5. Chapter on the Qualities of the Scholars

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1ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى الْعَطَّارُ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ وَهْبٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ اطْلُبُوا الْعِلْمَ وَتَزَيَّنُوا مَعَهُ بِالْحِلْمِ وَالْوَقَارِ وَتَوَاضَعُوا لِمَنْ تُعَلِّمُونَهُ الْعِلْمَ وَتَوَاضَعُوا لِمَنْ طَلَبْتُمْ مِنْهُ الْعِلْمَ وَلا تَكُونُوا عُلَمَاءَ جَبَّارِينَ فَيَذْهَبَ بَاطِلُكُمْ بِحَقِّكُمْ.


1. Muhammad ibn Yahya al-‘Attar from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from Mu‘awiya ibn Wahab who has said the following. “Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) has said. “Seek knowledge and beautify it with forbearance and dignity. Be humble to your students and to those from whom you learn. Do not be a tyrant scholar lest your falsehood would destroy the truth in you.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (118/ 1)



2ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنِ الْحَارِثِ بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ النَّصْرِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي قَوْلِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِنَّما يَخْشَى الله مِنْ عِبادِهِ الْعُلَماءُ قَالَ يَعْنِي بِالْعُلَمَاءِ مَنْ صَدَّقَ فِعْلُهُ قَوْلَهُ وَمَنْ لَمْ يُصَدِّقْ فِعْلُهُ قَوْلَهُ فَلَيْسَ بِعَالِمٍ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus from Hammad ibn ‘Uthman from al-Harith ibn Mughirah al-Nasri from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) about the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most gracious. “Only God’s knowledgeable servants fear Him . ..”, (35:28) that scholars are those whose deeds would testify to the truthfulness of their words, otherwise, they are not scholars.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (118/ 1)



3ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ الْبَرْقِيِّ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ مِهْرَانَ عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْقَمَّاطِ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَ لا أُخْبِرُكُمْ بِالْفَقِيهِ حَقِّ الْفَقِيهِ مَنْ لَمْ يُقَنِّطِ النَّاسَ مِنْ رَحْمَةِ الله وَلَمْ يُؤْمِنْهُمْ مِنْ عَذَابِ الله وَلَمْ يُرَخِّصْ لَهُمْ فِي مَعَاصِي الله وَلَمْ يَتْرُكِ الْقُرْآنَ رَغْبَةً عَنْهُ إِلَى غَيْرِهِ أَلا لا خَيْرَ فِي عِلْمٍ لَيْسَ فِيهِ تَفَهُّمٌ أَلا لا خَيْرَ فِي قِرَاءَةٍ لَيْسَ فِيهَا تَدَبُّرٌ أَلا لا خَيْرَ فِي عِبَادَةٍ لَيْسَ فِيهَا تَفَكُّرٌ وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ أُخْرَى أَلا لا خَيْرَ فِي عِلْمٍ لَيْسَ فِيهِ تَفَهُّمٌ أَلا لا خَيْرَ فِي قِرَاءَةٍ لَيْسَ فِيهَا تَدَبُّرٌ أَلا لا خَيْرَ فِي عِبَادَةٍ لا فِقْهَ فِيهَا أَلا لا خَيْرَ فِي نُسُكٍ لا وَرَعَ فِيهِ.


3. A number of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Barqi from ’Isma’il ibn Mihran from abu Sa‘id al-Qammat from al-Halabi from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following. “Imam Ali (a.s.) said, ‘Do you want me to describe to you the true Faqih, person who truly has a good understanding of religion? A true Faqih is one who does not cause people to despair from the mercy of Allah and does not make them to be unconcerned about the punishment of Allah, who does not allow them to consider disobedience to Allah as permissible and who doe not abandon the holy Quran because of being attracted towards other matters. You must know that there is no goodness in knowledge without good understand (Fiqh). You must know that there is nothing good in a recitation without thinking about it. You must know that there is nothing good in worship without thoughtfulness. In another Hadith it says, “ You must know that there is nothing good in a knowledge without good understanding. You must know that there is nothing good in a recitation without thinking about it. You must know that there is nothing good in worship without having a good understanding of religion. You must know that there is nothing good in performing the acts of Hajj etc. without piety.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (119/ 1)



4ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ النَّيْسَابُورِيِّ جَمِيعاً عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِنَّ مِنْ عَلامَاتِ الْفِقْهِ الْحِلْمَ وَالصَّمْتَ.


4. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa and Muhammad ibn ‘Ism’il from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan al-Naysaburi, all from Safwan ibn Yahya from abu al-Hassan al-Rida (a.s.) who has said the following. “Of the signs of Fiqh, good understanding of religion is forbearance and quietness.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (120/ 1)



5ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الله عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ الْبَرْقِيِّ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ رَفَعَهُ قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) لا يَكُونُ السَّفَهُ وَالْغِرَّةُ فِي قَلْبِ الْعَالِمِ.


5. Ahmad ibn ‘Abdallah from Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Barqi from certain persons of his people in a marfu‘ manner (rafa’ahu) from Amir al-Mu’minin Ali (a.s.) who has said the following. “Foolishness and arrogance are not found in the hearts of the scholars.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرفوع - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (120/ 1)



6ـ وَبِهَذَا الاسْنَادِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ رَفَعَهُ قَالَ قَالَ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَا مَعْشَرَ الْحَوَارِيِّينَ لِي إِلَيْكُمْ حَاجَةٌ اقْضُوهَا لِي قَالُوا قُضِيَتْ حَاجَتُكَ يَا رُوحَ الله فَقَامَ فَغَسَلَ أَقْدَامَهُمْ فَقَالُوا كُنَّا نَحْنُ أَحَقَّ بِهَذَا يَا رُوحَ الله فَقَالَ إِنَّ أَحَقَّ النَّاسِ بِالْخِدْمَةِ الْعَالِمُ إِنَّمَا تَوَاضَعْتُ هَكَذَا لِكَيْمَا تَتَوَاضَعُوا بَعْدِي فِي النَّاسِ كَتَوَاضُعِي لَكُمْ ثُمَّ قَالَ عِيسَى (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) بِالتَّوَاضُعِ تُعْمَرُ الْحِكْمَةُ لا بِالتَّكَبُّرِ وَكَذَلِكَ فِي السَّهْلِ يَنْبُتُ الزَّرْعُ لا فِي الْجَبَلِ.


Through the same chain of narrators it is narrated from Muhammad ibn Khalid from Muhammad ibn Sinan in a marfu‘ manner (rafa’ahu ) from Jesus son of Mary who has said the following to his disciples. “O disciples, I need your help so help me.” They replied, “Your request is granted, O Spirit of God.” Jesus then got up and washed their feet. To this the disciples said, “We were supposed to serve you O Spirit of God.” Jesus then said, “Of the people who must serve others are the scholars. I acted in this humble way so that you will act among people in the humble way I acted before you.” Jesus then said, “With humbleness wisdom is established but not with arrogance. Just as plants grow in plain and soft grounds but not on the hard grounds and rocks.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (120/ 1)



7ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مَعْبَدٍ عَمَّنْ ذَكَرَهُ عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ وَهْبٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ كَانَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ يَا طَالِبَ الْعِلْمِ إِنَّ لِلْعَالِمِ ثَلاثَ عَلامَاتٍ الْعِلْمَ وَالْحِلْمَ وَالصَّمْتَ وَلِلْمُتَكَلِّفِ ثَلاثَ عَلامَاتٍ يُنَازِعُ مَنْ فَوْقَهُ بِالْمَعْصِيَةِ وَيَظْلِمُ مَنْ دُونَهُ بِالْغَلَبَةِ وَيُظَاهِرُ الظَّلَمَةَ.


7. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Ali ibn Ma‘bad from the person whom he mentioned from Mu‘awiya ibn Wahab from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following. “Imam Ali (a.s.), would often say, ‘O seekers of knowledge, (note that) a scholar has three signs: Knowledge, forbearance and quietness. An orator has three signs: He quarrels those higher then him through disobedience. He does injustice to those lower than him in position through domination and he becomes a supporter of the unjust.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (122/ 1)