرِفْ وَلَمْ يَجْحَدْ يَكْفُرُ لَيْسَ بِكَافِرٍ إِذَا لَمْ يَجْحَدْ قَالَ فَلَمَّا حَجَجْتُ دَخَلْتُ عَلَى أَبِي عَبْدِ الله فَأَخْبَرْتُهُ بِذَلِكَ فَقَالَ إِنَّكَ قَدْ حَضَرْتَ وَغَابَا وَلَكِنْ مَوْعِدُكُمُ اللَّيْلَةَ الْجَمْرَةُ الْوُسْطَى بِمِنًى فَلَمَّا كَانَتِ اللَّيْلَةُ اجْتَمَعْنَا عِنْدَهُ وَأَبُو الْخَطَّابِ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مُسْلِمٍ فَتَنَاوَلَ وِسَادَةً فَوَضَعَهَا فِي صَدْرِهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَنَا مَا تَقُولُونَ فِي خَدَمِكُمْ وَنِسَائِكُمْ وَأَهْلِيكُمْ أَ لَيْسَ يَشْهَدُونَ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا الله قُلْتُ بَلَى قَالَ أَ لَيْسَ يَشْهَدُونَ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) قُلْتُ بَلَى قَالَ أَ لَيْسَ يُصَلُّونَ وَيَصُومُونَ وَيَحُجُّونَ قُلْتُ بَلَى قَالَ فَيَعْرِفُونَ مَا أَنْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ قُلْتُ لا قَالَ فَمَا هُمْ عِنْدَكُمْ قُلْتُ مَنْ لَمْ يَعْرِفْ هَذَا الأمْرَ فَهُوَ كَافِرٌ قَالَ سُبْحَانَ الله أَ مَا رَأَيْتَ أَهْلَ الطَّرِيقِ وَأَهْلَ الْمِيَاهِ قُلْتُ بَلَى قَالَ أَ لَيْسَ يُصَلُّونَ وَيَصُومُونَ وَيَحُجُّونَ أَ لَيْسَ يَشْهَدُونَ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا الله وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ الله قُلْتُ بَلَى قَالَ فَيَعْرِفُونَ مَا أَنْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ قُلْتُ لا قَالَ فَمَا هُمْ عِنْدَكُمْ قُلْتُ مَنْ لَمْ يَعْرِفْ هَذَا الأمْرَ فَهُوَ كَافِرٌ قَالَ سُبْحَانَ الله أَ مَا رَأَيْتَ الْكَعْبَةَ وَالطَّوَافَ وَأَهْلَ الْيَمَنِ وَتَعَلُّقَهُمْ بِأَسْتَارِ الْكَعْبَةِ قُلْتُ بَلَى قَالَ أَ لَيْسَ يَشْهَدُونَ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا الله وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) وَيُصَلُّونَ وَيَصُومُونَ وَيَحُجُّونَ قُلْتُ بَلَى قَالَ فَيَعْرِفُونَ مَا أَنْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ قُلْتُ لا قَالَ فَمَا تَقُولُونَ فِيهِمْ قُلْتُ مَنْ لَمْ يَعْرِفْ فَهُوَ كَافِرٌ قَالَ سُبْحَانَ الله هَذَا قَوْلُ الْخَوَارِجِ ثُمَّ قَالَ إِنْ شِئْتُمْ أَخْبَرْتُكُمْ فَقُلْتُ أَنَا لا فَقَالَ أَمَا إِنَّهُ شَرٌّ عَلَيْكُمْ أَنْ تَقُولُوا بِشَيْ‏ءٍ مَا لَمْ تَسْمَعُوهُ مِنَّا قَالَ فَظَنَنْتُ أَنَّهُ يُدِيرُنَا عَلَى قَوْلِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from ‘Abd al- Rahman ibn al-Hajjaj from Hashim Sahib al-Barid who has said the following: “Once Muhammad ibn Muslim, abu al-Khattab and I were together and abu Khattab asked, ‘What do you say about a person who does not believe in this cause (Divine Authority of AM al-Bayt)?’ I then said, ‘Anyone who does not believe in this cause is an unbeliever.’ Abu al-Khattab said, ‘He is not an unbeliever until all evidence is established against him, when evidence and proof is established and he did not recognize then he becomes an unbeliever.’ Muhammad ibn Muslim asked him. ‘Glory belongs to Allah, what has he done that for not knowing and not denying becomes an unbeliever? He is not an unbeliever if he does not deny and reject.’ I (the narrator) argued and then went in the presence of abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) and informed him of the discussion. The Imam said, ‘You have come and they both are absent. All of you may come to me tonight by the middle Jamara (pillar of stones) in Mina.’ “That night we gathered together before him. Abu al-Khattab and Muhammad ibn Muslim also were there. The Imam picked up the pillow and held it against his chest and asked us, ‘What do you say about your servants, women, and people of your house? Do they not say, ‘No one deserves to be worshipped except Allah?’ I said, ‘Yes, they do say so.’ The Imam asked, ‘Do they not say, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah?’ I said, ‘Yes, they do say so.’ The Imam asked, ‘Do they not perform the prayer, fast and perform Hajj?’ I said, ‘Yes, they do so.’ The Imam asked, ‘Do they know and recognize what you believe in?’ I said, ‘No, they do not do so.’ The Imam asked, ‘What are they then in your views?’ I said, ‘Anyone who does not know this cause (Divine Authority of Ahl al-Bayt) is an unbeliever. ’ The Imam asked, ‘Glory belongs to Allah, have you considered the people in the streets and the water carriers?’ I said, ‘Yes, I have done so.’ The Imam asked, ‘Do they not perform the prayer, fast, and perform Hajj? Do they not testify that no one deserves to be worshipped except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah?’ I said, ‘Yes, they do so.’ The Imam said, ‘Do they know and recognize what you believe in?’ I said, ‘No, they do not do so.’ The Imam said, ‘What are they then in your view?’ I said, ‘Anyone who does not know and recognize this cause, is an unbeliever.’ The Imam said, ‘Glory belongs to Allah, have you seen the Ka’bah, the Tawaf (walking seven times around the Ka’bah), the people of Yeman and their clinging to the curtain of the Ka’bah?’ I said, ‘Yes, I see them.’ The Imam said, ‘Do they not testify that no one deserves to be worshipped except Allah? That Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah? Do they not perform the prayer, fast, and perform Hajj?’ I said, ‘Yes they do so.’ The Imam said, ‘Do they know and recognize what you believe in?’ I said, ‘No they do not do so.’ The Imam said, ‘What do you say about them?’ I said, ‘Anyone who does not know (believe in this cause) is an unbeliever. ’ “The Imam said, ‘Glory belongs to Allah, this is what al- Khawarij (the group that turned against Ali, recipient of divine supreme covenant) say.’ The Imam then said, ‘If you like, I may tell you.’ I said, ‘No, do not tell us.’ The Imam said, ‘It is evil against you to say what you have not heard from us.’ I (the narrator) then guessed that he is turning us upon the words of Muhammad ibn Muslim (namely, one is not an unbeliever until he denies and rejects the Divine Authority of Ahl al-Bayt).”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (11/188)



2ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ رَجُلٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ فَمَا تَقُولُ فِي مُنَاكَحَةِ النَّاسِ فَإِنِّي قَدْ بَلَغْتُ مَا تَرَاهُ وَمَا تَزَوَّجْتُ قَطُّ فَقَالَ وَمَا يَمْنَعُكَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَقُلْتُ مَا يَمْنَعُنِي إِلا أَنَّنِي أَخْشَى أَنْ لا تَحِلَّ لِي مُنَاكَحَتُهُمْ فَمَا تَأْمُرُنِي فَقَالَ فَكَيْفَ تَصْنَعُ وَأَنْتَ شَابٌّ أَ تَصْبِرُ قُلْتُ أَتَّخِذُ الْجَوَارِيَ قَالَ فَهَاتِ الآنَ فَبِمَا تَسْتَحِلُّ الْجَوَارِيَ قُلْتُ إِنَّ الأمَةَ لَيْسَتْ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْحُرَّةِ إِنْ رَابَتْنِي بِشَيْ‏ءٍ بِعْتُهَا وَاعْتَزَلْتُهَا قَالَ فَحَدِّثْنِي بِمَا اسْتَحْلَلْتَهَا قَالَ فَلَمْ يَكُنْ عِنْدِي جَوَابٌ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ فَمَا تَرَى أَتَزَوَّجُ فَقَالَ مَا أُبَالِي أَنْ تَفْعَلَ قُلْتُ أَ رَأَيْتَ قَوْلَكَ مَا أُبَالِي أَنْ تَفْعَلَ فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ عَلَى جِهَتَيْنِ تَقُولُ لَسْتُ أُبَالِي أَنْ تَأْثَمَ مِنْ غَيْرِ أَنْ آمُرَكَ فَمَا تَأْمُرُنِي أَفْعَلُ ذَلِكَ بِأَمْرِكَ فَقَالَ لِي قَدْ كَانَ رَسُولُ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) تَزَوَّجَ وَقَدْ كَانَ مِنْ أَمْرِ امْرَأَةِ نُوحٍ وَامْرَأَةِ لُوطٍ مَا قَدْ كَانَ إِنَّهُمَا قَدْ كَانَتَا تَحْتَ عَبْدَيْنِ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا صَالِحَيْنِ فَقُلْتُ إِنَّ رَسُولَ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) لَيْسَ فِي ذَلِكَ بِمَنْزِلَتِي إِنَّمَا هِيَ تَحْتَ يَدِهِ وَهِيَ مُقِرَّةٌ بِحُكْمِهِ مُقِرَّةٌ بِدِينِهِ قَالَ فَقَالَ لِي مَا تَرَى مِنَ الْخِيَانَةِ فِي قَوْلِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَخانَتاهُما مَا يَعْنِي بِذَلِكَ إِلا الْفَاحِشَةَ وَقَدْ زَوَّجَ رَسُولُ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) فُلاناً قَالَ قُلْتُ أَصْلَحَكَ الله مَا تَأْمُرُنِي أَنْطَلِقُ فَأَتَزَوَّجُ بِأَمْرِكَ فَقَالَ لِي إِنْ كُنْتَ فَاعِلاً فَعَلَيْكَ بِالْبَلْهَاءِ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ قُلْتُ وَمَا الْبَلْهَاءُ قَالَ ذَوَاتُ الْخُدُورِ الْعَفَائِفُ فَقُلْتُ مَنْ هِيَ عَلَى دِينِ سَالِمِ بْنِ أَبِي حَفْصَةَ قَالَ لا فَقُلْتُ مَنْ هِيَ عَلَى دِينِ رَبِيعَةِ الرَّأْيِ فَقَالَ لا وَلَكِنَّ الْعَوَاتِقَ اللَّوَاتِي لا يَنْصِبْنَ كُفْراً وَلا يَعْرِفْنَ مَا تَعْرِفُونَ قُلْتُ وَهَلْ تَعْدُو أَنْ تَكُونَ مُؤْمِنَةً أَوْ كَافِرَةً فَقَالَ تَصُومُ وَتُصَلِّي وَتَتَّقِي الله وَلا تَدْرِي مَا أَمْرُكُمْ فَقُلْتُ قَدْ قَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ فَمِنْكُمْ كافِرٌ وَمِنْكُمْ مُؤْمِنٌ لا وَالله لا يَكُونُ أَحَدٌ مِنَ النَّاسِ لَيْسَ بِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلا كَافِرٍ قَالَ فَقَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَوْلُ الله أَصْدَقُ مِنْ قَوْلِكَ يَا زُرَارَةُ أَ رَأَيْتَ قَوْلَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ خَلَطُوا عَمَلاً صالِحاً وَآخَرَ سَيِّئاً عَسَى الله أَنْ يَتُوبَ عَلَيْهِمْ فَلَمَّا قَالَ عَسَى فَقُلْتُ مَا هُمْ إِلا مُؤْمِنِينَ أَوْ كَافِرِينَ قَالَ فَقَالَ مَا تَقُولُ فِي قَوْلِهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلا الْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ مِنَ الرِّجالِ وَالنِّساءِ وَالْوِلْدانِ لا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ حِيلَةً وَلا يَهْتَدُونَ سَبِيلاً إِلَى الإيمَانِ فَقُلْتُ مَا هُمْ إِلا مُؤْمِنِينَ أَوْ كَافِرِينَ فَقَالَ وَالله مَا هُمْ بِمُؤْمِنِينَ وَلا كَافِرِينَ ثُمَّ أَقْبَلَ عَلَيَّ فَقَالَ مَا تَقُولُ فِي أَصْحَابِ الأعْرَافِ فَقُلْتُ مَا هُمْ إِلا مُؤْمِنِينَ أَوْ كَافِرِينَ إِنْ دَخَلُوا الْجَنَّةَ فَهُمْ مُؤْمِنُونَ وَإِنْ دَخَلُوا النَّارَ فَهُمْ كَافِرُونَ فَقَالَ وَالله مَا هُمْ بِمُؤْمِنِينَ وَلا كَافِرِينَ وَلَوْ كَانُوا مُؤْمِنِينَ لَدَخَلُوا الْجَنَّةَ كَمَا دَخَلَهَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَلَوْ كَانُوا كَافِرِينَ لَدَخَلُوا النَّارَ كَمَا دَخَلَهَا الْكَافِرُونَ وَلَكِنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ قَدِ اسْتَوَتْ حَسَنَاتُهُمْ وَسَيِّئَاتُهُمْ فَقَصُرَتْ بِهِمُ الأعْمَالُ وَأَنَّهُمْ لَكَمَا قَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَقُلْتُ أَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ هُمْ أَمْ مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ فَقَالَ اتْرُكْهُمْ حَيْثُ تَرَكَهُمُ الله قُلْتُ أَ فَتُرْجِئُهُمْ قَالَ نَعَمْ أُرْجِئُهُمْ كَمَا أَرْجَأَهُمُ الله إِنْ شَاءَ أَدْخَلَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ بِرَحْمَتِهِ وَإِنْ شَاءَ سَاقَهُمْ إِلَى النَّارِ بِذُنُوبِهِمْ وَلَمْ يَظْلِمْهُمْ فَقُلْتُ هَلْ يَدْخُلُ الْجَنَّةَ كَافِرٌ قَالَ لا قُلْتُ فَهَلْ يَدْخُلُ النَّارَ إِلا كَافِرٌ قَالَ فَقَالَ لا إِلا أَنْ يَشَاءَ الله يَا زُرَارَةُ إِنَّنِي أَقُولُ مَا شَاءَ الله وَأَنْتَ لا تَقُولُ مَا شَاءَ الله أَمَا إِنَّكَ إِنْ كَبِرْتَ رَجَعْتَ وَتحَلَّلَتْ عَنْكَ عُقَدُكَ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus from a man from Zurara who has said the following: “Once I asked abu Ja’far (a.s.) ‘What do you say about marriage of the people. I have reached this age as you can see and I am not married yet.’ The Imam asked, ‘What prevents you from becoming married?’ I said, ‘What prevents me is fear that it may not be lawful to marry from them. What is your instruction?’ The Imam asked, ‘How can you live and you are young, can you exercise patience?’ I said, ‘I can buy slaves.’ The Imam asked, ‘Here you are, how, can slaves be lawful?’ I said, ‘A slave is not like a free person. If something may make me suspicious I can sell her and stay away from her.’ The Imam said, ‘Tell me how you make her lawful.’ I (the narrator) had no answers. “1 then asked him, ‘What do you say if I married?’ The Imam said, ‘I do not mind if you marry.’ I said, ‘Consider your words, ‘I do not mind if you did,’ it has two aspects: I do not mind if you sinned without my command. What is your command? Should I do it by your command?’ The Imam said, ‘The Messenger of Allah had married. There are the cases of the wives of Noah and Lot as they were in wedlock with two virtuous servants (of Allah).’ I said, ‘The Messenger of Allah is not of the same position as I. She was under his control and acknowledged his judgment and his religion. ’ The Imam asked, ‘What do you think of unfaithfulness in the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, ‘They both were unfaithful to the two of them.’ (66:9) He does not mean thereby anything other than indecent acts. The Messenger of Allah had married so and so.’ “I then said, ‘May Allah keep you well, what do you command me? Should I go and marry by your command?’ The Imam said to me, ‘Were you to marry, you should marry al-BuIaha’ of women.’ I asked, ‘Who are al-Bulaha’ of women?’ The Imam said, ‘Those who observe Hijab and are chaste.’ I asked, ‘How is she who is in the religion of Salim ibn abu Hafsah?’ The Imam said, ‘No.’ I said, ‘How is she that is in the religion of Rabi’ah al-Ra’i?’ The Imam said, ‘No, but marry those who are under the guardianship of their fathers, who are not unbelievers and do not know what you believe in.’ I asked, ‘Is it not the case that she is either a believer or an unbeliever?’ The Imam said, ‘One who fasts, performs prayer, is pious before Allah and does not know what is your cause.’ I said, ‘Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has said, ‘It is He Who has created you. Among you there are believer and unbelievers,’ (64:2) no, by Allah, there is no one in the people who is not a believer or an unbeliever.’ “The narrator has said that abu Ja’far (a.s.) then said, ‘The words of Allah are truer than your words, O Zurara. Have you not considered the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, ‘ . . . they have mixed virtuous deeds with sinful ones. Perhaps Allah will forgive them. Allah is All-forgiving and All-merciful.’ (9:102) Why has Allah said, “perhaps”?’ I said, ‘They are either believing people or unbelievers.’ “The narrator has said that the Imam then asked, ‘What do you think of the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, ‘As for the really weak and oppressed men, women, and children who were not able to find any means of obtaining their freedom or of having the right guidance, . . . ’ (4:98) guidance to belief?’ I said, ‘They are either believers or unbelievers. ’ The Imam said, ‘By Allah they are not believing people nor unbelievers.’ Then the Imam turned to me and asked, ‘What do you think of the people of ‘A’raf?’ I said, ‘They are none other than either believers or unbelievers. If they enter paradise they are believers and if they go in the fire, they are unbelievers.’ The Imam said, ‘By Allah, they are not believers nor are they unbelievers. Were they believers they would have entered paradise like the other believing people. Were they unbelievers they would have gone in the fire like the other unbelievers. In fact, they are people whose good and bad deeds were equal. They had shortages of deeds. They will be as Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has said.’ I asked, ‘Are they of the people of paradise or of the people of the fire?’ The Imam said, ‘Leave them alone as Allah has done.’ I asked, ‘Do you leave their affairs in postponement?’ The Imam said, ‘Yes, I do as Allah has done. If Allah wills He will send them to paradise through his favor, and if He wills He will drive them to the fire for their sins without being unjust to them.’ I said, ‘Will unbelievers go to paradise?’ The Imam said, ‘No.’ I asked, ‘Will anyone other than unbelievers go in the fire?’ “The narrator has said that the Imam said, ‘No, except what Allah will wish. O Zurara, I say, ‘What Allah wills and you do not say what Allah wills. When you will grow up you will turn around and your knots ease up (on your opponents).”’ Note: The above Hadith is very critical of the attitude of Zurara, according to commentators. In his defense, due to his prominent position in view of the scholars, it is said that either at that time he was very young or later he matured. He believed those who did not, would not and could not believe in the Divine Authority of ‘A ’immah could never go to paradise. Also, it is said that perhaps the whole Hadith due to weakness in the chain of narrators is not reliable. Zurara seems unable to find any room in his heart for those who did not respect Ahl al- Bayt (a.s.) properly.


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/192)