2. The Forty Types of Fasting

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22-2 حدثنا أبي رضي الله عنه قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، عن القاسم بن محمد الاصفهاني، عن سليمان بن داود المنقري، عن سفيان بن عيينة، عن الزهري قال: دخلت على علي بن الحسين عليهما السلام فقال لي: يا زهري من أين جئت؟ قلت: من المسجد، قال: فيم كنتم، قال: تذاكرنا أمر الصوم فأجمع رأيي ورأي أصحابي أنه ليس من الصوم شيء واجب إلا صوم شهر رمضان، فقال: يا زهري ليس كما قلتم إن الصوم على أربعين وجها فعشرة أوجه منها واجبة كوجوب شهر رمضان،وعشرة أوجه منها صيامهن حرام، وأربعة عشر وجها منها صاحبها فيها بالخيار إن شاء صام وإن شاء أفطر، وصوم الاذن على ثلاثة أوجه، وصوم التأديب، وصوم الاباحة، وصوم السفر والمرض. قلت: فسرهن لي جعلت فداك، قال: أما الواجب فصيام شهر رمضان، وصيام شهرين متتابعين لمن أفطر يوما من شهر رمضان متعمدا، وصيام شهرين متتابعين في قتل الخطأ لمن لم يجد العتق واجب. قال الله عز وجل: "وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ أَنْ يَقْتُلَ مُؤْمِنًا إِلاَّ خَطَأً وَمَنْ قَتَلَ مُؤْمِنًا خَطَأً فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُؤْمِنَةٍ وَدِيَةٌ مُسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَصَّدَّقُوا فَإِنْ كَانَ مِنْ قَوْمٍ عَدُوٍّ لَكُمْ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُؤْمِنَةٍ وَإِنْ كَانَ مِنْ قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُمْ مِيثَـاقٌ فَدِيَـةٌ مُسَلَّمَـةٌ إِلَى أَهْلِـهِ وَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُؤْمِنَةٍ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ شَهْرَيْنِمُتَتَابِعَيْنِ." وصيام شهرين متتابعين في كفارة الظهار لمن لم يجد العتق واجب. قال الله تبارك وتعالى: "وَالَّذِينَ يُظَاهِرُونَ مِنْ نِسَائِهِمْ ثُمَّ يَعُودُونَ لِمَا قَالُوا فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ يَتَمَاسَّا ذَلِكُمْ تُوعَظُونَ بِهِ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ.فَمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ يَتَمَاسَّا ."وصيام ثلاثة أيام في كفارة اليمين واجب لمن لم يجد الاطعام قال الله تبارك وتعالى: "لاَ يُؤَاخِذُكُمْ اللَّهُ بِاللَّغْوِ فِي أَيْمَانِكُمْ وَلَكِنْ يُؤَاخِذُكُمْ بِمَا عَقَّدْتُمْ الأَيْمَانَ فَكَفَّارَتُهُ إِطْعَامُ عَشَرَةِ مَسَاكِينَ مِنْ أَوْسَطِ مَا تُطْعِمُونَ أَهْلِيكُمْ أَوْ كِسْوَتُهُمْ أَوْ تَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلَاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ ذَلِكَ كَفَّارَةُ أَيْمَانِكُمْ إِذَا حَلَفْتُمْ وَاحْفَظُوا أَيْمَانَكُمْ كَذَلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ." كل ذلك متتابع وليس بمتفرقوصيام أذى الحلق، حلق الرأس واجب. قال الله تبارك وتعالى "وَأَتِمُّوا الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلَّهِ فَإِنْ أُحْصِرْتُمْ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنْ الْهَدْيِ وَلاَ تَحْلِقُوا رُءُوسَكُمْ حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ الْهَدْيُ مَحِلَّهُ فَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ مَرِيضًا أَوْ بِهِ أَذًى مِنْ رَأْسِهِ فَفِدْيَةٌ مِنْ صِيَامٍ أَوْ صَدَقَةٍ أَوْ نُسُكٍ." وصاحبها فيها بالخيار وإن صام صام ثلاثاوصوم دم المتعة واجب لمن لم يجد الهدي قال الله تبارك وتعالى: "فَمَنْ تَمَتَّعَ بِالْعُمْرَةِ إِلَى الْحَجِّ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنْ الْهَدْيِ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلاَثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فِي الْحَجِّ وَسَبْعَةٍ إِذَا رَجَعْتُمْ تِلْكَ عَشَرَةٌ كَامِلَةٌ ."وصوم جزاء الصيد واجب قال الله تبارك وتعالى: "يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَيَبْلُوَنَّكُمْ اللَّهُ بِشَيْءٍ مِنْ الصَّيْدِ تَنَالُهُ أَيْدِيكُمْ وَرِمَاحُكُمْ لِيَعْلَمَ اللَّهُ مَنْ يَخَافُهُ بِالْغَيْبِ فَمَنْ اعْتَدَى بَعْـدَ ذَلِـكَ فَلَهُ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ. يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لاَ تَقْتُلُوا الصَّيْدَ وَأَنْتُمْ حُرُمٌوَمَنْ قَتَلَهُ مِنْكُمْ مُتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَاءٌ مِثْلُ مَا قَتَلَ مِنْ النَّعَمِ يَحْكُمُ بِهِ ذَوَا عَدْلٍ مِنْكُمْ هَدْيًا بَالِغَ الْكَعْبَةِ أَوْ كَفَّارَةٌ طَعَامُ مَسَاكِينَ أَوْ عَدْلُ ذَلِكَ صِيَامًا ."ثم قال: أو تدري كيف يكون عدل ذلك صياما يا زهري؟فقلت: لا أدريقال: تقوم الصيد قيمة، ثم تفض تلك القيمة على البر، ثم يكال ذلك البر أصواعا فيصوم لكل نصف صاع يوماوصوم النذر واجب وصوم الاعتكاف واجبوأما الصوم الحرام فصوم يوم الفطر ويوم الاضحى وثلاثة أيام من أيام التشريق وصوم يوم الشك امرنا به ونهينا عنه، امرنا أن نصومه مع شعبان، ونهينا أن ينفرد الرجل بصيامه في اليوم الذي يشك فيه الناسقلت: جعلت فداك فإن لم يكن صام من شعبان شيئا كيف يصنع؟قال: ينوي ليلة الشك أنه صائم من شعبان فان كان من شهر رمضان أجزأ عنه وإن كان من شعبان لم يضرقلت: وكيف يجزي صوم تطوع عن فريضة؟فقال: لو أن رجلا صام يوما من شهر رمضان تطوعا وهو لا يدري ولا يعلم أنه من شهر رمضان، ثم علم بعد ذلك أجزأ عنه لان الفرض إنما وقع على اليوم بعينهوصوم الوصال حرام وصوم الصمت حرام، وصوم النذر للمعصية حرام، وصوم الدهر حراموأما الصوم الذي صاحبه فيه بالخيار فصوم يوم الجمعة والخميس والاثنين، وصوم أيـام البيـض، وصـوم سـتة أيـام من شوال بعد شهر رمضان، ويوم عرفة، ويومعاشورا كل ذلك صاحبه فيه بالخيار إن شاء صام، وإن شاء أفطر. واما صوم الاذن فان المرأة لا تصوم تطوعا إلا باذن زوجها، والعبد لا يصوم تطوعا إلا باذن سيده، والضيف لا يصوم تطوعا إلا باذن صاحبه، قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: "فمن نزل على قوم فلا يصومن تطوعا إلا باذنهم". وأما صوم التأديب فإنه يؤمر الصبي إذا راهق بالصوم تأديبا وليس بفرض تأديبا وليس بفرض، وكذلك المسافر إذا أكل من أول النهار، ثم قدم أهله امر بالامساك بقية يومه تأديبا وليس بفرض. أما صوم الاباحة فمن أكل أو شرب ناسيا أو تقيأ من غير تعمد فقد أباح الله ذلك له وأجزأ عنه صومه. أما صوم السفر والمرض فإن العامة اختلفت فيه فقال قوم: يصوم، وقال قوم: لا يصوم، وقال قوم: إن شاء صام وإن شاء أفطر، وأما نحن فنقول: يفطر في الحالين جميعا فإن صام في السفر أو في حال المرض فعليه القضاء في ذلك لان الله عز وجل يقول: "فَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ ".


22-2 (The compiler of the book narrated) that my father - may God be pleased with him - narrated that Sa’ed ibn Abdullah quoted Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad al-Isfahani, on the authority of Suleiman ibn Davood al-Munqeri, on the authority of Sufyan ibn Ayyineh, on the authority of Al-Zuhra, “I went to see Ali ibn al-Hussein (MGB). The Imam (MGB) asked, ‘Where do you come from?’ I said, ‘I am coming from the mosque.’ The Imam (MGB) asked, ‘What were you talking about?’ I said, ‘We were talking about fasting. My friends and I reached the conclusion that there are no other obligatory fasts except that of the month of Ramazan.’The Imam (MGB) said, ‘O Al-Zuhra! It is not so. There are forty types of fasting. Ten of these types are obligatory fasts like that of the month of Ramazan. Ten of these types are forbidden. Fourteen of these types are such that one who is of age can either fast on those days or break them. Also there are three types of fasting with permission: fasting for learning; permitted fasting; and fasting during illness or on a journey.’I said, ‘May I be your ransom! Please explain these for me.’The Imam (MGB) said, ‘The obligatory fasts are the fasting for the month of Ramazan; and fasting for two consecutive months as a compensation for intentionally breaking one’s fast during the month of Ramazan; fasting for two consecutive months as a compensation of unintentionally killing a believer in case one cannot find a slave to free. As the Honorable the Exalted God says, ‘Never should a believer kill a believer; but (If it so happens) by mistake, (Compensation is due): If one (so) kills a believer, it is ordained that he should free a believing slave, and pay compensation to the deceased’s family, unless they remit it freely. If the deceased belonged to a people at war with you, and he was a believer, the freeing of a believing slave (Is enough). If he belonged to a people with whom ye have treaty of Mutual alliance, compensation should be paid to his family, and a believing slave be freed. For those who find this beyond their means, (isprescribed) a fast for two months running…” . Another obligatory fasting is for two consecutive months as a compensation for divorcing one’s wife by Zihar in case one cannot find a slave to free as the Blessed the Sublime God says, ‘But those who divorce their wives by Zihar, then wish to go back on the words they uttered, (it is ordained that such a one) should free a slave before they touch each other: Thus are ye admonished to perform: and God is well-acquainted with (all) that ye do. And if any has not (the wherewithal), he should fast for two months consecutively before they touch each other.’Three days of fasting is obligatory for the compensation for a deliberate oath for the person who cannot feed the poor people as the Blessed the Sublime God says, ‘Allah will not call you to account for what is futile in your oaths, but He will call you to account for your deliberate oaths: for expiation, feed ten indigent persons, on a scale of the average for the food of your families; or clothe them; or give a slave his freedom. If that is beyond your means, fast for three days. That is the expiation for the oaths ye have sworn. But keep to your oaths. Thus doth Allah make clear to you His signs, that ye may be grateful.’ This fasting should be performed continuously and it cannot be done on various scattered days.Then there is the fasting for shaving the hair on the head before the offering reaches the place of sacrifice as the Blessed the Sublime God has ordained, ‘And complete the Hajj or Umra in the service of Allah. But if ye are prevented (from completing it), send an offering for sacrifice, such as ye may find, and do not shave your heads until the offering reaches the place of sacrifice. And if any of you is ill, or has an ailment in his scalp, (necessitating shaving), (He should) in compensation either fast, or feed the poor, or offer sacrifice…’ One is free to perform either of the above three, but if he decides to fast he should fast for three days.Then there is the fasting as a compensation for not affording to make an offering for Hajj in which case one must fast for three days during the Hajj and seven days upon his return making it ten days of fasting in all as the Blessed the Sublime God says, ‘…He must make an offering, such as he can afford, but if he cannot afford it, he should fast three days during the Hajj and seven days on his return, making ten days in all.’Then there is the fasting as a compensation for the intentional killing of game while in the sacred precincts or in pilgrim garb as the Blessed the Sublime God says, ‘O ye who believe! Allah doth but make a trial of you in a little matter of game well within reach of your hands and your lances, that He may test who feareth him unseen: any who transgress thereafter, willhave a grievous penalty. O ye who believe! Kill not game while in the sacred precincts or in pilgrim garb. ‘If any of you doth so intentionally, the compensation is an offering, brought to the Ka’ba, of a domestic animal equivalent to the one he killed, as adjudged by two just men among you; or by way of atonement, the feeding of the indigent; or its equivalent in fasts…’ ”Then the Imam (MGB) asked, ‘O Al-Zuhra! Do you know how ‘its equivalent in fasts’ can be measured?’ I replied, ‘No. I do not know.’ The Imam (MGB) said, ‘They should determine the price of the game (that has been killed) and measure its equivalent in wheat using As-Sa’ . They must fast one day for each half of one As-Sa’.Then there is the obligatory fasting for a vow and seclusion in the mosque (I’tekaf).And the fasts that are forbidden are: fasting on the Eid ul-Fitr; fasting on Eid ul-Azha; fasting on three days of Al-Tashriq ; fasting on a day which is doubtful whether it is the end of Sha’ban or the start of Ramazan. We have been ordered to fast on that day with the intention that it is the last day of Sha’ban. We have been admonished against fasting on that day as one of the days of the month of Ramazan when the people are in doubt about that day.”Then I asked, ‘May I be your ransom! What should one do who has not fasted at all during the month of Sha’ban?’ The Imam (MGB) replied, ‘He should make the intention to fast for the last day of Sha’ban on that night. This would be fine if it turns out to be the first day of Ramazan. He would have nothing to lose if it turns out to be the last day of Sha’ban.’Then I asked, ‘How would a recommendable day of fasting be counted for an obligatory day of fasting?’ The Imam (MGB) replied, ‘If anyone unknowingly intends to make a recommendable fast on one of the days of the month of Ramazan and then he finds out that it has been in the month of Ramazan, that day of fasting counts as fasting on an obligatory day since the fasting on that very same day has been obligatory for him.’It is also unlawful to join two consecutive days of fasting together - that is fasting during one day and not eating at night and then fasting on the following day. It is unlawful to observe silence fasting. It is unlawful to observe fasting for a vow regarding a sin. It is unlawful to observe fasting all year long.Then there are the optional fasts which are fasting on Fridays, Thursdays and Mondays and fasting on three days in the middle of each lunar month; fasting on six days in the month of Shawwal (except for the first of Shawwalwhich is Eid ul-Fitr); fasting on the Day of Arafat on the ninth of Dhul-Hijja; and fasting on the day of Ashura that is the tenth day of Muharram. One is free to fast or not on these days.And then there is the case of fasts which require permission to do. Wives cannot fast unless with the permission of their husbands; slaves cannot fast unless with the permission of their masters; and guests cannot fast unless with the permission of their hosts. Regarding a guest who should not fast except with the permission of his host God’s Prophet (MGB) has said, ‘One who is a guest somewhere should not fast without the consent of his host.’ Fasting for learning refers to when a child who is nearly of age is asked to fast in order to learn how to do so. This is considered for learning and is not obligatory. Or the case of one on a journey who eats in the morning then he abstains from eating during the rest of the day. This is a form of fasting that is not obligatory.And ‘permitted’ fasts refers to the case of the fasting of one who eats or drinks unintentionally (for having forgotten that he is fasting), or one who vomits unintentionally during his fast. He shall receive the reward of having fasted.In the case of fasting while you are on a journey or when you are ill, there is some disagreement in public opinion. Some say that one should fast while others say one should break his fast. Still another group say that one is free to chose. He can either fast or break his fast in these conditions. However, we say that one should break his fast in both cases. If one fasts during a journey or when he is ill, he must make it up later as the Honorable the Exalted God says, ‘But if any of you is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed number (should be made up) from days later.’