168. Description of Hypocrisy and Hypocrites

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1ـ قَالَ وَالنِّفَاقُ عَلَى أَرْبَعِ دَعَائِمَ عَلَى الْهَوَى وَالْهُوَيْنَا وَالْحَفِيظَةِ وَالطَّمَعِ فَالْهَوَى عَلَى أَرْبَعِ شُعَبٍ عَلَى الْبَغْيِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَالشَّهْوَةِ وَالطُّغْيَانِ فَمَنْ بَغَى كَثُرَتْ غَوَائِلُهُ وَتُخُلِّيَ مِنْهُ وَقُصِرَ عَلَيْهِ وَمَنِ اعْتَدَى لَمْ يُؤْمَنْ بَوَائِقُهُ وَلَمْ يَسْلَمْ قَلْبُهُ وَلَمْ يَمْلِكْ نَفْسَهُ عَنِ الشَّهَوَاتِ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَعْذِلْ نَفْسَهُ فِي الشَّهَوَاتِ خَاضَ فِي الْخَبِيثَاتِ وَمَنْ طَغَى ضَلَّ عَلَى عَمْدٍ بِلا حُجَّةٍ وَالْهُوَيْنَا عَلَى أَرْبَعِ شُعَبٍ عَلَى الْغِرَّةِ وَالأمَلِ وَالْهَيْبَةِ وَالْمُمَاطَلَةِ وَذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ الْهَيْبَةَ تَرُدُّ عَنِ الْحَقِّ وَالْمُمَاطَلَةَ تُفَرِّطُ فِي الْعَمَلِ حَتَّى يَقْدَمَ عَلَيْهِ الأجَلُ وَلَوْ لا الأمَلُ عَلِمَ الإنْسَانُ حَسَبَ مَا هُوَ فِيهِ وَلَوْ عَلِمَ حَسَبَ مَا هُوَ فِيهِ مَاتَ خُفَاتاً مِنَ الْهَوْلِ وَالْوَجَلِ وَالْغِرَّةَ تَقْصُرُ بِالْمَرْءِ عَنِ الْعَمَلِ وَالْحَفِيظَةُ عَلَى أَرْبَعِ شُعَبٍ عَلَى الْكِبْرِ وَالْفَخْرِ وَالْحَمِيَّةِ وَالْعَصَبِيَّةِ فَمَنِ اسْتَكْبَرَ أَدْبَرَ عَنِ الْحَقِّ وَمَنْ فَخَرَ فَجَرَ وَمَنْ حَمِيَ أَصَرَّ عَلَى الذُّنُوبِ وَمَنْ أَخَذَتْهُ الْعَصَبِيَّةُ جَارَ فَبِئْسَ الأمْرُ أَمْرٌ بَيْنَ إِدْبَارٍ وَفُجُورٍ وَإِصْرَارٍ وَجَوْرٍ عَلَى الصِّرَاطِ وَالطَّمَعُ عَلَى أَرْبَعِ شُعَبٍ الْفَرَحِ وَالْمَرَحِ وَاللَّجَاجَةِ وَالتَّكَاثُرِ فَالْفَرَحُ مَكْرُوهٌ عِنْدَ الله وَالْمَرَحُ خُيَلاءُ وَاللَّجَاجَةُ بَلاءٌ لِمَنِ اضْطَرَّتْهُ إِلَى حَمْلِ الآثَامِ وَالتَّكَاثُرُ لَهْوٌ وَلَعِبٌ وَشُغُلٌ وَاسْتِبْدَالُ الَّذِي هُوَ أَدْنَى بِالَّذِي هُوَ خَيْرٌ فَذَلِكَ النِّفَاقُ وَدَعَائِمُهُ وَشُعَبُهُ وَالله قَاهِرٌ فَوْقَ عِبَادِهِ تَعَالَى ذِكْرُهُ وَجَلَّ وَجْهُهُ وَأَحْسَنَ كُلَّ شَيْ‏ءٍ خَلَقَهُ وَانْبَسَطَتْ يَدَاهُ وَوَسِعَتْ كُلَّ شَيْ‏ءٍ رَحْمَتُهُ وَظَهَرَ أَمْرُهُ وَأَشْرَقَ نُورُهُ وَفَاضَتْ بَرَكَتُهُ وَاسْتَضَاءَتْ حِكْمَتُهُ وَهَيْمَنَ كِتَابُهُ وَفَلَجَتْ حُجَّتُهُ وَخَلَصَ دِينُهُ وَاسْتَظْهَرَ سُلْطَانُهُ وَحَقَّتْ كَلِمَتُهُ وَأَقْسَطَتْ مَوَازِينُهُ وَبَلَّغَتْ رُسُلُهُ فَجَعَلَ السَّيِّئَةَ ذَنْباً وَالذَّنْبَ فِتْنَةً وَالْفِتْنَةَ دَنَساً وَجَعَلَ الْحُسْنَى عُتْبَى وَالْعُتْبَى تَوْبَةً وَالتَّوْبَةَ طَهُوراً فَمَنْ تَابَ اهْتَدَى وَمَنِ افْتُتِنَ غَوَى مَا لَمْ يَتُبْ إِلَى الله وَيَعْتَرِفْ بِذَنْبِهِ وَلا يَهْلِكُ عَلَى الله إِلا هَالِكٌ الله الله فَمَا أَوْسَعَ مَا لَدَيْهِ مِنَ التَّوْبَةِ وَالرَّحْمَةِ وَالْبُشْرَى وَالْحِلْمِ الْعَظِيمِ وَمَا أَنْكَلَ مَا عِنْدَهُ مِنَ الأنْكَالِ وَالْجَحِيمِ وَالْبَطْشِ الشَّدِيدِ فَمَنْ ظَفِرَ بِطَاعَتِهِ اجْتَلَبَ كَرَامَتَهُ وَمَنْ دَخَلَ فِي مَعْصِيَتِهِ ذَاقَ وَبَالَ نَقِمَتِهِ وَعَمَّا قَلِيلٍ لَيُصْبِحُنَّ نَادِمِينَ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from Ibrahim ibn ‘Umar al-Yamani from ‘Umar ibn ‘Udhaynah from Aban ibn abu ‘Ayyash from Sulaym ibn Qays al-Hilali from Amir al-Mu’minin, Ali ibn abu Talib (a.s.) who has said the following:“‘Hypocrisy has four pillars: Desire, Neglect, Resentment and Greed. “Desire is of four branches: disproportionate behavior, transgression, lust and insubordination. Whoever behaves disproportionately faces great risks, remains lonely and without supporters. Whoever transgresses does not remain immune to harmful consequences, his heart is not in peace and he does not control his soul against lustful matters. Whoever has not balanced his soul in lustful matters he indulges in filthy activities. Whoever acts insubordinately purposely and without evidence strays in falsehood. “Neglect is of four branches: dishonesty, yearning, fear and procrastination. Fear and apprehension turns one away from the truth and procrastination leads to extremely reduced activities until the deadline approaches. If one does not have any yearnings he knows his true condition and measures. If he knows the true measure of his condition in which he is, he would die suddenly due to fear and apprehension. Dishonesty cuts short one’s deeds. “Resentment is of four branches: arrogance, boastfulness, egoistic, and racism. Whoever is arrogant turns his back to the truth. Whoever is boastful indulges in sins. Whoever is egoistic persists in sins. Whoever comes in the clench of racism commits injustice. “Thus, evil is the affair that swings in deterioration, indecency, persistence and injustice on the path. “Greed is of four branches: exhilaration, pleasure seeking, worrying and superfluity. Exhilaration is detestable before Allah. Pleasure seeking is feeblemindedness. Worrisome is a misfortune for one who is forced to carry sins. Seeking superfluity is useless, a childish manner, a vastful preoccupation and an effort to change what is of a lower quality to a better one. “This is how hypocrisy its pillars and branches are. Allah is dominant over his servants. Speaking of Him is exalted and glory is His. He has created all things in good fashion. His hands are free, His favor is universal. His command is manifest, His light shines, His blessing overflows. His wisdom is the source of light. His book is overriding. His evidence is overwhelming. His religion is pure. His kingdom is powerful. His word is the truth, His measures are just and His messengers have already preached. Thus, He has made evil a sin, sin a misfortune and misfortune a filth. “He has made virtuous deeds a threshold. The threshold is repentance and repentance is purification. One who repents finds guidance. One who plots goes astray, as long as he does not repent before Allah and confess to his sins. No one dares to act, to his own destruction, against Allah, except those who are doomed. “Allah! Allah! How vast is what He has for repentance, favors, joy and great forbearance. How severe is what is before Him of retribution, hell, and a hard grip! Whoever succeeds in obedience to Him attracts His generosity. Whoever indulges in disobedience to Him he will test the results of His disapproval and very shortly he will become regretful.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مختلف فيه - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (11/155)



2ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مَهْزِيَارَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْحَمِيدِ وَالْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ جَمِيعاً عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْفُضَيْلِ قَالَ كَتَبْتُ إِلَى أَبِي الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) أَسْأَلُهُ عَنْ مَسْأَلَةٍ فَكَتَبَ إِلَيَّ إِنَّ الْمُنافِقِينَ يُخادِعُونَ الله وَهُوَ خادِعُهُمْ وَإِذا قامُوا إِلَى الصَّلاةِ قامُوا كُسالى‏ يُراؤُنَ النَّاسَ وَلا يَذْكُرُونَ الله إِلا قَلِيلاً مُذَبْذَبِينَ بَيْنَ ذلِكَ لا إِلى‏ هؤُلاءِ وَلا إِلى‏ هؤُلاءِ وَمَنْ يُضْلِلِ الله فَلَنْ تَجِدَ لَهُ سَبِيلاً لَيْسُوا مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ وَلَيْسُوا مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَلَيْسُوا مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ يُظْهِرُونَ الإيمَانَ وَيَصِيرُونَ إِلَى الْكُفْرِ وَالتَّكْذِيبِ لَعَنَهُمُ الله.


2. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from al-Husayn ibn Ishaq from Ali ibn Mahziyar from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Hamid and al-Husayn ibn Sa’id all from Muhammad ibn al-Fudayl who has said the following: “Once I wrote to abu al-Hassan (a.s.) asking him a question and he wrote back to me, ‘The hypocrites try to deceive Allah, but He, in fact, deceives them. They stand up in prayer lazily just to show that they pray, but, in truth, they remember Allah very little. (4:142) “They are hesitant people belonging to neither side. You can find no other way for one whom Allah has caused to go astray.’ (4: 143) They are not of the unbelievers, or of the believers or of the Muslims. They claim to be of belief. They change to disbelief and denial. May Allah condemn them all.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/170)



3ـ الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ جُمْهُورٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ الأصَمِّ عَنِ الْهَيْثَمِ بْنِ وَاقِدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سُلَيْمَانَ عَنِ ابْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنْ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) قَالَ قَالَ إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقَ يَنْهَى وَلا يَنْتَهِي وَيَأْمُرُ بِمَا لا يَأْتِي وَإِذَا قَامَ إِلَى الصَّلاةِ اعْتَرَضَ قُلْتُ يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ الله وَمَا الإعْتِرَاضُ قَالَ الإلْتِفَاتُ وَإِذَا رَكَعَ رَبَضَ يُمْسِي وَهَمُّهُ الْعَشَاءُ وَهُوَ مُفْطِرٌ وَيُصْبِحُ وَهَمُّهُ النَّوْمُ وَلَمْ يَسْهَرْ إِنْ حَدَّثَكَ كَذَبَكَ وَإِنِ ائْتَمَنْتَهُ خَانَكَ وَإِنْ غِبْتَ اغْتَابَكَ وَإِنْ وَعَدَكَ أَخْلَفَكَ.


3. Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Muhammad ibn Jumhur from ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman al-‘Assam from al-Haytham ibn Waqid from Muhammad ibn Sulayman from ibn Muskan from abu Hamza from Ali ibn al- Husayn (a.s.) who has said the following: “Ali ibn al-Husayn (a.s.) has said, ‘A hypocrite forbids others, but himself does not desist from prohibited matters and commands others with what he himself does not perform. When prayer is to begin he (7 ’tarazd) avoids it.’ I (the narrator) then asked, ‘O descendent of the messenger of Allah, “What is ‘I’tirazT’ The Imam said, ‘It is turning away. When he is in the Ruku’ position (kneeling) he uses it as resting place. Toward the evening his only concern is dinner, even though he is not fasting. Toward morning his only concern is more sleep, even though he has not passed the night awake worshipping. If he speaks to you, he lies. If you trust him, he breaches it. Behind your back, he backbites you and if he promises you, he disregards his promise.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (11/171)



4ـ عَنْهُ عَنِ ابْنِ جُمْهُورٍ عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ سَمَاعَةَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ بْنِ بَحْرٍ رَفَعَهُ مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ وَزَادَ فِيهِ إِذَا رَكَعَ رَبَضَ وَإِذَا سَجَدَ نَقَرَ وَإِذَا جَلَسَ شَغَرَ.


4. It is narrated from him (narrator of the Hadith above) from ibn Jumhur from Sulayman ibn Sama’a from ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Bahr in a marfu’ manner a similar Hadith with the following addition: “In, Ruku’ position he rests and in Sajdah (the prostration) he acts like a crow picking up grains very fast, and sits on his heels.”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (11/172)



5ـ أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الأشْعَرِيُّ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الْكُوفِيِّ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ يَسَارٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) مَثَلُ الْمُنَافِقِ مَثَلُ جِذْعِ النَّخْلِ أَرَادَ صَاحِبُهُ أَنْ يَنْتَفِعَ بِهِ فِي بَعْضِ بِنَائِهِ فَلَمْ يَسْتَقِمْ لَهُ فِي الْمَوْضِعِ الَّذِي أَرَادَ فَحَوَّلَهُ فِي مَوْضِعٍ آخَرَ فَلَمْ يَسْتَقِمْ لَهُ فَكَانَ آخِرُ ذَلِكَ أَنْ أَحْرَقَهُ بِالنَّارِ.


5. Abu Ali al-Ash’ari has narrated from al-Hassan ibn Ali al-Kufi from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from Sa’id ibn Yasar from abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) who has said the following: “The Messenger of Allah has said, ‘The case of a hypocrite is like the trunk of a palm tree. His owner wants to use it in a construction but it does not fit where he wants it to fit. He then tries it in another place and it still does not fit. At last he burns it in the fire.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (11/172)



6ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ شَمُّونٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ عَنْ مِسْمَعِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) مَا زَادَ خُشُوعُ الْجَسَدِ عَلَى مَا فِي الْقَلْبِ فَهُوَ عِنْدَنَا نِفَاقٌ.


6. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Muhammad ibn al-Hassan ibn Shammun from ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman from Misma’ ibn ‘Abd al-Malik from abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) who has said the following: “The Messenger of Allah has said, ‘If humility expressed physically is more than what is in the heart, in our view it is hypocrisy.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/173)