106. The Four Ways the Prophet’s Traditions Reach the People

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4-13 1 حدثنا أبي رضي الله عنه قال: حدثنا علي بن إبراهيم بن هاشم، عن أبيه، عن حماد بن عيسى، عن إبراهيم بن عمر اليماني، وعمر بن اذينة، عن أبان بن أبي عياش، عن سليم بن قيس الهلالي قال: قلت لامير المؤمنين عليه السلام:يا أمير المؤمنين أني سمعت من سلمان والمقداد وأبي ذر شيئا من تفسير القرآن وأحاديث عن نبي الله صلى الله عليه وآله غير ما في أيدي الناس، ثم سمعت منك تصديق ما سمعت منهم ورأيت في أيدي الناس أشياء كثيرة من تفسير القرآن ومن الاحاديث عن نبي الله صلى الله عليه وآله أنتم تخالفونهم فيها وتزعمون أن ذلك كله باطل، أفترى الناس يكذبون على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله متعمدين ويفسرون القرآن بآرائهم، قال: فأقبل علي عليه السلام فقال: قد سألت فافهم الجواب إن في أيدي الناس حقا وباطلا، وصدقا وكذبا، وناسخا ومنسوخا، وعاما وخاصا، ومحكما ومتشابها، وحفظا ووهما. وقد كذب على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله على عهده حتى قام خطيبا فقال:أيها الناس قد كثرت على الكذابة، فمن كذب على متعمدا فليتبوء مقعده من النار، ثم كذب عليه من بعده، إنما أتاكم الحديث من أربعة ليس لهم خامس: رجل منافق يظهر الايمان متصنع بالاسلام لا يتألم ولا يتحرج أن يكذب على رسول الله متعمدا فلو علم الناس أنه منافق كذاب لم يقبلوا منه ولم يصدقوه ولكنهم قالوا: هذا قد صحب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله ورآه وسمع منه فأخذوا عنه، وهم لا يعرفون حاله وقد أخبره الله عن المنافقين بما أخبره ووصفهم بما وصفهم فقال عز وجل: "وَإِذَا رَأَيْتَهُمْ تُعْجِبُكَ أَجْسَامُهُمْ وَإِنْ يَقُولُوا تَسْمَعْ لِقَوْلِهِمْ ."ثم بقوا بعده فتقربوا إلى أئمة الضلالة والدعاة إلى النار بالزور والكذب والبهتان فولوهم الاعمال، وحملوهم على رقاب الناس وأكلوا بهم الدنيا وإنما الناس مع الملوك والدنيا إلا من عصم الله، فهذا أحد الاربعة. ورجل سمع من رسول الله شيئا لم يحفظه على وجهه ووهم فيه ولم يتعمد كذبا فهو في يده يقول به ويعمل به ويرويه ويقول: أنا سمعته من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله فلو علم المسلمون أنه وهم لم يقبلوه، ولو علم هو أنه وهم لرفضه، ورجل ثالث سمع من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله شيئا أمر به ثم نهى عنه، وهو لا يعلم، أو سمعه ينهى عن شيء ثم أمر به وهو لا يعلم فحفظ منسوخه ولم يحفظ الناسخ فلو علم أنه منسوخ لرفضه ولو علم المسلمون أنه منسوخ لرفضوه، وآخر رابع لم يكذب على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله مبغض للكذب خوفا من الله عز وجل وتعظيما لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله لم يسه بل حفظ ما سمع على وجهه فجاء به كما سمع لم يزد فيه ولم ينقص منه، وعلم الناسخ من المنسوخ فعمل بالناسخ ورفض المنسوخ، فان أمر النبي صلى الله عليه وآله مثل القرآن ناسخ ومنسوخ، وخاص وعام، ومحكم ومتشابه، وقد كان يكون من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله الكلام له وجهان وكلام عام، وكلام خاص مثل القرآن و[قد] قال الله عز وجل في كتابه: "وَمَا آتَاكُمْ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانْتَهُوا." فيشتبه على من لم يعرف ولم يدر ما عنى الله به ورسوله صلى الله عليه وآله، وليس كل أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يسأله عن الشئ فيفهم، كان منهم من يسأله ولا يستفهم حتى أن كانوا ليحبون أن يجيئ الاعرابي والطاري فيسأل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله حتى يسمعوا، وكنت أدخل على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله كل يوم دخلة وكلليلة دخلة، فيخليني فيها أدور معه حيثما دار، وقد علم أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله أنه لم يصنع ذلك بأحد من الناس غيري، فربما كان ذلك في بيتي يأتيني رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله أكثر ذلك في بيتي، وكنت إذا دخلت عليه بعض منازله أخلاني وأقام عني نساءه، فلا يبقى عنده [أحد] غيري، وإذا أتاني للخلوة معي في بيتي لم تقم عنه فاطمة ولا أحد من بني، وكنت إذا سألته أجابني، وإذا سكت وفنيت مسائلي ابتدأني، فما نزلت على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله آية من القرآن إلا أقرأنيها وأملاها علي فكتبتها بخطي، وعلمني تأويلها وتفسيرها، وناسخها ومنسوخها، ومحكمها ومتشابهها،وخاصها وعامها، ودعا الله لي أن يؤتيني فهمها وحفظها، فما نسيت آية من كتاب الله، ولا علما أملاه علي وكتبته منذ دعا الله لي بما دعا، وما ترك شيئا علمه الله من حلال ولا حرام [ولا] أمر ولا نهي كان أو يكون، ولا كتاب منزل على أحد قبله في أمر بطاعة أو نهي عن معصية إلا علمنيه وحفظته فلم أنس حرفا واحدا، ثم وضع عليه السلام يده على صدري ودعا الله لي أن يملا قلبي علما وفهما وحكما ونورا، فقلت: يا نبي الله بأبي أنت وامي إني منذ دعوت الله لي بما دعوت لم أنس شيئا ولم يفتني شيء لم أكتبه أفتتخوف علي النسيان فيما بعد؟ فقال: لا لست أخاف عليك النسيان ولا الجهل


4-131 (The compiler of the book narrated) that his father - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashim quoted his father, on the authority of Hammad ibn Isa, on the authority of Ibrahim ibn Umar al-Yamani and Umar ibn Azineh, on the authority of Aban ibn Abi Ayyash, on the authority of Salim ibn Qays al-Hilaly, “I once asked the Commander of the Faithful Imam Ali (MGB), ‘O Commander of the Faithful! I have heard from Salman, Miqdad and Abuzar some interpretations (of the Quran) and traditions from the Prophet (MGB) which differ with what is in the hands of the people. Then I heard that you acknowledged what I had heard from the people. There are many things in the hands of the people including interpretations of the Quran and traditions of the Prophet (MGB) with which you disagree and consider invalid. Do you think that the people falsely ascribe these traditions to God’s Prophet (MGB) and interpret the Quran as they wish?’ Then Ali (MGB) faced me and said, ‘You asked. Now try to understand the answer. In fact, what exists in the hands of the people includes truth and falsehood; right and wrong; etc.During the Prophet’s lifetime, they ascribed so many lies to him that he was forced to stand up and say, ‘O people! The lies ascribed to me have become too much. Whoever intentionally ascribes lies to me will go to Hell.’ However, there were a lot more lies ascribed to him. Indeed the Prophet’s narrations only reach you from four persons. Firstly, narrations may reach you from a hypocrite who claims to believe in public, but has not hesitation whatsoever to ascribe lies to the Prophet (MGB). The people would not accept his lies, if they know that he is a hypocrite. However, the people believe what he says, because they think that he has seen the Prophet (MGB) and has heard what he says from the Prophet (MGB). They do not really know him. However, the Honorable the Exalted God has informed us about the hypocrites and their characteristics and said, ‘When thou lookest at them, their exteriors please thee; and when they speak, thou listenest to their words…’Such hypocrites existed even after the Prophet (MGB). They got close to the leaders who misled the people and invite to the fire, and spoke in favor of them so that they may be hired to fill major positions. The people usually follow their leaders, unless they are saved by God.Secondly, narrations may reach you through a man who has heard something from God’s Prophet (MGB), but has not memorized it. He has no intentions of lying but he has not understood it well. He possesses incorrect narrations. He instructs others to follow them and follows them himself. He narrates them for others and says that he has heard it from God’s Prophet. If the Muslims know that it is wrong, they would not accept it from him. It may even be the case that he might discard it, if he knew it was wrong.Thirdly, narrations may reach you from someone who has heard that God’s Prophet (MGB) has issued an order, but has not heard that God’s Prophet (MGB) himself has later issued an opposite order. Or he may have heard that God’s Prophet (MGB) has admonished against something, but has not heard that God’s Prophet (MGB) himself has later advised it. He remembers it one way but he has either not heard or doesn’t remember it the other way. If the Muslims knew that such and such an order has later been dismissed, they would abandon it.Fourthly, narrations may reach you from someone who has not ascribed lies to the Prophet of God (MGB). Rather he hates to lie since he fears the Honorable the Exalted God and honors God’s Prophet (MGB). Such a person may have memorized whatever he has heard from God’s Prophet (MGB) and may restate his words in exactly the same way that he has heard them. However, it may be the case that they use one decree and not use its opposite. The decrees of the Prophet (MGB) are similar to the verses of the Quran. There are ones that are opposite to the previous ones (to cancel or change them). The Prophet (MGB) had many such statements. We must accept what the Prophet (MGB) has said, and abandon what he has withheld as the Honorable the Exalted God said in His Book, ‘…So take what the Messenger assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you. And fear Allah for Allah is strict in Punishment.’Whoever doesn’t realize what God and the Prophet (MGB) meant would fall into error. It is not the case that all the companions of the Prophet (MGB) could give the proper answer to whatever they may be asked. Some of them asked some questions, but never tried to understand the answer. It seemed hard for them to understand things. They waited for a Bedouin to come and ask questions from the Prophet (MGB), so that they may hear theProphet’s response. I always had an especial time during the day and at night with the Prophet (MGB). He (MGB) let me be with him (MGB) during these times. All the companions of the Prophet (MGB) knew well that he (MGB) never treated anyone else this way. Sometimes the Prophet (MGB) came to see me in my house. Sometimes I went to see the Prophet (MGB) in his house. He (MGB) would then tell his wives to leave the room and had a private meeting with me. When the Prophet (MGB) came to see me in my house, he (MGB) would not tell Fatimah (MGB) or any of my children to leave. He (MGB) responded to whatever I asked. He (MGB) talked whenever I finished asking questions and remained silent. He (MGB) would clearly recite to me whatever Quranic verse which was revealed to him (MGB), so that I may write it in my own handwriting. He (MGB) taught me their interpretation and the other related issues. He (MGB) asked God to help me memorize it. I have not forgotten any of the verses of the Holy Quran and any of the knowledge which he (MGB) stated to me and I wrote it down. The Prophet (MGB) did not withhold anything from me and taught me whatever God had taught him including issues such as the legitimate and the illegitimate; obligatory and forbidden deeds; books of the previous Prophets; their enjoining to do good deeds and admonishing against evil deeds. I memorized everything and did not forget anything. Then he put his hand on my chest and asked God to fill up my heart with knowledge, understanding, wisdom and light. I said, ‘O Prophet of God! May my parents be your ransom! I have forgotten nothing and have written all of that which you taught me since the time you prayed to God for me. Are you worried that I may forget them?’ The Prophet (MGB) replied, ‘No. I am not worried about that at all.’”




4-13 2 حدثنا أبي رضي الله عنه قال: حدثنا أحمد بن إدريس قال: حدثنا أبوسعيد سهل بن زياد الادمي قال: حدثني جعفر بن بشار الواسطي قال: حدثنا عبيد الله ابن عبد الله الدهقان، عن درست بن أبي منصور الواسطي، عن عمر بن اذينة، عن زرارة ابن أعين، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: قال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام:من صنع مثل ما صنع إليه فقد كافأ، ومن أضعف كان شكورا، ومن شكر كان كريما، ومن علم أن ما صنع إنما صنع لنفسه لم يستبط الناس في برهم، ولم يستزدهم في مودتهم، فلا تطلبن غيرك شكر ما أتيته إلى نفسك ووقيت به عرضك، واعلم أن طالب الحاجة إليك لم يكرم وجهه عن وجهك، فأكرم وجهك عن رده


4-132 (The compiler of the book narrated) that his father - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Ahmad ibn Idris quoted Abu Sa’id Sahl ibn Zyad al-Adamy, on the authority of Ja’far ibn Bashar al-Vaseti, on the authority of Ubaydullah ibn Abdullah al-Dihqan, on the authority of Durost ibn Abi Mansoor al-Vaseti, on the authority of Umar ibn Azineh, on the authority of Zurarah ibn A’ayan, on the authority of Abi Ja’far al-Baqir (MGB) that the Commander of the Faithful Imam Ali (MGB) said, “It is enough to do as much good in return for a favor as has been done for you. If you do more than has been done to you, then you are being grateful. One who is grateful is also generous. One should recognizes that whatever good he does, he indeed dose it for himself. Thus, one will no longer expect anyone to return his favors, nor will he expect any friendship in return for his friendly deeds. Do not demand anything from others in return for what you do for yourself so as to guard your own honor. Anyone who asks you for something from you has indeed disregarded his own honor. So do not disregard your own reputation and fulfill his request.”




4-13 3 حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد رضي الله عنه قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسن الصفار قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسين بن أبي الخطاب، عن علي بن أسباط عن سليم مولى طربال، عن رجل، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: سمعته يقول:الدنيا دول، فما كان لك فيها أتاك على ضعفك، وما كان منها عليك أتاك ولم تمتنع منه بقوةثم أتبع هذا الكلام بأن قال: من يئس مما فات أراح بدنه، ومن قنع بما اوتي قرت عينه


4-133 Muhammad ibn al-Hassan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Walid - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Muhammad ibn al-Hassan al-Saffar quoted Muhammad ibn al-Hussein ibn Abil Khat’tab, on the authority of Ali ibn Asbat, on the authority of Salim - the servant of Tarbal that he had heard Abi Ja’far al-Baqir (MGB) say, “The world is making progress. Whatever you earn in this world, you earn it despite your weaknesses. Yet, you may lose some thing and not be able to hold on to them with all your strength.”He (MGB) then added, “Whoever forgets about what he has lost is in comfort, and whoever is pleased with what he has been granted will be cheerful.”




4-134 حدثنا أبي رضي الله عنه قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله قال: حدثنا أحمد ابن محمد بن عيسى، عن أحمد بن محمد بن أبي نصر البزنطي، عن رجل من خزاعة، عن أسلمي، عن أبيه، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: تعلموا العربية فانها كلام الله الذي تكلم به خلقه، ونظفوا الماضغين، وبلغوا بالخواتيم.قال محمد بن علي بن الحسين مصنف هذا الكتاب رضي الله عنه: قد روى هذا الحديث أبوسعيد الآدمي وقال في آخره: بلعوا بالخواتيم، أي اجعلوا الخواتيم في آخر الاصابع ولا تجعلوها في أطرافها فانه يروى أنه من عمل قوم لوط


4-134 (The compiler of the book narrated) that his father - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Sa’ed ibn Abdullah quoted Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Isa, on the authority of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Nasr al-Bazanty, on the authority of a man from Khoza’at, on the authority of Aslami, on the authority of his father that Aba Abdullah as-Sadiq (MGB) said, “You should learn Arabic since it is the language with which God has spoken to His servants. Utter the words properly.”The compiler of the book - Muhammad ibn Ali ibn al-Hussein - may God be pleased with him - said, “This narration has also been narrated by Abu Saeed Adami who has added the following at the end, ‘and wear your rings on your little finger or your ring finger not on the thumb since that has been a practice of the people of Lot. ’”




4-135 حدثنا أبي رضي الله عنه قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، عن أحمد بن محمد ابن عيسى، عن الحسن بن محبوب، عن أبي أيوب الخزاز، عن أبي الورد، عن أبي جعفر محمد بن علي عليهما السلام قال: خطب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله الناس في آخر جمعة من شعبان فحمد الله وأثنى عليه، ثم قال: أيها الناس إنه قد أظلكم شهر فيه ليلة خير من ألف شهر، وهو شهر رمضان، فرض الله صيامه، وجعل قيام ليلة فيه بتطوع صلاة كمن تطوع بصلاة سبعين ليلة فيما سواه من الشهور، وجعل لمن تطوع فيه بخصلة من خصال الخير والبر كأجر من أدى فريضة من فرائض الله، ومن أدى فيه فريضة من فرائض الله كان كمن أدى فيه سبعين فريضة فيما سواه، وهو شهر الصبر، وإن الصبر ثوابه الجنة، وهو شهر المواساة، وهو شهر يزيد الله فيه في رزق المؤمن، ومن فطر فيه مؤمنا صائما كان له بـذلكعند الله عز وجل عتق رقبة، ومغفرة لذنوبه فيما مضى. فقيل له: يا رسول الله: ليس كلنا يقدر على أن يفطر صائما، فقال: إن الله تبارك وتعالى كريم يعطي هذا الثواب منكم لمن لا يقدر إلا على مذقة من لبن يفطر بها صائما، أو شربة من ماء عذب، أو تميرات لا يقدر على أكثر من ذلك، ومن خفف فيه عن مملوكه خفف عنه حسابه، وهو شهر أوله رحمة، ووسطه مغفرة، وآخره إجابة والعتق من النار، ولا غنى بكم فيه عن أربع خصال، خصلتين ترضون الله بهما، وخصلتين لا غنى بكم عنهما، وأما اللتان ترضون الله بهما فشهادة أن لا إله إلا الله وأني رسول الله، وأما اللتان لا غنى بكم عنهما فتسألون الله فيه حوائجكم والجنة، وتسألون الله فيه العافية، وتتعوذون به من النار


4-135 (The compiler of the book narrated) that his father - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Sa’ed ibn Abdullah quoted Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Isa, on the authority of Al-Hassan ibn Mahboob, on the authority of Abi Ayoob al-Khizaz, on the authority of Abil Vard, on the authority of Abi Ja’far Muhammad ibn Ali al-Baqir (MGB), “God’s Prophet (MGB) addressed the people on the last Friday of the Arabic month of Sha’ban. He glorified God, praised Him, and then said, ‘O People! Indeed, a month has come in which each night is better than a thousand months. It is the month of Ramazan. God has prescribed fasting during it for you. Whoever stays up one night during that month and prays will receive the reward of one who has stayed up for seventy nights in other months and prayed. If you do any good deeds during that month, you will receive the reward of one who has done seventy good deeds in other months. If you perform any obligatory deeds in that month, your reward will be that of seventy similar cases in other months. It is the month of patience. The reward of patience is Paradise. Ramazan is the month of sympathy. It is the month in which God increases the share of a believer’s daily bread. Whoever feeds another believer (to break his fast) shall be given the rewardof freeing a slave. His past sins will also be forgiven.’ It was said to him (MGB), ‘O Prophet of God! Not all of us are able to feed another believer to break his fast!’ The Prophet (MGB) said, ‘Indeed the Honorable the Exalted God is generous. He would even give this reward to those of you who have nothing but a cup of milk, some juice, water or a date to feed another believer to break his fast. Whoever helps his slave with his duties during this month will be rewarded by God with an easier Reckoning. It is the month whose beginning is mercy, whose middle is forgiveness, and whose end is answering and releasing from the Fire. In it you are in need of four qualities: two qualities with which to please God, and two qualities with which you ask for the fulfillment of your own needs. The two qualities with which to please God are: testify that there is no god but God, and that I (Muhammad) am God’s Prophet. And the two qualities with which you may ask for the fulfillment of your needs are: Ask God for your needs and Paradise during that month. Also ask God to protect you from the Fire of Hell.’”