9. Chapter On The Invalidity of the Belief to see God (Ru’yah of Allah)

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1ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي الْقَاسِمِ عَنْ يَعْقُوبَ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ قَالَ كَتَبْتُ إِلَى أَبِي مُحَمَّدٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَسْأَلُهُ كَيْفَ يَعْبُدُ الْعَبْدُ رَبَّهُ وَهُوَ لا يَرَاهُ فَوَقَّعَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَا أَبَا يُوسُفَ جَلَّ سَيِّدِي وَمَوْلايَ وَالْمُنْعِمُ عَلَيَّ وَعَلَى آبَائِي أَنْ يُرَى قَالَ وَسَأَلْتُهُ هَلْ رَأَى رَسُولُ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) رَبَّهُ فَوَقَّعَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِنَّ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى أَرَى رَسُولَهُ بِقَلْبِهِ مِنْ نُورِ عَظَمَتِهِ مَا أَحَبَّ.


1. Muhammad ibn abu ‘Abdallah has narrated from Ali ibn abu al-Qasim from Ya’qub ibn Ishaq who wrote to Imam abu Muhammad al-‘Askari and asked. “How can a worshipper worship his Lord, Whom he does not see?” The Imam wrote in reply, “O abu Yusuf, my Lord, my Master, and my Benefactor and the Benefactor of my ancestors, is far exalted and is above being seen.” I (Ya’qub ibn Ishaq) asked him, “Had the Messenger of Allah (s.a.) seen his Lord?” The Imam replied in writing and signed, “Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, showed His Prophet, in his heart, the light of His Greatness as much as He liked.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول أو صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (327/ 1)



2ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ إِدْرِيسَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى قَالَ سَأَلَنِي أَبُو قُرَّةَ الْمُحَدِّثُ أَنْ أُدْخِلَهُ عَلَى أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَاسْتَأْذَنْتُهُ فِي ذَلِكَ فَأَذِنَ لِي فَدَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ فَسَأَلَهُ عَنِ الْحَلالَ وَالْحَرَامِ وَالاحْكَامِ حَتَّى بَلَغَ سُؤَالُهُ إِلَى التَّوْحِيدِ فَقَالَ أَبُو قُرَّةَ إِنَّا رُوِّينَا أَنَّ الله قَسَمَ الرُّؤْيَةَ وَالْكَلامَ بَيْنَ نَبِيَّيْنِ فَقَسَمَ الْكَلامَ لِمُوسَى وَلِمُحَمَّدٍ الرُّؤْيَةَ فَقَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَمَنِ الْمُبَلِّغُ عَنِ الله إِلَى الثَّقَلَيْنِ مِنَ الْجِنِّ وَالانْسِ لا تُدْرِكُهُ الابْصَارُ وَلا يُحِيطُونَ بِهِ عِلْماً وَلَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ أَ لَيْسَ مُحَمَّدٌ قَالَ بَلَى قَالَ كَيْفَ يَجِي‏ءُ رَجُلٌ إِلَى الْخَلْقِ جَمِيعاً فَيُخْبِرُهُمْ أَنَّهُ جَاءَ مِنْ عِنْدِ الله وَأَنَّهُ يَدْعُوهُمْ إِلَى الله بِأَمْرِ الله فَيَقُولُ لا تُدْرِكُهُ الابْصَارُ وَلا يُحِيطُونَ بِهِ عِلْماً وَلَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ ثُمَّ يَقُولُ أَنَا رَأَيْتُهُ بِعَيْنِي وَأَحَطْتُ بِهِ عِلْماً وَهُوَ عَلَى صُورَةِ الْبَشَرِ أَ مَا تَسْتَحُونَ مَا قَدَرَتِ الزَّنَادِقَةُ أَنْ تَرْمِيَهُ بِهَذَا أَنْ يَكُونَ يَأْتِي مِنْ عِنْدِ الله بِشَيْ‏ءٍ ثُمَّ يَأْتِي بِخِلافِهِ مِنْ وَجْهٍ آخَرَ قَالَ أَبُو قُرَّةَ فَإِنَّهُ يَقُولُ وَلَقَدْ رَآهُ نَزْلَةً أُخْرى‏ فَقَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِنَّ بَعْدَ هَذِهِ الايَةِ مَا يَدُلُّ عَلَى مَا رَأَى حَيْثُ قَالَ ما كَذَبَ الْفُؤادُ ما رَأى‏ يَقُولُ مَا كَذَبَ فُؤَادُ مُحَمَّدٍ مَا رَأَتْ عَيْنَاهُ ثُمَّ أَخْبَرَ بِمَا رَأَى فَقَالَ لَقَدْ رَأى‏ مِنْ آياتِ رَبِّهِ الْكُبْرى‏ فَ‏آيَاتُ الله غَيْرُ الله وَقَدْ قَالَ الله وَلا يُحِيطُونَ بِهِ عِلْماً فَإِذَا رَأَتْهُ الابْصَارُ فَقَدْ أَحَاطَتْ بِهِ الْعِلْمُ وَوَقَعَتِ الْمَعْرِفَةُ فَقَالَ أَبُو قُرَّةَ فَتُكَذِّبُ بِالرِّوَايَاتِ فَقَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِذَا كَانَتِ الرِّوَايَاتُ مُخَالِفَةً لِلْقُرْآنِ كَذَّبْتُهَا وَمَا أَجْمَعَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ عَلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لا يُحَاطُ بِهِ عِلْماً وَلا تُدْرِكُهُ الابْصَارُ وَلَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ.


2. Ahmad ibn Idris has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abdal Jabbar from Safwan ibn Yahya who has said that abu Qurrah (Musa ibn Tariq al-Yamani al-Zabudi, d. 203/818), a narrator of Hadith, asked me to take him to abul Hassan al-Rida (a.s.). I sought permission from the Imam (a.s.) and an audience was granted. He asked the Imam about what is lawful and unlawful and the rules in Islamic laws. His questions came to Oneness of Allah (God). Abu Qurrah said, “We (the narrators of Hadith) narrate that Allah, the Almighty has divided His being seen al-Ru’yah and His al-kalam, speech between the two prophets. He gave Musa (Moses) the opportunity to hear His speech, and Muhammad (s.a.) the opportunity to see Him.” Imam abu al-Hassan (a.s.) said, “Who conveyed the message from Allah to the two heavy communities; mankind and the Jinn that says: ‘The eyes can not comprehend Him.’ (6:103) “They can not limit Him through their knowledge.” (20:110) ‘There is nothing similar to Him.’ (42:11) “Was it not Muhammad (s.a.)?’” Asked the Imam (a.s.). Abu Qurrah then replied, “Yes, He was Prophet Muhammad (s.a.). “ The Imam said, “How can a person who brought such messages to all creatures and told them that he has brought such messages from Allah and called them to Allah by His commands and said, “The eyes can not comprehend Him.” (6:103) “They can not limit Him through their knowledge.” (20:110) “There is nothing similar to Him.” (42:11), then he would say, “I saw Him with my own eyes? I did limit Him in my knowledge and that He is similar to a man? Should you not be ashamed of yourselves? Even the atheist have not said that the Prophet first brought one thing from Allah and then announced from Him other things contrary to the first.” Abu Qurrah then said, “Does Allah Himself not say, ‘And indeed he (the Prophet) saw him in another descent.?” (53: 13) Imam abu al-Hassan (a.s.) said, “The other verses point out what the Prophet actually saw. Allah has said, “His heart did not lie about what he saw” (53: 11) It means that the heart of Muhammad did not belie what his eyes saw. Therefore, Allah in the subsequent verse has said, “Indeed he saw of the greatest signs of his Lord.” (53:18) The signs of Allah are different from Allah Himself. Allah has also said, “They can not limit Him in their knowledge.” (20:110) If the eyes could see Him, then people might limit Him in their knowledge and He could be fully defined.” Abu Qurrah asked, “Do you disregard Hadith?” Imam abu al-Hassan (a.s.) replied, “If Ahadith are contrary to Quran, I disregard them. Besides, all Muslims believe that Allah cannot be limited by knowledge, that eyes can not see Him and that nothing is similar to Him.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/328)



3ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ إِدْرِيسَ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ سَيْفٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عُبَيْدٍ قَالَ كَتَبْتُ إِلَى أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَسْأَلُهُ عَنِ الرُّؤْيَةِ وَمَا تَرْوِيهِ الْعَامَّةُ وَالْخَاصَّةُ وَسَأَلْتُهُ أَنْ يَشْرَحَ لِي ذَلِكَ فَكَتَبَ بِخَطِّهِ اتَّفَقَ الْجَمِيعُ لا تَمَانُعَ بَيْنَهُمْ أَنَّ الْمَعْرِفَةَ مِنْ جِهَةِ الرُّؤْيَةِ ضَرُورَةٌ فَإِذَا جَازَ أَنْ يُرَى الله بِالْعَيْنِ وَقَعَتِ الْمَعْرِفَةُ ضَرُورَةً ثُمَّ لَمْ تَخْلُ تِلْكَ الْمَعْرِفَةُ مِنْ أَنْ تَكُونَ إِيمَاناً أَوْ لَيْسَتْ بِإِيمَانٍ فَإِنْ كَانَتْ تِلْكَ الْمَعْرِفَةُ مِنْ جِهَةِ الرُّؤْيَةِ إِيمَاناً فَالْمَعْرِفَةُ الَّتِي فِي دَارِ الدُّنْيَا مِنْ جِهَةِ الاكْتِسَابِ لَيْسَتْ بِإِيمَانٍ لانَّهَا ضِدُّهُ فَلا يَكُونُ فِي الدُّنْيَا مُؤْمِنٌ لانَّهُمْ لَمْ يَرَوُا الله عَزَّ ذِكْرُهُ وَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ تِلْكَ الْمَعْرِفَةُ الَّتِي مِنْ جِهَةِ الرُّؤْيَةِ إِيمَاناً لَمْ تَخْلُ هَذِهِ الْمَعْرِفَةُ الَّتِي مِنْ جِهَةِ الاكْتِسَابِ أَنْ تَزُولَ وَلا تَزُولُ فِي الْمَعَادِ فَهَذَا دَلِيلٌ عَلَى أَنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لا يُرَى بِالْعَيْنِ إِذِ الْعَيْنُ تُؤَدِّي إِلَى مَا وَصَفْنَاهُ.


3. Ahmad ibn Idris has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Ali ibn Sayf from Muhammad ibn ‘Ubayd who has said the following. “I wrote to abu al-Hassan al-Rida (a.s.) and asked him about the belief in eye-witnessing Allah’s self. Is it is possible to see Allah’s self with one’s own eyes as is traditionally narrated in the affirmative by the Sunni Muslims (al-’ammah) and the Shi‘ah Muslims (al-khassah) who are contrary. I requested him to explain the matter. The Imam answered in his own handwriting. “All agree and there is no dissension among the people that eye-witnessed knowledge of things is certainly knowledge without doubt. It is the form of knowledge that does not require logical proofs. If it is true that seeing Allah’s self with the eyes is possible then it becomes a necessity to acknowledge that Allah becomes entirely known and defined through eye-witnessed process. Now, can eye-witnessed knowledge of Allah’s self be considered faith or not? If the knowledge of Him as such, i.e. eye-witnessed knowledge (which according to Sunni Muslims will happen on the Day of resurrection) be considered faith, then faith in Allah in this world, which comes through non-eye-witnessed knowledge is not faith. It is contrary to eye-witnessed knowledge and faith (contrary things do not exist at the same time). Thus, there would be no one who would have faith in Allah in this world because no one has seen Him, Majestic is Whose name. If the eye-witnessed knowledge and understanding would not be considered faith then the non-eye-witnessed faith and knowledge formed and acquired must go away in the next life, but, in fact, it will not go away on the Day of resurrection. This is proof that Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, can not be seen because it will lead to (the kind of confusion) what we just mentioned.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/331)



4ـ وَعَنْهُ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ قَالَ كَتَبْتُ إِلَى أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الثَّالِثِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَسْأَلُهُ عَنِ الرُّؤْيَةِ وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ النَّاسُ فَكَتَبَ لا تَجُوزُ الرُّؤْيَةُ مَا لَمْ يَكُنْ بَيْنَ الرَّائِي وَالْمَرْئِيِّ هَوَاءٌ لَمْ يَنْفُذْهُ الْبَصَرُ فَإِذَا انْقَطَعَ الْهَوَاءُ عَنِ الرَّائِي وَالْمَرْئِيِّ لَمْ تَصِحَّ الرُّؤْيَةُ وَكَانَ فِي ذَلِكَ الاشْتِبَاهُ لانَّ الرَّائِيَ مَتَى سَاوَى الْمَرْئِيَّ فِي السَّبَبِ الْمُوجِبِ بَيْنَهُمَا فِي الرُّؤْيَةِ وَجَبَ الاشْتِبَاهُ وَكَانَ ذَلِكَ التَّشْبِيهُ لانَّ الاسْبَابَ لا بُدَّ مِنِ اتِّصَالِهَا بِالْمُسَبَّبَاتِ.


4. It is narrated from the same narrator (Ahmad ibn Idris) from Ahmad ibn Ishaq who has said the following. “I wrote to Imam abul Hassan the 3rd and asked him about eye-witnessing Allah’s self and the differences among people about this issue. The Imam (a.s.) answered in writing.” “Eye-witnessing Allah’s self is not possible until there is air (light-carrier medium) that would let the light reach the eye. If air is remove from (space between) the viewer and the object, no eye-witnessing will take place. In this is ground for similarity. When the viewer and the object in view would have the same medium that make eye-witnessing possible a similarity must exist therein. (When applying this to the case of Allah) it is an analogy and similarity. The means must have a connection with the source.”




5ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مَعْبَدٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ قَالَ حَضَرْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَدَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ رَجُلٌ مِنَ الْخَوَارِجِ فَقَالَ لَهُ يَا أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ أَيَّ شَيْ‏ءٍ تَعْبُدُ قَالَ الله تَعَالَى قَالَ رَأَيْتَهُ قَالَ بَلْ لَمْ تَرَهُ الْعُيُونُ بِمُشَاهَدَةِ الابْصَارِ وَلَكِنْ رَأَتْهُ الْقُلُوبُ بِحَقَائِقِ الايمَانِ لا يُعْرَفُ بِالْقِيَاسِ وَلا يُدْرَكُ بِالْحَوَاسِّ وَلا يُشَبَّهُ بِالنَّاسِ مَوْصُوفٌ بِالايَاتِ مَعْرُوفٌ بِالْعَلامَاتِ لا يَجُورُ فِي حُكْمِهِ ذَلِكَ الله لا إِلَهَ إِلا هُوَ قَالَ فَخَرَجَ الرَّجُلُ وَهُوَ يَقُولُ الله أَعْلَمُ حَيْثُ يَجْعَلُ رِسالَتَهُ.


5. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Ali ibn Ma‘bad from ‘Abdallah ibn Sinan from his father who has said the following. “I met Imam abu Ja‘far (a.s.) and at that time a man from the Khariji group came to see the Imam (a.s.) and asked, ‘O abu Ja‘far, who do you worship?’” The Imam replied, “I worship Allah, the Most High.” He then asked, “Have you seen Him?” The Imam then said, “Eyes can not see Him in an eye-witnessing process but the hearts can see Him through the reality of faith. Allah can not be known by analogy or physical senses and He is not similar to people. He is mentioned in the verses of revelation. He is known from the signs. He does not do injustice in His judgments. Thus, is Allah besides Him there is no Allah.” The narrator has said, “The man then left the Imam (a.s.) saying, “Allah knows best to who should He entrust His message to mankind.”




6ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الْمَوْصِلِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ جَاءَ حِبْرٌ إِلَى أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ صَلَوَاتُ الله عَلَيْهِ فَقَالَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ هَلْ رَأَيْتَ رَبَّكَ حِينَ عَبَدْتَهُ قَالَ فَقَالَ وَيْلَكَ مَا كُنْتُ أَعْبُدُ رَبّاً لَمْ أَرَهُ قَالَ وَكَيْفَ رَأَيْتَهُ قَالَ وَيْلَكَ لا تُدْرِكُهُ الْعُيُونُ فِي مُشَاهَدَةِ الابْصَارِ وَلَكِنْ رَأَتْهُ الْقُلُوبُ بِحَقَائِقِ الايمَانِ.


6. A group of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn abu Nasr from abu al-Hassan al-Muwsali from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who has said, “Once a rabbi (hibr) came to Imam Ali (a.s.) and asked, ‘O Amir al-mu’minin, have you seen your Lord when worshipping Him?’” Imam Ali (a.s.) replied, “This is not a proper question. I would not have worshipped a Lord whom I could not see.” He then asked, “How did you see Him?” Imam Ali (a.s.) said, “This is not a proper statement. Eyes can not see Him in eye-witnessing process but hearts see Him in the realities of faith.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/337)



7ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ إِدْرِيسَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ عَاصِمِ بْنِ حُمَيْدٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ ذَاكَرْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِيمَا يَرْوُونَ مِنَ الرُّؤْيَةِ فَقَالَ الشَّمْسُ جُزْءٌ مِنْ سَبْعِينَ جُزْءاً مِنْ نُورِ الْكُرْسِيِّ وَالْكُرْسِيُّ جُزْءٌ مِنْ سَبْعِينَ جُزْءاً مِنْ نُورِ الْعَرْشِ وَالْعَرْشُ جُزْءٌ مِنْ سَبْعِينَ جُزْءاً مِنْ نُورِ الْحِجَابِ وَالْحِجَابُ جُزْءٌ مِنْ سَبْعِينَ جُزْءاً مِنْ نُورِ السِّتْرِ فَإِنْ كَانُوا صَادِقِينَ فَلْيَمْلَئُوا أَعْيُنَهُمْ مِنَ الشَّمْسِ لَيْسَ دُونَهَا سَحَابٌ.


7. Ahmad ibn Idris has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar from Safwan ibn Yahya from ‘Asim ibn Hamiyd who has said the following. “I discussed with Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) about what he says to eye-witnessing Allah’s self. The Imam said, “The light of the sun has a ratio equal to one seventieth of the light of the Kursi (the throne). The same is the ratio of the light of Kursi to al-‘Arsh, the light of which is of the same ration to that of al-Hijab the light of which is of the same ration to the light of al-Satr. If they tell the truth let them fill their eyes with the light of the sun without a curtain in between.”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/337)



8ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى وَغَيْرُهُ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) لَمَّا أُسْرِيَ بِي إِلَى السَّمَاءِ بَلَغَ بِي جَبْرَئِيلُ مَكَاناً لَمْ يَطَأْهُ قَطُّ جَبْرَئِيلُ فَكَشَفَ لَهُ فَأَرَاهُ الله مِنْ نُورِ عَظَمَتِهِ مَا أَحَبَّ.


فِي قَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى لا تُدْرِكُهُ الابْصارُ وَهُوَ يُدْرِكُ الابْصارَ.


8. Muhammad ibn Yahya and others have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from ibn abu Nasr from abu al-Hassan al-Rida (a.s.) who has said that the holy Prophet (s.a.) said, “When Jibril took me for a visit to the heavens we reached a place where he had never sat food there before. Then it was unveiled to him and Allah showed him of the light of His greatness that which he loved.” On the words of Allah “ No mortal eyes can see Him, but He can see all eyes. He is All-kind and All-aware. (6:103)


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/338)



9ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي نَجْرَانَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي قَوْلِهِ لا تُدْرِكُهُ الابْصارُ قَالَ إِحَاطَةُ الْوَهْمِ أَ لا تَرَى إِلَى قَوْلِهِ قَدْ جاءَكُمْ بَصائِرُ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ لَيْسَ يَعْنِي بَصَرَ الْعُيُونِ فَمَنْ أَبْصَرَ فَلِنَفْسِهِ لَيْسَ يَعْنِي مِنَ الْبَصَرِ بِعَيْنِهِ وَمَنْ عَمِيَ فَعَلَيْها لَيْسَ يَعْنِي عَمَى الْعُيُونِ إِنَّمَا عَنَى إِحَاطَةَ الْوَهْمِ كَمَا يُقَالُ فُلانٌ بَصِيرٌ بِالشِّعْرِ وَفُلانٌ بَصِيرٌ بِالْفِقْهِ وَفُلانٌ بَصِيرٌ بِالدَّرَاهِمِ وَفُلانٌ بَصِيرٌ بِالثِّيَابِ الله أَعْظَمُ مِنْ أَنْ يُرَى بِالْعَيْنِ.


9. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from ibn abu Najran from ‘Abdallah ibn Sinan from Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following about the words of Allah. “No mortal eyes can see Him, but He can see all eyes. He is All-kind and All-aware.” (6:103) It means within what is called al-Wahm which in terms of the degrees of knowledge is less than fifty percent. Consider the words of Allah in: “Clear proofs have certainly come to you from your Lord.. .” (6:104) It does not mean eye-witnessed knowledge. Also consider, “Whosoever sees clearly, it is to his own gain.” (ibid) does not mean seeing with the eyes and in “Whosoever is blind, it is to his own loss’ (ibid ). Blindness does not mean deprivation of eye-sight. It means within the range of Wahm (mentioned above). As is commonly said, so and so is very keen-sighted in matters of poetry, and so and so is very keen-sighted in religion and jurisprudence. So and so has a keen eye for money, and so and so an eye for clothes. Allah is far great and above being eye-witnessed by people.”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (339/ 1)



10ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ أَبِي هَاشِمٍ الْجَعْفَرِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الله هَلْ يُوصَفُ فَقَالَ أَ مَا تَقْرَأُ الْقُرْآنَ قُلْتُ بَلَى قَالَ أَ مَا تَقْرَأُ قَوْلَهُ تَعَالَى لا تُدْرِكُهُ الابْصارُ وَهُوَ يُدْرِكُ الابْصارَ قُلْتُ بَلَى قَالَ فَتَعْرِفُونَ الابْصَارَ قُلْتُ بَلَى قَالَ مَا هِيَ قُلْتُ أَبْصَارُ الْعُيُونِ فَقَالَ إِنَّ أَوْهَامَ الْقُلُوبِ أَكْبَرُ مِنْ أَبْصَارِ الْعُيُونِ فَهُوَ لا تُدْرِكُهُ الاوْهَامُ وَهُوَ يُدْرِكُ الاوْهَامَ.


10. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Abu Hashim al-Ja‘fari who has said the following. “I asked Imam abul Hassan al-Rida (a.s.), about Allah if He can be described (defined in words). The Imam (a.s.) said, “Have you not read the Quran?” I replied, “Yes, I do read the Quran.” He then said, “Have you not read the words of Allah, the Most High, “No mortal eyes can see Him, but He can see all eyes. He is All-kind and All-aware.” (6:103) I replied, “Yes, I have read them.” The Imam (a.s.) said, “Do they know the meaning of the eyes?” I replied, “Yes, they do.” The Imam (a.s.) said, “What is it?” I replied, “ It means seeing with the eyes.” Then the Imam said, the Awham (mentioned above) of the heart is far greater comprehensive in knowledge than eye-witnessing. It is not able to comprehend Him but He comprehends all things.”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/339)



11ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله عَمَّنْ ذَكَرَهُ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ دَاوُدَ بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ أَبِي هَاشِمٍ الْجَعْفَرِيِّ قَالَ قُلْتُ لابي جعفر (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) لا تُدْرِكُهُ الابْصارُ وَهُوَ يُدْرِكُ الابْصارَ فَقَالَ يَا أَبَا هَاشِمٍ أَوْهَامُ الْقُلُوبِ أَدَقُّ مِنْ أَبْصَارِ الْعُيُونِ أَنْتَ قَدْ تُدْرِكُ بِوَهْمِكَ السِّنْدَ وَالْهِنْدَ وَالْبُلْدَانَ الَّتِي لَمْ تَدْخُلْهَا وَلا تُدْرِكُهَا بِبَصَرِكَ وَأَوْهَامُ الْقُلُوبِ لا تُدْرِكُهُ فَكَيْفَ أَبْصَارُ الْعُيُونِ.


11. Muhammad ibn abu ‘Abdallah has narrated from the person whose name he mentioned from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Dawud ibn al-Qasim abu Hashim al-Ja‘fari who has said the following. “I mentioned the words of Allah , ‘No mortal eyes can see Him, but He can see all eyes. He is All-kind and All-aware.’ (6:103) to Imam abu Ja’far (a.s.). He said, “O abu Hashim, Awham (mentioned above) of hearts are keener and sharper than the perceptions of the eyes. Through the Awham of the heart you can perceive countries like Sind, Hind (India) and other cities which you have never seen with your eyes. How can your eyes see Him when the Awham of your heart cannot perceive Him?”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (141/ 1)



12ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ قَالَ الاشْيَاءُ كُلُّهَا لا تُدْرَكُ إِلا بِأَمْرَيْنِ بِالْحَوَاسِّ وَالْقَلْبِ وَالْحَوَاسُّ إِدْرَاكُهَا عَلَى ثَلاثَةِ مَعَانٍ إِدْرَاكاً بِالْمُدَاخَلَةِ وَإِدْرَاكاً بِالْمُمَاسَّةِ وَإِدْرَاكاً بِلا مُدَاخَلَةٍ وَلا؛ّّ مُمَاسَّةٍ فَأَمَّا الادْرَاكُ الَّذِي بِالْمُدَاخَلَةِ فَالاصْوَاتُ وَالْمَشَامُّ وَالطُّعُومُ وَأَمَّا الادْرَاكُ بِالْمُمَاسَّةِ فَمَعْرِفَةُ الاشْكَالِ مِنَ التَّرْبِيعِ وَالتَّثْلِيثِ وَمَعْرِفَةُ اللَّيِّنِ وَالْخَشِنِ وَالْحَرِّ وَالْبَرْدِ وَأَمَّا الادْرَاكُ بِلا مُمَاسَّةٍ وَلا مُدَاخَلَةٍ فَالْبَصَرُ فَإِنَّهُ يُدْرِكُ الاشْيَاءَ بِلا مُمَاسَّةٍ وَلا مُدَاخَلَةٍ فِي حَيِّزِ غَيْرِهِ وَلا فِي حَيِّزِهِ وَإِدْرَاكُ الْبَصَرِ لَهُ سَبِيلٌ وَسَبَبٌ فَسَبِيلُهُ الْهَوَاءُ وَسَبَبُهُ الضِّيَاءُ فَإِذَا كَانَ السَّبِيلُ مُتَّصِلاً بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ الْمَرْئِيِّ وَالسَّبَبُ قَائِمٌ أَدْرَكَ مَا يُلاقِي مِنَ الالْوَانِ وَالاشْخَاصِ فَإِذَا حُمِلَ الْبَصَرُ عَلَى مَا لا سَبِيلَ لَهُ فِيهِ رَجَعَ رَاجِعاً فَحَكَى مَا وَرَاءَهُ كَالنَّاظِرِ فِي الْمِرْآةِ لا يَنْفُذُ بَصَرُهُ فِي الْمِرْآةِ فَإِذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ سَبِيلٌ رَجَعَ رَاجِعاً يَحْكِي مَا وَرَاءَهُ وَكَذَلِكَ النَّاظِرُ فِي الْمَاءِ الصَّافِي يَرْجِعُ رَاجِعاً فَيَحْكِي مَا وَرَاءَهُ إِذْ لا سَبِيلَ لَهُ فِي إِنْفَاذِ بَصَرِهِ فَأَمَّا الْقَلْبُ فَإِنَّمَا سُلْطَانُهُ عَلَى الْهَوَاءِ فَهُوَ يُدْرِكُ جَمِيعَ مَا فِي الْهَوَاءِ وَيَتَوَهَّمُهُ فَإِذَا حُمِلَ الْقَلْبُ عَلَى مَا لَيْسَ فِي الْهَوَاءِ مَوْجُوداً رَجَعَ رَاجِعاً فَحَكَى مَا فِي الْهَوَاءِ فَلا يَنْبَغِي لِلْعَاقِلِ أَنْ يَحْمِلَ قَلْبَهُ عَلَى مَا لَيْسَ مَوْجُوداً فِي الْهَوَاءِ مِنْ أَمْرِ التَّوْحِيدِ جَلَّ الله وَعَزَّ فَإِنَّهُ إِنْ فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ لَمْ يَتَوَهَّمْ إِلا مَا فِي الْهَوَاءِ مَوْجُودٌ كَمَا قُلْنَا فِي أَمْرِ الْبَصَرِ تَعَالَى الله أَنْ يُشْبِهَهُ خَلْقُهُ.


12. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from some of his people from Hisham ibn al-Hakam who has said the following. “Things can be perceived by two means: (1) By the senses and (2) by the heart, intellect. Perceptions of the senses are of three kinds: (1) Perception in the form of penetration, (2) Perception in the form of touching, and (3) Perception without penetration or touCh Perception by means of sounds, smells and tastes are formed through penetration. Perception through touching comes from the knowledge of shapes, such as rectangular or triangular etc., and also softness, hardness, heat and cold. Perception without touch or penetration is that of sight which is capable of perceiving things without touching or penetration, directly or indirectly. Perception through sight needs a path and medium. Its path is air and its medium is the light. If the path is continuous between the viewer and the object and the medium then seeing takes place such as colors and persons. If light falls on something without a path, it will return reflecting what is behind (the observed), like an observer looking into a mirror. Light does not penetrate into the mirror, because it finds no path. So it returns reflecting what lies behind the observed. It is similar to looking into the clear water returns light that reflects what is at the rear. This happens because there is no path for the penetration of light. Intellect dominates the air. It perceives all that is in the air and forms his Wahm (intuitive form of perception). If the heart will not find any thing in the air it comes back and reflects what is in the air. A person of reason should not force his heart against what is not in the air of the issue of the Oneness of Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, otherwise, it will form his Wahm of what is there in the air as mentioned about the eye-witnessing. Allah, the Most High is far and above similarities with the creatures.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل موقو ف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (1/141)