1. The Beginning of the Stone (black stone) and the Reason for Kissing This Stone

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1ـ حَدَّثَنِي عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ هَاشِمٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ عَمَّارٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ إِنَّ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى لَمَّا أَخَذَ مَوَاثِيقَ الْعِبَادِ أَمَرَ الْحَجَرَ فَالْتَقَمَهَا وَلِذَلِكَ يُقَالُ أَمَانَتِي أَدَّيْتُهَا وَمِيثَاقِي تَعَاهَدْتُهُ لِتَشْهَدَ لِي بِالْمُوَافَاةِ.


1. Narrated to me Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashim from his father and Muhammad ibn Isma‘il from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan all from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Mu‘awiyah ibn ‘Ammar who has said the following: “Abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘When Allah, the most Blessed, the most High, made solemn covenants with His servants, He commanded the Stone. The Stone fed it (the covenant) to itself. For this reason it is said, ‘This is my trust which I return, my covenant that I had undertaken, so you bear witness, in my favor, to my returning it back.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن كالصحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (17/3)



2ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ بُكَيْرٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) لِمَ جُعِلَ اسْتِلامُ الْحَجَرِ فَقَالَ إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ حَيْثُ أَخَذَ مِيثَاقَ بَنِي آدَمَ دَعَا الْحَجَرَ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ فَأَمَرَهُ فَالْتَقَمَ الْمِيثَاقَ فَهُوَ يَشْهَدُ لِمَنْ وَافَاهُ بِالْمُوَافَاةِ.


2. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn abu Nasr from ‘Abd Allah ibn Bukayr from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘Why should one touch (kiss) the Stone?’ He (the Imam) replied, ‘When Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, made a covenant with the children of Adam, He called the Stone from paradise and gave it a command. It swallowed up (fed it to itself) the covenant and it will testify in favor of those who comply with safe return of the trust.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (17/4)



3ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى وَغَيْرُهُ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ عُمَرَ عَنِ ابْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْقَمَّاطِ عَنْ بُكَيْرِ بْنِ أَعْيَنَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) لأَيِّ عِلَّةٍ وَضَعَ الله الْحَجَرَ فِي الرُّكْنِ الَّذِي هُوَ فِيهِ وَلَمْ يُوضَعْ فِي غَيْرِهِ وَلأَيِّ عِلَّةٍ تُقَبَّلُ وَلأَيِّ عِلَّةٍ أُخْرِجَ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ وَلأَيِّ عِلَّةٍ وُضِعَ مِيثَاقُ الْعِبَادِ وَالْعَهْدُ فِيهِ وَلَمْ يُوضَعْ فِي غَيْرِهِ وَكَيْفَ السَّبَبُ فِي ذَلِكَ تُخْبِرُنِي جَعَلَنِيَ الله فِدَاكَ فَإِنَّ تَفَكُّرِي فِيهِ لَعَجَبٌ قَالَ فَقَالَ سَأَلْتَ وَأَعْضَلْتَ فِي الْمَسْأَلَةِ وَاسْتَقْصَيْتَ فَافْهَمِ الْجَوَابَ وَفَرِّغْ قَلْبَكَ وَأَصْغِ سَمْعَكَ أُخْبِرْكَ إِنْ شَاءَ الله إِنَّ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى وَضَعَ الْحَجَرَ الأَسْوَدَ وَهِيَ جَوْهَرَةٌ أُخْرِجَتْ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ إِلَى آدَمَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) فَوُضِعَتْ فِي ذَلِكَ الرُّكْنِ لِعِلَّةِ الْمِيثَاقِ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ لَمَّا أَخَذَ مِنْ بَنِي آدَمَ مِنْ ظُهُورِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ حِينَ أَخَذَ الله عَلَيْهِمُ الْمِيثَاقَ فِي ذَلِكَ الْمَكَانِ وَفِي ذَلِكَ الْمَكَانِ تَرَاءَى لَهُمْ وَمِنْ ذَلِكَ الْمَكَانِ يَهْبِطُ الطَّيْرُ عَلَى الْقَائِمِ (عجَّلَ الله تَعالى فَرَجَه) فَأَوَّلُ مَنْ يُبَايِعُهُ ذَلِكَ الطَّائِرُ وَهُوَ وَالله جَبْرَئِيلُ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) وَإِلَى ذَلِكَ الْمَقَامِ يُسْنِدُ الْقَائِمُ ظَهْرَهُ وَهُوَ الْحُجَّةُ وَالدَّلِيلُ عَلَى الْقَائِمِ وَهُوَ الشَّاهِدُ لِمَنْ وَافَاهُ فِي ذَلِكَ الْمَكَانِ وَالشَّاهِدُ عَلَى مَنْ أَدَّى إِلَيْهِ الْمِيثَاقَ وَالْعَهْدَ الَّذِي أَخَذَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَلَى الْعِبَادِ وَأَمَّا الْقُبْلَةُ وَالاسْتِلامُ فَلِعِلَّةِ الْعَهْدِ تَجْدِيداً لِذَلِكَ الْعَهْدِ وَالْمِيثَاقِ وَتَجْدِيداً لِلْبَيْعَةِ لِيُؤَدُّوا إِلَيْهِ الْعَهْدَ الَّذِي أَخَذَ الله عَلَيْهِمْ فِي الْمِيثَاقِ فَيَأْتُوهُ فِي كُلِّ سَنَةٍ وَيُؤَدُّوا إِلَيْهِ ذَلِكَ الْعَهْدَ وَالأَمَانَةَ اللَّذَيْنِ أُخِذَا عَلَيْهِمْ أَ لا تَرَى أَنَّكَ تَقُولُ أَمَانَتِي أَدَّيْتُهَا وَمِيثَاقِي تَعَاهَدْتُهُ لِتَشْهَدَ لِي بِالْمُوَافَاةِ وَوَالله مَا يُؤَدِّي ذَلِكَ أَحَدٌ غَيْرُ شِيعَتِنَا وَلا حَفِظَ ذَلِكَ الْعَهْدَ وَالْمِيثَاقَ أَحَدٌ غَيْرُ شِيعَتِنَا وَإِنَّهُمْ لَيَأْتُوهُ فَيَعْرِفُهُمْ وَيُصَدِّقُهُمْ وَيَأْتِيهِ غَيْرُهُمْ فَيُنْكِرُهُمْ وَيُكَذِّبُهُمْ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ لَمْ يَحْفَظْ ذَلِكَ غَيْرُكُمْ فَلَكُمْ وَالله يَشْهَدُ وَعَلَيْهِمْ وَالله يَشْهَدُ بِالْخَفْرِ وَالْجُحُودِ وَالْكُفْرِ وَهُوَ الْحُجَّةُ الْبَالِغَةُ مِنَ الله عَلَيْهِمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يَجِي‏ءُ وَلَهُ لِسَانٌ نَاطِقٌ وَعَيْنَانِ فِي صُورَتِهِ الأُولَى يَعْرِفُهُ الْخَلْقُ وَلا يُنْكِرُهُ يَشْهَدُ لِمَنْ وَافَاهُ وَجَدَّدَ الْعَهْدَ وَالْمِيثَاقَ عِنْدَهُ بِحِفْظِ الْعَهْدِ وَالْمِيثَاقِ وَأَدَاءِ الأَمَانَةِ وَيَشْهَدُ عَلَى كُلِّ مَنْ أَنْكَرَ وَجَحَدَ وَنَسِيَ الْمِيثَاقَ بِالْكُفْرِ وَالإِنْكَارِ فَأَمَّا عِلَّةُ مَا أَخْرَجَهُ الله مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ فَهَلْ تَدْرِي مَا كَانَ الْحَجَرُ قُلْتُ لا قَالَ كَانَ مَلَكاً مِنْ عُظَمَاءِ الْمَلائِكَةِ عِنْدَ الله فَلَمَّا أَخَذَ الله مِنَ الْمَلائِكَةِ الْمِيثَاقَ كَانَ أَوَّلَ مَنْ آمَنَ بِهِ وَأَقَرَّ ذَلِكَ الْمَلَكُ فَاتَّخَذَهُ الله أَمِيناً عَلَى جَمِيعِ خَلْقِهِ فَأَلْقَمَهُ الْمِيثَاقَ وَأَوْدَعَهُ عِنْدَهُ وَاسْتَعْبَدَ الْخَلْقَ أَنْ يُجَدِّدُوا عِنْدَهُ فِي كُلِّ سَنَةٍ الإِقْرَارَ بِالْمِيثَاقِ وَالْعَهْدِ الَّذِي أَخَذَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَلَيْهِمْ ثُمَّ جَعَلَهُ الله مَعَ آدَمَ فِي الْجَنَّةِ يُذَكِّرُهُ الْمِيثَاقَ وَيُجَدِّدُ عِنْدَهُ الإِقْرَارَ فِي كُلِّ سَنَةٍ. فَلَمَّا عَصَى آدَمُ وَأُخْرِجَ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ أَنْسَاهُ الله الْعَهْدَ وَالْمِيثَاقَ الَّذِي أَخَذَ الله عَلَيْهِ وَعَلَى وُلْدِهِ لِمُحَمَّدٍ (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَلِوَصِيِّهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) وَجَعَلَهُ تَائِهاً حَيْرَانَ فَلَمَّا تَابَ الله عَلَى آدَمَ حَوَّلَ ذَلِكَ الْمَلَكَ فِي صُورَةِ دُرَّةٍ بَيْضَاءَ فَرَمَاهُ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ إِلَى آدَمَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) وَهُوَ بِأَرْضِ الْهِنْدِ فَلَمَّا نَظَرَ إِلَيْهِ آنَسَ إِلَيْهِ وَهُوَ لا يَعْرِفُهُ بِأَكْثَرَ مِنْ أَنَّهُ جَوْهَرَةٌ وَأَنْطَقَهُ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَقَالَ لَهُ يَا آدَمُ أَ تَعْرِفُنِي قَالَ لا قَالَ أَجَلْ اسْتَحْوَذَ عَلَيْكَ الشَّيْطَانُ فَأَنْسَاكَ ذِكْرَ رَبِّكَ ثُمَّ تَحَوَّلَ إِلَى صُورَتِهِ الَّتِي كَانَ مَعَ آدَمَ فِي الْجَنَّةِ فَقَالَ لآِدَمَ أَيْنَ الْعَهْدُ وَالْمِيثَاقُ فَوَثَبَ إِلَيْهِ آدَمُ وَذَكَرَ الْمِيثَاقَ وَبَكَى وَخَضَعَ لَهُ وَقَبَّلَهُ وَجَدَّدَ الإِقْرَارَ بِالْعَهْدِ وَالْمِيثَاقِ ثُمَّ حَوَّلَهُ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلَى جَوْهَرَةِ الْحَجَرِ دُرَّةً بَيْضَاءَ صَافِيَةً تُضِي‏ءُ فَحَمَلَهُ آدَمُ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) عَلَى عَاتِقِهِ إِجْلالاً لَهُ وَتَعْظِيماً فَكَانَ إِذَا أَعْيَا حَمَلَهُ عَنْهُ جَبْرَئِيلُ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) حَتَّى وَافَى بِهِ مَكَّةَ فَمَا زَالَ يَأْنَسُ بِهِ بِمَكَّةَ وَيُجَدِّدُ الإِقْرَارَ لَهُ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ وَلَيْلَةٍ ثُمَّ إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَمَّا بَنَى الْكَعْبَةَ وَضَعَ الْحَجَرَ فِي ذَلِكَ الْمَكَانِ لأَنَّهُ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى حِينَ أَخَذَ الْمِيثَاقَ مِنْ وُلْدِ آدَمَ أَخَذَهُ فِي ذَلِكَ الْمَكَانِ وَفِي ذَلِكَ الْمَكَانِ أَلْقَمَ الْمَلَكَ الْمِيثَاقَ وَلِذَلِكَ وَضَعَ فِي ذَلِكَ الرُّكْنِ وَنَحَّى آدَمَ مِنْ مَكَانِ الْبَيْتِ إِلَى الصَّفَا وَحَوَّاءَ إِلَى الْمَرْوَةِ وَوَضَعَ الْحَجَرَ فِي ذَلِكَ الرُّكْنِ فَلَمَّا نَظَرَ آدَمُ مِنَ الصَّفَا وَقَدْ وُضِعَ الْحَجَرُ فِي الرُّكْنِ كَبَّرَ الله وَهَلله وَمَجَّدَهُ فَلِذَلِكَ جَرَتِ السُّنَّةُ بِالتَّكْبِيرِ وَاسْتِقْبَالِ الرُّكْنِ الَّذِي فِيهِ الْحَجَرُ مِنَ الصَّفَا فَإِنَّ الله أَوْدَعَهُ الْمِيثَاقَ وَالْعَهْدَ دُونَ غَيْرِهِ مِنَ الْمَلائِكَةِ لأَنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَمَّا أَخَذَ الْمِيثَاقَ لَهُ بِالرُّبُوبِيَّةِ وَلِمُحَمَّدٍ (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) بِالنُّبُوَّةِ وَلِعَلِيٍّ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) بِالْوَصِيَّةِ اصْطَكَّتْ فَرَائِصُ الْمَلائِكَةِ فَأَوَّلُ مَنْ أَسْرَعَ إِلَى الإِقْرَارِ ذَلِكَ الْمَلَكُ لَمْ يَكُنْ فِيهِمْ أَشَدُّ حُبّاً لِمُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) مِنْهُ وَلِذَلِكَ اخْتَارَهُ الله مِنْ بَيْنِهِمْ وَأَلْقَمَهُ الْمِيثَاقَ وَهُوَ يَجِي‏ءُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَلَهُ لِسَانٌ نَاطِقٌ وَعَيْنٌ نَاظِرَةٌ يَشْهَدُ لِكُلِّ مَنْ وَافَاهُ إِلَى ذَلِكَ الْمَكَانِ وَحَفِظَ الْمِيثَاقَ.


3. Muhammad ibn Yahya and others have narrated from Muhammad ibn Ahmad from Musa ibn ‘Umar from ibn Sinan from abu Sa‘id al-Qammat from Bukayr ibn A’yan who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘For what reason has Allah placed the Black Stone at the corner where it is and not in other places? Why should one kiss it, why is it taken out of paradise, why are servants of Allah’s covenant and undertaking placed in it and not in other things, and what is the reason for it? Explain to me and I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause. My thinking about this issue is strange.’ The narrator has said that he (the Imam) then said, ‘You asked it, complicated the issue and brought up many things. Understand the answer, make room in your heart (pay attention) and listen carefully. I will explain to you by the will of Allah. Allah, the most Blessed, the most High, placed the Black Stone, which is a special substance taken out of paradise for Adam, ‘Alayhi al-Salam. It was placed on the corner (of Ka‘bah) because of the covenant. This is because when the offspring of Adam were taken out of their backs, when Allah made a covenant with them on that place and at that place it (the Black Stone) was shown to them. From that place, the bird will fly for al-Qa’im, ‘Alayhi al-Salam. The first one to pledge allegiance with him will be that bird, and he by Allah is Jibril, ‘Alayhi al-Salam. Against that place will al-Qa’im lean his back. This is the guide and proof in favor of al-Qa’im. It is a witness in favor of those who fulfill their responsibility toward him (al-Qa’im), at that place, and the witness in favor of those who entrusted it with proof of their acting according to the covenant and undertaking Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, had made with them. The reason for kissing and touching the Black Stone is the covenant. It is to renew the covenant and undertaking and to renew the allegiance. It is for them to reaffirm in front of it (the Black Stone) the covenant that Allah had made with them on the day of covenant and undertaking. They therefore come to it every year to reaffirm in front of it the covenant and trust with which they were entrusted. Consider what you say in front of the Black Stone, “This is my trust which I am returning, my undertaking that I had assumed. So bear witness in my favor that I have fulfilled my obligation.” I swear by Allah, no one returns this trust except our Shi`a. No one has preserved that undertaking and covenant except our Shi ‘ah. They come to it (the Black Stone) and it recognizes them and acknowledges their truthfulness. Others come to it, but it does not recognize them and rejects their assertion; no one other than you has preserved the covenant. In your favor, by Allah, it will testify and against them. It will testify to their disregard of the covenant, their rejection and denial of the same. Such testimony will be the ultimate argument from Allah against them on the Day of Judgment. On that day, it (the Black Stone) will come, and it will have a speaking tongue and two eyes, in its original form. All creatures will recognize it and no one will deny it. It will testify in favor of those who fulfilled the obligation about the covenant, renewed their commitment and undertaking in front of it, reaffirming their commitment to preserve the covenant and undertaking and returning the trust. It will testify against those who deny, reject and forget the covenant, to prove them rejecters and unbelievers.’ “The reason why Allah took it out of paradise; ‘Do you know what the Black Stone was?’ I (the narrator) replied, ‘No, I do not know.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It was an angel of the great angels before Allah. When Allah made a covenant with the angels, the first to believe and affirm the covenant was that angel. Allah then chose him as a trustee for all of His creatures. He fed him the covenant and kept it with him for safekeeping. He then commanded all creatures to worship Him and to renew before it (angel, now the Black Stone) every year the covenant, the undertaking that Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, had made with them. Allah then assigned it with Adam in paradise to remind him of the covenant, and he would renew his confirmation before it every year. When Adam disobeyed and was expelled from paradise, Allah made him forget the undertaking and covenant, which Allah had made with him and his offspring in favor of Muhammad, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, and the executor of his will, ‘Alayhi al-Salam. He left him lost and confused. When Allah accepted Adam’s repentance, He changed that angel to a white diamond and threw it to Adam from paradise, while he was in the land of India. When he looked at it, he found comfort with it but he did not recognize it. He did not know about it more than being a diamond. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, made it speak, saying, “O Adam, do you know me?” He replied, “No, I do not know you.” It then said, “Yes, Satan attacked you to make you forget to speak of your Lord.” It then changed into the form in which it lived with Adam in paradise. It then said to Adam, “Where is the covenant and undertaking?” Adam then rushed toward it, remembered the covenant, commitment, wept, expressed humbleness before it, kissed it and renewed the affirmation of the commitment and covenant. Then Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, changed it into the substance of the white diamond stone, very clear and shiny. Adam then lifted it up on his shoulder out of respect and its greatness. When he experienced fatigue, Jibril would pick it up until he brought it all the way to Makkah. In Makkah, he continued to seek comfort with it and renew his affirmation of the covenant every day and night. “Thereafter, when Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, built the Ka‘bah, He placed it at that place; when Allah, the most Blessed, the most High, made the covenant with the offspring of Adam, He did so at that place and at that place He fed the angel with the covenant. For this reason, it is placed at that corner. He moved Adam away from the location of the House to al-Safa’, Hawwa’ (Eve) was sent to al-Marwah and placed the Stone at that corner. When Adam looked from al-Safa’ he found that the Stone is placed at that corner, he said Takhir (Allah is great beyond description), Tahlil (Only Allah deserves worship) and spoke of His glory. For this reason, it is the tradition to say Takhir (Allah is great beyond description) when facing, from al-Safa’, that corner where the Black Stone is placed. Allah has entrusted the covenant and undertaking with it and not with other angels. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, made them to form the covenant and confirm His being the Lord. (They were asked to confirm Muhammad, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, as being the Prophet of Allah and to confirm Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, as being the executor of the will. This made the angels tremble in awe. The first to rush to affirm was that angel. No one among them had such an intense love for Muhammad, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, and his family as that angel did. For this reason, Allah chose him from among the others and fed him the covenant. On the Day of Judgment, he will come with a speaking tongue, seeing eyes, and will testify in favor of all those who had gone to that place and had fulfilled their obligation about the covenant.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (17/4)