Al-Kāfi - Volume 1 > Predestination, Fate and the Middle Road in Between
Hadith #1

عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَإِسْحَاقَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَغَيْرِهِمَا رَفَعُوهُ قَالَ كَانَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) جَالِساً بِالْكُوفَةِ بَعْدَ مُنْصَرَفِهِ مِنْ صِفِّينَ إِذْ أَقْبَلَ شَيْخٌ فَجَثَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهُ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَخْبِرْنَا عَنْ مَسِيرِنَا إِلَى أَهْلِ الشَّامِ أَ بِقَضَاءٍ مِنَ الله وَقَدَرٍ فَقَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَجَلْ يَا شَيْخُ مَا عَلَوْتُمْ تَلْعَةً وَلا هَبَطْتُمْ بَطْنَ وَادٍ إِلا بِقَضَاءٍ مِنَ الله وَقَدَرٍ فَقَالَ لَهُ الشَّيْخُ عِنْدَ الله أَحْتَسِبُ عَنَائِي يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَقَالَ لَهُ مَهْ يَا شَيْخُ فَوَ الله لَقَدْ عَظَّمَ الله الاجْرَ فِي مَسِيرِكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ سَائِرُونَ وَفِي مَقَامِكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ مُقِيمُونَ وَفِي مُنْصَرَفِكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ مُنْصَرِفُونَ وَلَمْ تَكُونُوا فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنْ حَالاتِكُمْ مُكْرَهِينَ وَلا إِلَيْهِ مُضْطَرِّينَ فَقَالَ لَهُ الشَّيْخُ وَكَيْفَ لَمْ نَكُنْ فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنْ حَالاتِنَا مُكْرَهِينَ وَلا إِلَيْهِ مُضْطَرِّينَ وَكَانَ بِالْقَضَاءِ وَالْقَدَرِ مَسِيرُنَا وَمُنْقَلَبُنَا وَمُنْصَرَفُنَا فَقَالَ لَهُ وَتَظُنُّ أَنَّهُ كَانَ قَضَاءً حَتْماً وَقَدَراً لازِماً إِنَّهُ لَوْ كَانَ كَذَلِكَ لَبَطَلَ الثَّوَابُ وَالْعِقَابُ وَالامْرُ وَالنَّهْيُ وَالزَّجْرُ مِنَ الله وَسَقَطَ مَعْنَى الْوَعْدِ وَالْوَعِيدِ فَلَمْ تَكُنْ لائِمَةٌ لِلْمُذْنِبِ وَلا مَحْمَدَةٌ لِلْمُحْسِنِ وَلَكَانَ الْمُذْنِبُ أَوْلَى بِالاحْسَانِ مِنَ الْمُحْسِنِ وَلَكَانَ الْمُحْسِنُ أَوْلَى بِالْعُقُوبَةِ مِنَ الْمُذْنِبِ تِلْكَ مَقَالَةُ إِخْوَانِ عَبَدَةِ الاوْثَانِ وَخُصَمَاءِ الرَّحْمَنِ وَحِزْبِ الشَّيْطَانِ وَقَدَرِيَّةِ هَذِهِ الامَّةِ وَمَجُوسِهَا إِنَّ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى كَلَّفَ تَخْيِيراً وَنَهَى تَحْذِيراً وَأَعْطَى عَلَى الْقَلِيلِ كَثِيراً وَلَمْ يُعْصَ مَغْلُوباً وَلَمْ يُطَعْ مُكْرِهاً وَلَمْ يُمَلِّكْ مُفَوِّضاً وَلَمْ يَخْلُقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالارْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا بَاطِلاً وَلَمْ يَبْعَثِ النَّبِيِّينَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنْذِرِينَ عَبَثاً ذَلِكَ ظَنُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَوَيْلٌ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنَ النَّارِ فَأَنْشَأَ الشَّيْخُ يَقُولُ. أَنْتَ الامَامُ الَّذِي نَرْجُـــو بِطَاعَـــتِهِ يَـــــوْمَ النَّجَاةِ مِنَ الرَّحْمَنِ غُفْرَاناً أَوْضَحْتَ مِنْ أَمْرِنَا مَا كَانَ مُلْتَبِساً جَــــزَاكَ رَبُّكَ بِالاحْســــَانِ إِحْسَاناً

Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Ishaq ibn Muhammad and others, in a marfu‘ manner, who have said the following. “Once in Kufa, after Amir al-Mu’minin Ali’s, recipient of divine supreme covenant, return from Siffin, a man came to him and sat with his legs folded underneath in front of the Imam and said, ‘O Amir al-Mu’minin, tell us about our journey against the people of Sham (Syria). Was it because of Allah’s decree and determination or not?’ ‘Amir al-Mu’minin Ali said, “Yes, O Shaykh, every hill that you climbed and every valley that you crossed was because of the decree and the determination of Allah.”’ The Shaykh then said, ‘Will my tiring efforts be counted in the sight of Allah, O Amir al-Mu’minin?’ “The Imam said, ‘Be patient, O Shaykh. I swear by Allah that He will grant you a great reward for your journey wherever you traveled, for your stay wherever you rested and for your return when you were headed back. In none of these conditions that you went through were you coerced or compelled.’ The Shaykh then said, ‘How can we not be considered compelled or coerced when all of our journey, rest and return were because of the decree and determination of Allah?’ “The Imam said, ‘Do you think it was all due to unavoidable decree and binding determination? Had it been so all the reward, punishment, commandments, orders and warnings from Allah would remain invalid and meaningless. The promise and warnings would fall apart. No one could blame the sinners and no one would praise the people of good deeds. The sinners could have been more deserving than the people of good deeds could, and the latter ones could have deserved more punishment. Such can only be the belief of the idol worshippers, the enemies of the Beneficent, of the party of Satan, the determinist of this Ummah (nation) and her Zoroastrians. ‘Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, has obligated people on the basis of their freedom and choice. His prohibitions serve as warnings. He rewards a great deal for very little of deeds. Disobedience to Him is not due to His weakness or His defeat. Obedience to Him is not due to compulsion and coercion. He has not given the power to people in the absolute sense. He has not created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them without a purpose. He has not sent the messengers and the prophets to warn and promise people just to play a trick. Such could only be the belief of the unbelievers. Woe is for the unbelievers to suffer in the fire.’ “The Shaykh then recited the following lines that he composed instantaneously: ‘You are the Imam whose obedience, one day, we hope, Salvation it will bring and forgiveness from the Beneficent (God). Explain you did our issue that was vague. May your Lord reward (your) favor with (His) favor.’”



Hadith #2

الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الْوَشَّاءِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله قَالَ مَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّ الله يَأْمُرُ بِالْفَحْشَاءِ فَقَدْ كَذَبَ عَلَى الله وَمَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّ الْخَيْرَ وَالشَّرَّ إِلَيْهِ فَقَدْ كَذَبَ عَلَى الله.

Husayn ibn Ali al-Washsha’ from Hammad ibn ‘Uthman from abu Basir from (Imam) abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, who said the following: “Whoever thinks that Allah orders people to commit sins has ascribed lies to Allah and whoever thinks that good and evil are from Allah has ascribed lies to Allah.” (See also Hadith No. 6 below).



Hadith #3

الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الْوَشَّاءِ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ فَقُلْتُ الله فَوَّضَ الامْرَ إِلَى الْعِبَادِ قَالَ الله أَعَزُّ مِنْ ذَلِكَ قُلْتُ فَجَبَرَهُمْ عَلَى الْمَعَاصِي قَالَ الله أَعْدَلُ وَأَحْكَمُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ قَالَ ثُمَّ قَالَ قَالَ الله يَا ابْنَ آدَمَ أَنَا أَوْلَى بِحَسَنَاتِكَ مِنْكَ وَأَنْتَ أَوْلَى بِسَيِّئَاتِكَ مِنِّي عَمِلْتَ الْمَعَاصِيَ بِقُوَّتِيَ الَّتِي جَعَلْتُهَا فِيكَ.

Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla ibn Muhammad from al- Husayn ibn Ali al-Washsha’ the following from abu al-Hassan al-Rida, recipient of divine supreme covenant,: “Once I asked the Imam, recipient of divine supreme covenant, ‘Has Allah left all the matters to people?’ The Imam said, ‘Allah, Most Exalted, is by far above and beyond such things.’ I then asked, ‘Has He compelled them to commit sins?’ The Imam said, ‘Allah’s justice and His judgment are far above and beyond such things.’ The Imam further said, ‘Allah has said, “O sons of Adam, I have more credit in your good deeds than you yourself do and you have more responsibility for your bad deeds than I do. You commit sins with the power that I have given to you.’”



Hadith #4

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ مَرَّارٍ عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ قَالَ قَالَ لِي أَبُو الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَا يُونُسُ لا تَقُلْ بِقَوْلِ الْقَدَرِيَّةِ فَإِنَّ الْقَدَرِيَّةَ لَمْ يَقُولُوا بِقَوْلِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ وَلا بِقَوْلِ أَهْلِ النَّارِ وَلا بِقَوْلِ إِبْلِيسَ فَإِنَّ أَهْلَ الْجَنَّةِ قَالُوا الْحَمْدُ لله الَّذِي هَدانا لِهذا وَما كُنَّا لِنَهْتَدِيَ لَوْ لا أَنْ هَدانَا الله وَقَالَ أَهْلُ النَّارِ رَبَّنا غَلَبَتْ عَلَيْنا شِقْوَتُنا وَكُنَّا قَوْماً ضالِّينَ وَقَالَ إِبْلِيسُ رَبِّ بِما أَغْوَيْتَنِي فَقُلْتُ وَالله مَا أَقُولُ بِقَوْلِهِمْ وَلَكِنِّي أَقُولُ لا يَكُونُ إِلا بِمَا شَاءَ الله وَأَرَادَ وَقَدَّرَ وَقَضَى فَقَالَ يَا يُونُسُ لَيْسَ هَكَذَا لا يَكُونُ إِلا مَا شَاءَ الله وَأَرَادَ وَقَدَّرَ وَقَضَى يَا يُونُسُ تَعْلَمُ مَا الْمَشِيئَةُ قُلْتُ لا قَالَ هِيَ الذِّكْرُ الاوَّلُ فَتَعْلَمُ مَا الارَادَةُ قُلْتُ لا قَالَ هِيَ الْعَزِيمَةُ عَلَى مَا يَشَاءُ فَتَعْلَمُ مَا الْقَدَرُ قُلْتُ لا قَالَ هِيَ الْهَنْدَسَةُ وَوَضْعُ الْحُدُودِ مِنَ الْبَقَاءِ وَالْفَنَاءِ قَالَ ثُمَّ قَالَ وَالْقَضَاءُ هُوَ الابْرَامُ وَإِقَامَةُ الْعَيْنِ قَالَ فَاسْتَأْذَنْتُهُ أَنْ أُقَبِّلَ رَأْسَهُ وَقُلْتُ فَتَحْتَ لِي شَيْئاً كُنْتُ عَنْهُ فِي غَفْلَةٍ.

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Isma‘il ibn Marrar from Yunus ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman who has said that abu al-Hassan al-Rida, recipient of divine supreme covenant, said to me the following: “O Yunus do not say what pre-determinists say. The pre- determinists do not say what people of paradise say or what people of hell say or what Satan says. The people of paradise say, ‘. . . all praise is due to Allah for His guiding us. We could never have been guided without Allah’s guiding us.’ (7:43) The people of hell say, ‘Lord, our misfortune overwhelmed us and we became lost,’ (23:107) and Satan said, ‘My Lord for your making me to rebel . . .’ (15:39) “I then said, ‘I swear by Allah that I do not say what they say but I only say that there will be nothing unless Allah will want, will, measure and decree.’ The Imam, recipient of divine supreme covenant, said, ‘O Yunus, it is not that, ‘there will be nothing unless Allah will want, will, measure and decree.’ O Yunus, do you know what is want?’ I said, ‘No, I do not know.’ The Imam said, ‘It is the first mention of something. Do you know what is will?’ I said, ‘No, I do not know.’ The Imam said, ‘It is the intention to do something. Do you know what measurement is?’ I said, ‘No, I do not know.’ The Imam said, ‘It is the figure, the position, the limits of survival and extinction.’ “The Imam further said, ‘The decree is the readiness and the production of substance.’ I then asked permission to kiss his head and said, ‘You just opened for me something of which I was unaware.’”



Hadith #5

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ عُمَرَ الْيَمَانِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِنَّ الله خَلَقَ الْخَلْقَ فَعَلِمَ مَا هُمْ صَائِرُونَ إِلَيْهِ وَأَمَرَهُمْ وَنَهَاهُمْ فَمَا أَمَرَهُمْ بِهِ مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَقَدْ جَعَلَ لَهُمُ السَّبِيلَ إِلَى تَرْكِهِ وَلا يَكُونُونَ آخِذِينَ وَلا تَارِكِينَ إِلا بِإِذْنِ الله.

Muhammad ibn Isma‘il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from Ibrahim ibn ‘Umar al-Yamani from abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, who said the following: “Allah created the creatures and He knew what they will do. He commanded and prohibited them. He has not commanded them to do anything but that He has placed there a way for them not to obey the command (if they so wanted). They do not obey or disobey except by Allah’s permission.”



Hadith #6

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ عَنْ حَفْصِ بْنِ قُرْطٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) مَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّ الله يَأْمُرُ بِالسُّوءِ وَالْفَحْشَاءِ فَقَدْ كَذَبَ عَلَى الله وَمَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّ الْخَيْرَ وَالشَّرَّ بِغَيْرِ مَشِيئَةِ الله فَقَدْ أَخْرَجَ الله مِنْ سُلْطَانِهِ وَمَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّ الْمَعَاصِيَ بِغَيْرِ قُوَّةِ الله فَقَدْ كَذَبَ عَلَى الله وَمَنْ كَذَبَ عَلَى الله أَدْخَلَهُ الله النَّارَ.

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus ibn ‘Abd al- Rahman from Hafs ibn Qirt from abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, who said the following: “The messenger of Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, has said, ‘Whoever believes that Allah has commanded to do evil and sin has ascribed lies to Allah. Whoever thinks that good and evil are without the wish of Allah, has considered Allah without authority. Whoever thinks that sins are without the power from Allah, has ascribed lies to Allah and whoever ascribes lies to Allah, He will make him to enter the fire.’”



Hadith #7

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ جَابِرٍ قَالَ كَانَ فِي مَسْجِدِ الْمَدِينَةِ رَجُلٌ يَتَكَلَّمُ فِي الْقَدَرِ وَالنَّاسُ مُجْتَمِعُونَ قَالَ فَقُلْتُ يَا هَذَا أَسْأَلُكَ قَالَ سَلْ قُلْتُ يَكُونُ فِي مُلْكِ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى مَا لا يُرِيدُ قَالَ فَأَطْرَقَ طَوِيلاً ثُمَّ رَفَعَ رَأْسَهُ إِلَيَّ فَقَالَ لِي يَا هَذَا لَئِنْ قُلْتُ إِنَّهُ يَكُونُ فِي مُلْكِهِ مَا لا يُرِيدُ إِنَّهُ لَمَقْهُورٌ وَلَئِنْ قُلْتُ لا يَكُونُ فِي مُلْكِهِ إِلا مَا يُرِيدُ أَقْرَرْتُ لَكَ بِالْمَعَاصِي قَالَ فَقُلْتُ لابِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) سَأَلْتُ هَذَا الْقَدَرِيَّ فَكَانَ مِنْ جَوَابِهِ كَذَا وَكَذَا فَقَالَ لِنَفْسِهِ نَظَرَ أَمَا لَوْ قَالَ غَيْرَ مَا قَالَ لَهَلَكَ.

A number of persons of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn abu ‘Abd Allah from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from Isma‘il ibn Jabir who has said the following: “In the mosque of Madina there was a person who spoke of the issue of predetermination and people had gathered around him. I said to him, ‘O you, can I ask you a question?’ He said, ‘Yes, you may do so.’ I then said, ‘Can there be a thing in the kingdom of Allah the Majestic, the Glorious, that He may not want?’ He remained thinking for a while and then said to me, ‘O you, if I said that there can be something in His kingdom He does not want it means that He is defeated. If I say that there is nothing in His kingdom that He may not want I am giving you permission to commit sin. “I then told the story of that determinist to abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, who said, ‘He (the determinist man) looked for his own interest. Had he said something else he would have been destroyed.’”



Hadith #8

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ زَعْلانَ عَنْ أَبِي طَالِبٍ الْقُمِّيِّ عَنْ رَجُلٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قُلْتُ أَجْبَرَ الله الْعِبَادَ عَلَى الْمَعَاصِي قَالَ لا قُلْتُ فَفَوَّضَ إِلَيْهِمُ الامْرَ قَالَ قَالَ لا قَالَ قُلْتُ فَمَا ذَا قَالَ لُطْفٌ مِنْ رَبِّكَ بَيْنَ ذَلِكَ.

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hassan Za‘lan from abu Talib al-Qummi from a man the following from abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, who has said the following: “I asked the Imam, recipient of divine supreme covenant, ‘Has Allah compelled the servants to sin?’ The Imam replied, ‘No, He has not compelled them.’ I then said, ‘Has He left all matters to them?’ He replied, ‘No, He has not done so.’ I asked, ‘Then how is it?’ The Imam then said, ‘It is a way of kindness from your Lord in between.’”



Hadith #9

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ عَنْ غَيْرِ وَاحِدٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ وَأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالا إِنَّ الله أَرْحَمُ بِخَلْقِهِ مِنْ أَنْ يُجْبِرَ خَلْقَهُ عَلَى الذُّنُوبِ ثُمَّ يُعَذِّبَهُمْ عَلَيْهَا وَالله أَعَزُّ مِنْ أَنْ يُرِيدَ أَمْراً فَلا يَكُونَ قَالَ فَسُئِلا (عَلَيْهما السَّلام) هَلْ بَيْنَ الْجَبْرِ وَالْقَدَرِ مَنْزِلَةٌ ثَالِثَةٌ قَالا نَعَمْ أَوْسَعُ مِمَّا بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالارْضِ.

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus ibn ‘Abd al- Rahman from more than one person from abu Ja’far, recipient of divine supreme covenant, and abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, who have said the following: “Allah is more kind to His creatures than to compel them to sin and then punish them. Allah, the Most Majestic is by far beyond willing something that cannot come into existence.” The two Imam, recipient of divine supreme covenant, were asked if there was a third reality between compulsion and predetermination. They replied, ‘Yes, there is something bigger than what is between the heavens and the earth.’”



Hadith #10

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ عَنْ صَالِحِ بْنِ سَهْلٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سُئِلَ عَنِ الْجَبْرِ وَالْقَدَرِ فَقَالَ لا جَبْرَ وَلا قَدَرَ وَلَكِنْ مَنْزِلَةٌ بَيْنَهُمَا فِيهَا الْحَقُّ الَّتِي بَيْنَهُمَا لا يَعْلَمُهَا إِلا الْعَالِمُ أَوْ مَنْ عَلَّمَهَا إِيَّاهُ الْعَالِمُ.

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad from Yunus ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman from Salih ibn Sahl from certain persons of his people from abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, who has said the following when asked about compulsion and predetermination: “There is no compulsion and no predetermination. It is something between the two. In this there is the truth that is known only to a scholar or one whom the scholar has taught.”



Hadith #11

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ عِدَّةٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ لَهُ رَجُلٌ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ أَجْبَرَ الله الْعِبَادَ عَلَى الْمَعَاصِي فَقَالَ الله أَعْدَلُ مِنْ أَنْ يُجْبِرَهُمْ عَلَى الْمَعَاصِي ثُمَّ يُعَذِّبَهُمْ عَلَيْهَا فَقَالَ لَهُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ فَفَوَّضَ الله إِلَى الْعِبَادِ قَالَ فَقَالَ لَوْ فَوَّضَ إِلَيْهِمْ لَمْ يَحْصُرْهُمْ بِالامْرِ وَالنَّهْيِ فَقَالَ لَهُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ فَبَيْنَهُمَا مَنْزِلَةٌ قَالَ فَقَالَ نَعَمْ أَوْسَعُ مَا بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالارْضِ.

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad from Yunus from ‘Idda who said the following: “Once a man said to abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, ‘May Allah keep my soul in service for your cause, has Allah compelled people to sin?’ The Imam said, ‘Allah is just and by far beyond compelling people to sin and then punishing them for it.’ The man then said, ‘May Allah keep my soul in service for your cause, has He then left all matters to the servants?’ The Imam said, ‘Had He left all matters to the people He would not have restricted them with commandments and prohibitions.’ The man then said, ‘May Allah keep my soul in service for your cause, is there a stage between the two?’ The Imam said, ‘Yes, there is something bigger than what is between the heavens and the earth.’”



Hadith #12

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله وَغَيْرُهُ عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لابِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِنَّ بَعْضَ أَصْحَابِنَا يَقُولُ بِالْجَبْرِ وَبَعْضَهُمْ يَقُولُ بِالاسْتِطَاعَةِ قَالَ فَقَالَ لِي اكْتُبْ بِسْمِ الله الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ قَالَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ قَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَا ابْنَ آدَمَ بِمَشِيئَتِي كُنْتَ أَنْتَ الَّذِي تَشَاءُ وَبِقُوَّتِي أَدَّيْتَ إِلَيَّ فَرَائِضِي وَبِنِعْمَتِي قَوِيتَ عَلَى مَعْصِيَتِي جَعَلْتُكَ سَمِيعاً بَصِيراً مَا أَصَابَكَ مِنْ حَسَنَةٍ فَمِنَ الله وَمَا أَصَابَكَ مِنْ سَيِّئَةٍ فَمِنْ نَفْسِكَ وَذَلِكَ أَنِّي أَوْلَى بِحَسَنَاتِكَ مِنْكَ وَأَنْتَ أَوْلَى بِسَيِّئَاتِكَ مِنِّي وَذَلِكَ أَنِّي لا أُسْأَلُ عَمَّا أَفْعَلُ وَهُمْ يُسْأَلُونَ قَدْ نَظَمْتُ لَكَ كُلَّ شَيْ‏ءٍ تُرِيدُ.

Muhammad ibn abu ‘Abd Allah and others have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn abu Nasr who said the following: “Once I asked abu al-Hassan al-Rida, recipient of divine supreme covenant, ‘Certain persons of our people believe in compulsion and others believe in people’s capabilities. The Imam said, ‘Write down, “In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful, (Imam) Ali ibn al-Husayn, recipient of divine supreme covenant, has said that Allah, the Most Majestic has said, ‘O son of Adam, through My will it is you who wish. With My power you fulfill your obligations to Me. With My bounties you become strong to sin. I made you to hear and see. Whatever good you receive is from Allah. Whatever evil befalls you is from your own soul. It is because I have more credit in your good deeds than you do and you are more responsible for your bad deeds than I am. It is because I am not questioned about what I do and they are the ones who are questioned about their deeds. I have organized for you all things that you want.’”



Hadith #13

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله عَنْ حُسَيْنِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَمَّنْ حَدَّثَهُ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ لا جَبْرَ وَلا تَفْوِيضَ وَلَكِنْ أَمْرٌ بَيْنَ أَمْرَيْنِ قَالَ قُلْتُ وَمَا أَمْرٌ بَيْنَ أَمْرَيْنِ قَالَ مَثَلُ ذَلِكَ رَجُلٌ رَأَيْتَهُ عَلَى مَعْصِيَةٍ فَنَهَيْتَهُ فَلَمْ يَنْتَهِ فَتَرَكْتَهُ فَفَعَلَ تِلْكَ الْمَعْصِيَةَ فَلَيْسَ حَيْثُ لَمْ يَقْبَلْ مِنْكَ فَتَرَكْتَهُ كُنْتَ أَنْتَ الَّذِي أَمَرْتَهُ بِالْمَعْصِيَةِ.

Muhammad ibn abu ‘Abd Allah has narrated from Husayn ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Yahya from those he has narrated from, from abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, who said the following: “There is no compulsion and no total freedom but it is a matter between the two.” The narrator has said, ‘I asked what is, “it is a matter between the two?” The Imam, recipient of divine supreme covenant, said, ‘One example of this is the case of a man whom you may see that sins and you try to stop him but he does not listen. You then leave him alone and he sins. That is because he did not listen to you and you left him alone; if you were considered as ordering him to sin, it is not true.’”



Hadith #14

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ الْبَرْقِيِّ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ الله أَكْرَمُ مِنْ أَنْ يُكَلِّفَ النَّاسَ مَا لا يُطِيقُونَ وَالله أَعَزُّ مِنْ أَنْ يَكُونَ فِي سُلْطَانِهِ مَا لا يُرِيدُ.

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Barqi from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Hisham ibn Salim from abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, who said the following: “Allah is by far Gracious and beyond ordering people to do what they are not capable of doing. Allah is by far Majestic and beyond a situation wherein things may exist in His kingdom that He does not want.”