75. The sayings by which God tested Abraham (MGB)

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5-85 حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن موسى رضي الله عنه قال: حدثنا حمزة بن القاسم العلوي العباسي قال: حدثنا جعفر بن محمد بن مالك الكوفي الفزاري قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسين بن زيد الزيات قال: حدثنا محمد بن زياد الازدي، عن المفضل ابن عمر، عن الصادق جعفر بن محمد عليهما السلام قال: سألته عن قول الله عز وجل: "وَإِذْ ابْتَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ رَبُّهُ بِكَلِمَاتٍ" ما هذه الكلمات؟قال: هي الكلمات التي تلقاها آدم من ربه فتاب عليه وهو أنه قال: يارب أسألك بحق محمد وعلي وفاطمة والحسن والحسين الا تبت علي، فتاب الله عليه إنه هو التواب الرحيمفقلت له: يا ابن رسول الله فما يعني عز وجل بقوله "فَأَتَمَّهُنَّ"؟قال: يعني فأتمهن إلى القائم عليه السلام اثني عشر إماما تسعة من ولد الحسينقال المفضل: فقلت له: يا ابن رسول الله فأخبرني عن قول الله عز وجل: "وَجَعَلَهَا كَلِمَةً بَاقِيَةً فِي عَقِبِهِ ."قال: يعني بذلك الامامة جعلها الله في عقب الحسين إلى يوم القيامةقال: فقلت له: يا ابن رسول الله فكيف صارت الامامة في ولد الحسين دون ولد الحسن عليهما السلام، وهما جميعا ولدا رسول صلى الله عليه وآله وسبطاه وسيدا شباب أهل الجنة؟فقال عليه السلام: إن موسى وهارون كانا نبيين مرسلين أخوين فجعل الله النبوة في صلب هارون دون صلب موسى، ولم يكن لاحد أن يقول: لم فعل الله ذلك، وإن الامامة خلافة [من] الله عز وجل ليس لاحد أن يقول: لم جعلها الله في صلب الحسين دون صلب الحسن، لان الله هو الحكيم في أفعاله، لا يسئل عما يفعل وهم يسألونولقول الله تبارك وتعالى "وَإِذِ ابْتَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ رَبُّهُ بِكَلِمَاتٍ فَأَتَمَّهُنَّ" وجه آخر وما ذكرناه أصله والابتلاء على ضربين أحدهما يستحيل على الله تعالى ذكره، والآخر جائز، فاما ما يستحيل فهو أن يختبره ليعلم ما تكشف الايام عنه، وهذا ما لا يصح له لانه عز وجل علام الغيوب، والضرب الآخر من الابتلاء أن يبتليه حتى يصبر فيما يبتليه به فيكون ما يعطيه من العطاء على سبيل الاستحقاق، ولينظر إليه الناظر فيقتدي به، فيعلم من حكمة الله عز وجل أنه لم يكل أسباب الامامة إلا إلى الكافي المستقل، الذي كشفت الايام عنه بخبره، فاما الكلمات فمنها ما ذكرناه، ومنها اليقين وذلك قول الله عز وجل: "وَكَذَلِكَ نُرِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ مَلَكُوتَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَلِيَكُونَ مِنْ الْمُوقِنِينَ" ومنها المعرفة بقدم باريه وتوحيده وتنزيهه عن التشبيه حين نظر إلى الكوكب، والقمر والشمس فاستدل بأفول كل واحد منها على حدثه وبحدثه على محدثه، ثم علمه عليه السلام بأن الحكم بالنجوم خطأ في قوله عز وجل: "فَنَظَرَ نَظْرَةً فِي النُّجُومِ فَقَالَ إِنِّي سَقِيمٌ" وإنما قيده الله سبحانه بالنظرة الواحدة لان النظرة الواحدة لا توجب الخطأ إلا بعد النظرة الثانية بدلالة قول النبي صلى الله عليه وآله لما قال لامير المؤمنين عليه السلام: "يا علي أول النظرة لك، والثانية عليك لا لك"، ومنها الشجاعة وقد كشفت الايام والاصنام عنه بدلالة قوله عز وجل: "إِذْ قَالَ ِلأَبِيهِ وَقَوْمِهِ مَا هَذِهِ التَّمَاثِيلُ الَّتِي أَنْتُمْ لَهَا عَاكِفُونَ, قَالُوا وَجَدْنَا آبَاءَنَا لَهَا عَابِدِينَ, قَالَ لَقَدْ كُنتُمْ أَنْتُمْ وَآبَاؤُكُمْ فِي ضَلاَلٍ مُبِينٍ, قَالُوا أَجِئْتَنَا بِالْحَقِّ أَمْ أَنْتَ مِنْ اللاَّعِبِينَ, قَالَ بَل رَبُّكُمْ رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ الَّذِي فَطَرَهُنَّ وَأَنَا عَلَى ذَلِكُمْ مِنْ الشَّاهِدِينَ, وَتَاللَّهِ لَأَكِيدَنَّ أَصْنَامَكُمْ بَعْدَ أَنْ تُوَلُّوا مُدْبِرِينَ، فَجَعَلَهُمْ جُذَاذًا إِلاَّ كَبِيرًا لَهُمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ إِلَيْهِ يَرْجِعُونَ ."ومقاومة الرجل الواحد ألوفا من أعداء الله عز وجل تمام الشجاعة، ثم الحلم مضمن معناه في قوله عز وجل: "إِنَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ لَحَلِيمٌ أَوَّاهٌ مُنِيبٌ" ثم السخاء وبيانه في حديث ضيف إبراهيم المكرمين، ثم العزلة عن أهل البيت والعشيرة مضمن معناه في قوله: "وَأَعْتَزِلُكُمْ وَمَا تَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَأَدْعُو رَبِّي عَسَى أَلاَّ أَكُونَ بِدُعَاءِ رَبِّي شَقِيًّا" والامر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر بيان ذلك في قوله عز وجل: "يَاأَبَتِ لِمَ تَعْبُدُ مَا لاَ يَسْمَعُ وَلاَ يُبْصِرُ وَلاَ يُغْنِي عَنْكَ شَيْئًا، يَاأَبَتِ إِنِّي قَدْ جَاءَنِي مِنْ الْعِلْمِ مَا لَمْ يَأْتِكَ فَاتَّبِعْنِي أَهْدِكَ صِرَاطًا سَوِيًّا، يَاأَبَتِ لاَ تَعْبُدْ الشَّيْطَانَ إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ كَانَ لِلرَّحْمَنِ عَصِيًّا، يَاأَبَتِ إِنِّي أَخَافُ أَنْ يَمَسَّكَ عَذَابٌ مِنْ الرَّحْمَنِ فَتَكُونَ لِلشَّيْطَانِ وَلِيًّا" ودفع السيئة بالحسنة، وذلك لما قال له أبوه: "اراغب أنت عن آلهتي ياإبراهيم لئن لم تنته لارجمنك واهجرني مليا" فقال في جواب أبيه "سَأَسْتَغْفِرُ لَكَ رَبِّي إِنَّهُ كَانَ بِي حَفِيًّا" والتوكل بيان ذلك في قوله: "الَّذِي خَلَقَنِي فَهُوَ يَهْدِينِ, وَالَّذِي هُوَ يُطْعِمُنِي وَيَسْقِينِ, وَإِذَا مَرِضْتُ فَهُوَ يَشْفِينِ, وَالَّذِي يُمِيتُنِي ثُمَّ يُحْيِينِ, وَالَّذِي أَطْمَعُ أَنْ يَغْفِرَ لِي خَطِيئَتِي يَوْمَ الدِّينِ "ثم الحكم والانتماء إلى الصالحين في قوله: "رب هب لي حكما وألحقني بالصالحين" يعني بالصالحين الذين لا يحكمون إلا بحكم الله عز وجل، ولا يحكمون بالآراء والمقائيس حتى يشهد له من يكون بعده من الحجج بالصدق بيان ذلك في قوله:"وَاجْعَلْ لِي لِسَانَ صِدْقٍ فِي الآخِرِينَ" أراد به هذه الامة الفاضلة فأجابه الله وجعل له ولغيره من أنبيائه لسان صدق في الآخرين، وهو علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام وذلك قوله عز وجل:"وَجَعَلْنَا لَهُمْ لِسَانَ صِدْقٍ عَلِيًّا ."والمحنة في النفس حين جعل في المنجنيق وقذف به في النار، ثم المحنة في الولد حين امر بذبح ابنه إسماعيل، ثم المحنة بالاهل حين خلص الله عز وجل حرمته من عزازة القبطي المذكور في هذه القصة، ثم الصبر على سوء خلق سارة، ثم استقصار النفس في الطاعة في قوله:"ولا تخزني يوم يبعثون" ثم النزاهة في قوله عز وجل: "مَا كَانَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ يَهُودِيًّا وَلاَ نَصْرَانِيًّا وَلَكِنْ كَانَ حَنِيفًا مُسْلِمًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ" ثم الجمع لاشراط الكلمات في قوله: قُلْ "إِنَّ صَلاَتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي للهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَبِذَلِكَ أُمِرْتُ وَأَنَا أَوَّلُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ." فقد جمع في قوله "مَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي للهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ" جميع أشراط الطاعات كلها حتى لا تعزب عنه عازبة ولا تغيب عن معانيها غائبة. ثم استجابة الله دعوته حين قال: "رَبِّ أَرِنِي كَيْفَ تُحْيِ الْمَوْتَى" وهذه آية متشابهة معناها أنه سأل عن الكيفية والكيفية من فعل الله عز وجل متى لم يعلمها العالم لم يلحقه عيب، ولا عرض في توحيده نقص، فقال الله عز وجل: "أَوَلَمْ تُؤْمِنْ؟ قَالَ بَلَى" هذا شرط عامة من آمن به متى سئل واحد منهم "أَوَلَمْ تُؤْمِنْ" وجب أن يقول: بلى، كما قال إبراهيم، ولما قال الله عز وجل لجميع أرواح بني آدم: "أَلَسْتُ بِرَبِّكُمْ قَالُوا بَلَى" قال: أول من قال بلى محمد صلى الله عليه وآله فصار بسبقه إلى "بلى" سيد الاولين والآخرين، وأفضل النبيين والمرسلين.فمن لم يجب عن هذه المسألة بجواب إبراهيم فقد رغب عن ملته، قال الله عز وجل: "وَمَنْ يَرْغَبُ عَنْ مِلَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِلاَّ مَنْ سَفِهَ نَفْسَهُ" ثم اصطفاء الله عزوجل إياه في الدنيا ثم شهادته له في العاقبة أنه من الصالحين في قوله عز وجـل :" وَلَقَدِ اصْطَفَيْنَاهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَإِنَّهُ فِي الآخِرَةِ لَمِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ." والصالحون هم النبي والائمة صلوات الله عليهم أجمعين الاخذون عن اله عز وجل أمره ونهية والملتمسون للصلاح من عنده والمجتنبون للرأي والقياس في دينه في قوله: "إِذْ قَالَ لَهُ رَبُّهُ أَسْلِمْ قَالَ أَسْلَمْتُ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ" ثم اقتداء من بعده من الانبياء عليهم السلام به في قوله عز وجل: "وَوَصَّى بِهَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بَنِيهِ وَيَعْقُوبُ يَا بَنِيَّ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفَى لَكُمْ الدِّينَ فَلاَ تَمُوتُنَّ إِلاَّ وَأَنْتُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ" وفي قوله عز وجل لنبيه صلى الله عليه وآله، "ثُمَّ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ أَنِ اتَّبِعْ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ" وفي قوله عز وجل: "مِلَّةَ أَبِيكُمْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ هُوَ سَمَّاكُمْ الْمُسْلِمينَ مِنْ قَبْلُ" وأشراط كلمات الامام مأخوذة مما تحتاج إليه الامة من جهته من مصالح الدنيا والآخرةوقول إبراهيم عليه السلام: "وَمِنْ ذُرِّيَّتِي" "من" حرف تبعيض ليعلم أن من الذرية من يستحق الامامة، ومنهم من لا يستحق الامامة، هذا من جملة المسلمين، وذلك أنه يستحيل أن يدعو إبراهيم بالامامة للكافر أو للمسلم الذي ليس بمعصوم، فصح أن باب التبعيض وقع على خواص المؤمنين والخواص إنما صاروا خواصا بالبعد عن الكفر، ثم من اجتنب الكبائر صار من جملة الخواص أخص، ثم المعصوم هو الخاص الاخص ولو كان للتخصيص صورة أربى عليه لجعل ذلك من أوصاف الامامقد سمى الله عز وجل عيسى من ذرية إبراهيم وكان ابن ابنته من بعده، ولما صح أن ابن البنت ذرية ودعا إبراهيم لذريته بالامامة وجب على محمد صلى الله عليه وآله الاقتداء به في وضع الامامة في المعصومين من ذريته حذو النعل بالنعل بعد ما أوحى الله عز وجل إليه وحكم عليه بقوله "ثُمَّ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ أَنِ اتَّبِعْ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ" ولو خالف ذلك لكان داخـلا في قـولـه عـزوجل: "وَمَنْ يَرْغَبُ عَنْ مِلَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِلاَّ مَنْ سَفِهَ نَفْسَهُ" جل نبي الله عن ذلكوقال الله عز وجل: "إِنَّ أَوْلَى النَّاسِ بِإِبْرَاهِيمَ لَلَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُ وَهَذَا النَّبِيُّ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا" وأمير المؤمنين عليه السلام أبوذرية النبي صلى الله عليه وآله ووضع لامامية فيه وضعها في ذريته المعصومينوقوله عز وجل: "لاَ يَنَالُ عَهْدِي الظَّالِمِينَ" عني به أن الامامة لا تصلح لمن قد عبد صنما أو وثنا أو أشرك بالله طرفة عين وإن أسلم بعد ذلك والظلم وضع الشئ في غير موضعهوأعظم الظلم الشرك قال الله عز وجل: "إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ" وكذلك لا تصلح الامامة لمن قد ارتكب من المحارم شيئا صغيرا كان أو كبيرا وإن تاب منه بعد ذلك، وكذلك لا يقم الحد من في جنبه حد فاذا لا يكون الامام إلا معصوما ولا تعلم عصمته إلا بنص الله عز وجل عليه على لسان نبيه صلى الله عليه وآله لان العصمة ليست في ظاهر الخلقة فترى كالسواد والبياض وما أشبه ذلك وهي مغيبة لا تعرف إلا بتعريف علام الغيوب عز وجل


5-85 Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Musa - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Hamzih ibn al-Qasim al-Alavi al-Ab’basi quoted Ja’far ibn Malik al-Kufy al-Fazari, on the authority of Muhammad ibn al-Hussein ibn Zyad al-Zyat, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Zyad al-Azodi, on the authority of Al-Mufaz’zal ibn Umar, “I asked Ja’far ibn Muhammad as-Sadiq (MGB), ‘What is meant by Abraham was tried by God in the following words of the Honorable the Exalted God, And remember that Abraham was tried by his Lord with certain commands,… ’”The Imam (MGB) replied, ‘This refers to the sayings which God heard from Adam and accepted Adam’s (MGB) repentance. Adam beseeched to God by Muhammad (MGB), Ali (MGB), Fatimah (MGB), Hassan (MGB) and Hussein (MGB) to accept his (MGB) repentance and God accepted it as He is the One who accepts repentance and is the Merciful.’I asked the Imam (MGB), ‘O (grand)son of the Prophet of God! What is God’s intention in saying, ‘…He fulfilled…’ The Imam (MGB) replied, ‘This implies that God completed the names of the Imams up until the twelfth Imam nine of whom are from the progeny of Al-Hussein (MGB).’I asked the Imam (MGB), ‘O (grand)son of the Prophet of God! Please inform me about the meaning of the following words of the Honorable the Exalted God, ‘And he left it as a Word to endure among those who came after him,…’The Imam (MGB) said, ‘This implies that God established Divine Leadership in the progeny of Al-Hussein (MGB) up until the Resurrection Day.’I asked the Imam (MGB), ‘O (grand)son of the Prophet of God! Please tell me why was the Divine Leadership established in the progeny of Al-Hussein (MGB), but not in the progeny of Al-Hassan (MGB) who was the older son even though both of them were the grandsons of God’s Prophet (MGB) and were both considered to be the Masters of the Youth in Paradise?’The Imam (MGB) said, ‘Moses (MGB) and Aaron (MGB) were both appointed Prophets and were also brothers. God established the Prophethood in the progeny of Aaron (MGB), but not the progeny of Moses (MGB). No one can question why God did that. Divine Leadership is also a form of Caliphate from the Honorable the Exalted God. No one can say why God placed it in the progeny of Al-Hussein (MGB), but not in the progeny of Al-Hassan (MGB). Indeed God is Wise in what He does. He cannot be questioned regarding what He does, while the people will be questioned regarding what they do.’There is another interpretation of the following sayings of the Blessed the Sublime God, ‘And remember that Abraham was tried by his Lord with certain commands, which he fulfilled…’ What was said above is the main interpretation. There are two forms of trials. One is befitting for the Sublime God, but the other one is not. What is not befitting for God is to say that God tries something to find out the results which He knows not. That is to discover through practical experimentation. This is inapplicable to God since He is the All-Knower of everything that is hidden. What can be said about God is for Him to try a servant, so that he may persevere at times of hardship and become worthy of a rank. It also serves as a means of teaching for others, so that they may look at him and follow him. And they may know that the Honorable the Exalted God would not grant the position of Divine Leadership unless out of His Wisdom and would only bestow it upon one who deserves that rank. His worthiness of that rank shall be discovered later. This was one interpretation of God’s words. Another interpretation of these words could be in reference to certitude as the Honorable the Exalted God says, ‘So also did We show Abraham the power and the laws of the heavens and the Earth, that he might (with understanding) have certitude.’And another interpretation of these words could be in reference to God’s recognition - to know that God is Pure, One, and without any similitude as Abraham looked at the stars and the sun and discovered that they are all created since they set. Then God taught him that the decrees of the astrologers is wrong as the Honorable the Exalted God says, “Then did he cast a glance at the Stars. And he said, "I am indeed sick (at heart)!” God expressed his one glance since the first glance is not considered wrong. Rather, it is the second glance that would constitute an error as the Prophet (MGB) told Ali (MGB), ‘O Ali (MGB)! The first glance is yours, but the second glance opposes you.’And another interpretation could be bravery that is clear by what happened to the idols as the Honorable the Exalted God says, “Behold! he said to his father and his people, ‘What are these images, to which ye are (so assiduously) devoted?’ They said, ‘We found our fathers worshipping them.’ He said, ‘Indeed ye have been in manifest error ye and your fathers.’ They said, ‘Have you brought us the Truth, or are you one of those who jest?’ He said, ‘Nay, your Lord is the Lord of the heavens and the Earth, He Who created them (from nothing): and I am a witness to this (Truth). And by God, I have a plan for your idols after ye go away and turn your backs’...So he broke them into pieces, (all) but the biggest of them, that they might turn (and address themselves) to it.”Standing single-handed against a lot of the enemies of the Honorable the Exalted God by Abraham is a sign of his utmost bravery.Then it refers to his forbearance which is implied in what the Honorable the Exalted God says, ‘For Abraham was, without doubt, forbearing (of faults), compassionate, and given to look to God.’Then it refers to his generosity which can be seen from the stories regarding the noble guests of Abraham (as we can see from the following, ‘Has the story reached thee, of the honored guests of Abraham?)’Then it refers to his isolation from the members of his family and clan as we can conclude from the following, ‘And I will turn away from you (all) and from those whom ye invoke besides God: I will call on my Lord: perhaps, by my prayer to my Lord, I shall be not unblest.’ And enjoining to do good and admonishing against evil as we understand from the following words of the Honorable the Exalted God, “…‘O my father! why worship that which heareth not and seeth not, and can profit thee nothing? O my father! to me hath come knowledge which hath not reached thee: so follow me: I will guide thee to a way that is even and straight. O my father! serve not Satan: for Satan is a rebel against (God) Most Gracious. O my father! I fear lest a Penalty afflict thee from (God) Most Gracious, so that thou become to Satan a friend.”And responding to wickedness with goodness as we read in his response to his father after the father said, “(The father) replied, ‘Art thou shrinking from my gods, O Abraham? If thou forbear not, I will indeed stone thee. Now get away from me for a good long while!’" Abraham (MGB) replied, ‘…I will pray to my Lord for thy forgiveness: for He is to me Most Gracious….’And it also refers to his reliance as we read, ‘Who created me, and it is He Who guides me; Who gives me food and drink; And when I am ill, it is He Who cures me; Who will cause me to die, and then to life (again); And who, I hope, will forgive me my faults on the Day of Judgment.’Then it also refers to wisdom and requesting to be of the righteous ones as we read, ‘O my Lord! Bestow wisdom on me, and join me with the righteous;’ This refers to the righteous ones who only judge based on the Honorable the Exalted God’s decrees and not their own personal opinion or innovations. This was so that the Proofs of God that will come later on testify to his sincerity as we understand from his words, ‘Grant me honorable mention on the tongue of truth among the latest (generations);’Here he was referring to this noble nation. God accepted his prayer and established a representative for him and the rest of the Prophets and granted him an ‘honorable mention on the tongue of truth among the latest (generations);’ which refers to Ali ibn Abi Talib (MGB) as the Honorable the Exalted God says, ‘And We granted them lofty honor on the tongue of truth.’Then it refers to a trial in his life when he was put in a catapult and thrown into the fire. Then it refers to a trial in his son when he was ordered to offer his son Ishmael. Then it refers to his trial through his family when the Honorable the Exalted God freed his wife from the hands of Azarat al-Qabti mentioned in history. Then it refers to his patience with the bad-temperedness of (his wife) Sarah. Then it refers to him underestimating his own degree of obedience as we read, ‘And let me not be in disgrace on the Day when (men) will be raised up;’Then it refers to his true faith as the Honorable the Exalted God says, ‘Abraham was not a Jew nor yet a Christian; but he was true in Faith, and bowed his will to God’s (Which is Islam), and he joined not gods with God.’Then it refers to the complete obedience in his words as we read, "Truly, my prayer and my service of sacrifice, my life and my death, are (all) for God - the Cherisher of the Worlds: No partner hath He: this am I commanded, and I am the first of those who bow to His will.” All the conditions of obedience are integrated into his words, ‘my life and my death, are (all) for God - the Cherisher of the Worlds.’ He has not missed the least bit and has not covered up any minute points.Then it refers to the fact that God fulfilled his supplications when he said, ‘My Lord! Show me how Thou givest life to the dead…’ This could have two different meanings. One could think that he was asking God to show him how the Honorable the Exalted God gives life to the dead. It is not wrong for one who doesn’t know something to ask about it. It would not imply that his belief in monotheism is questionable. Then the Honorable the Exalted God asked him, ‘Dost thou not then believe? He said, ’Yea!...’ This is required of anyone to answer if asked ‘Dost thou not then believe?’ as Abraham (MGB) did. This is as the Honorable the Exalted God asked all the spirits from the progeny of Adam (MGB) ‘Am I not your Lord (who cherishes and sustains you)?’ They said, ‘Yea!…’ The first one to answer in the positive was Muhammad (MGB) being a pioneer in that. He (MGB) became the Master of those of the earlier times and those of the later times. He (MGB) became the noblest of the Prophets and the Messengers. Whoever doesn’t mention this response of Abraham (MGB) has indeed turned away from the religion of Abraham as the Honorable the Exalted God says, ‘And who turns away from the religion of Abraham but such as debase their souls with folly? …’Then the Honorable the Exalted God appointed Abraham (MGB) in this world and he (MGB) shall be from the good ones in the Hereafter as the Honorable the Exalted God says in the rest of that same verse, ‘…Him Wechose and rendered pure in this world: And he will be in the Hereafter in the ranks of the Righteous.’ The Righteous ones are the Prophets and the Imams - may God bless them all - who received orders from the Honorable the Exalted God as to what is good and what is evil. They all asked God for improvements. They all avoided personal opinions and innovations in His Religion as God says, “Behold! his Lord said to him: ‘Bow (thy will to Me):’ He said, ‘I bow (my will) to the Lord and Cherisher of the Universe.’” Then all the other Prophets followed him as the Honorable the Exalted God says, “And this was the legacy that Abraham left to his sons, and so did Jacob; "Oh my sons! God hath chosen the Faith for you; then die not except in the Faith of Islam.” Also the Honorable the Exalted God tells His Prophet, “So We have taught thee the inspired (Message), "Follow the ways of Abraham the True in Faith, and he joined not gods with God." And as the Honorable the Exalted God says, “…it is the cult of your father Abraham. It is He Who has named you Muslims, both before”The conditions for Divine Leadership have been obtained from the necessities of this world and the Hereafter.And in what Abraham (MGB) said, “…from my offspring!” ‘from’ implies a form of distinction, since some of his progeny did not deserve to be a Divine Leader, and some did. They were Muslims and unbelievers. It was impossible for Abraham (MGB) to pray for those who were either Muslims or unbelievers to be Divine Leaders. Therefore, it must be concluded that Abraham (MGB) took into consideration the Muslims and even the especial Muslims who were sincere believers which had abandoned unbelief. Then he (MGB) took into consideration a smaller group of them who were just ones who had abandoned major sins. Then he (MGB) took into consideration a smaller group of them who were Immaculate and never even thought of committing any sins. If there were any more conditions they would also be included in the conditions for Divine Leadership.The Honorable the Exalted God has mentioned Jesus (MGB) to be of the progeny of Abraham (MGB) even though Jesus (MGB) was in the line of Abraham (MGB) through Abraham’s great grand-daughter (i.e. Mary (MGB)). As God has considered those born in the line of a great grand-daughter to be of Abraham’s progeny, and Abraham (MGB) had prayed for Divine Leadership to continue through his progeny, it is incumbent upon Muhammad (MGB) to follow Abraham (MGB). Muhammad established the line of Immaculate Divine Leadership in his progeny through his daughter, since the Honorable the Exalted God had ordered him to follow Abraham (MGB) as we read, “So We have taught thee the inspired (Message), Follow the ways of Abraham the True in Faith, and he joined not gods with God.”Had Muhammad (MGB) not followed this order, he would have been considered to be amongst those who had turned away from the religion of Abraham as we read, “And who turns away from the religion of Abraham but such as debase their souls with folly?”The Prophet Muhammad (MGB) was more majestic than that. Therefore, we read as the Honorable the Exalted God says, “Without doubt, among men, the nearest of kin to Abraham, are those who follow him, as are also this Apostle and those who believe: …”And the Commander of the Faithful Imam Ali (MGB) is the father of the progeny of God’s Prophet (MGB) who were entrusted with Divine Leadership and were Immaculate as the Honorable the Exalted God says, “But My Promise is not within the reach of evildoers.” That refers to those who worshipped an idol or associated partners with God even for a twinkling of an eye, and even if they submitted to Islam afterwards. It is not right to place something in the improper place and the worst form of unbelief is associating partners with God as the Honorable the Exalted God says, “… for false worship is indeed the highest wrongdoing.” That is why one who commits a sin - be it minor or major - doesn’t deserve to be a Divine Leader even though he may repent afterwards. One who is to be punished by a religious decree cannot be the one to issue the rule for others to be punished by the same decree. Ordering to punish those who have violated religious rules is one of the duties of a Divine Leader. Therefore, a Divine Leader must be Immaculate. That would not be known except through what the Honorable the Exalted God reveals to us by the tongue of the Prophet (MGB). Being Immaculate is not like being black or white which could be seen from one’s outward appearance. Rather, it is a hidden characteristic which can only be recognized through what is expressed by the All-Knowing the Honorable the Exalted God.”