79. Minimum Limits of ’1‘tikaf

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1ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ أَبِي وَلاَّدٍ الْحَنَّاطِ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) عَنِ امْرَأَةٍ كَانَ زَوْجُهَا غَائِباً فَقَدِمَ وَهِيَ مُعْتَكِفَةٌ بِإِذْنِ زَوْجِهَا فَخَرَجَتْ حِينَ بَلَغَهَا قُدُومُهُ مِنَ الْمَسْجِدِ إِلَى بَيْتِهَا فَتَهَيَّأَتْ لِزَوْجِهَا حَتَّى وَاقَعَهَا فَقَالَ إِنْ كَانَتْ خَرَجَتْ مِنَ الْمَسْجِدِ قَبْلَ أَنْ تَنْقَضِيَ ثَلاثَةُ أَيَّامٍ وَلَمْ تَكُنِ اشْتَرَطَتْ فِي اعْتِكَافِهَا فَإِنَّ عَلَيْهَا مَا عَلَى الْمُظَاهِرِ.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Mahbub from abu Wallad al-Hannat who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a woman whose husband was not present. He came and she was performing Ttikaf by the permission of her husband. Upon learning that her husband has arrived, she comes out of Masjid to her house and prepares herself until he falls on her (for sexual relation). He (the Imam) said, ’If she goes out of the Masjid before completing three days, and had not set a condition in her Ttikaf, she is required to do what is required because of Zihar (calling on oath the back of one’s wife as the back of one’s mother).”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/431)



2ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ لا يَكُونُ الاعْتِكَافُ أَقَلَّ مِنْ ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ وَمَنِ اعْتَكَفَ صَامَ وَيَنْبَغِي لِلْمُعْتَكِفِ إِذَا اعْتَكَفَ أَنْ يَشْتَرِطَ كَمَا يَشْتَرِطُ الَّذِي يُحْرِمُ.


2. Ahmad ibn Muhammad from has narrated from ibn Mahbub from abu Ayyub from abu Basir who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘An Ttikaf for less than three days is not valid. One who is in Ttikaf must also fast and it is proper for one in Ttikaf to set a condition as a person in the state of ’Ihram does.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/432)



3ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ إِذَا اعْتَكَفَ يَوْماً وَلَمْ يَكُنِ اشْتَرَطَ فَلَهُ أَنْ يَخْرُجَ وَيَفْسَخَ الاعْتِكَافَ وَإِنْ أَقَامَ يَوْمَيْنِ وَلَمْ يَكُنِ اشْتَرَطَ فَلَيْسَ لَهُ أَنْ يَفْسَخَ اعْتِكَافَهُ حَتَّى يَمْضِيَ ثَلاثَةُ أَيَّامٍ.


3. Ahmad ibn Muhammad from has narrated from ibn Mahbub from abu Ayyub from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said the following: “Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘If one remains in Ttikaf for one day without setting a condition, he can leave and depart the ’ Ttikaf but if one remains in ’Ttikaf for two days without condition being set, he then cannot leave out the ’Ttikaf; until three days are complete.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/432)



4ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ عَنْ أَبِي عُبَيْدَةَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ الْمُعْتَكِفُ لا يَشَمُّ الطِّيبَ وَلا يَتَلَذَّذُ بِالرَّيْحَانِ وَلا يُمَارِي وَلا يَشْتَرِي وَلا يَبِيعُ قَالَ وَمَنِ اعْتَكَفَ ثَلاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ فَهُوَ يَوْمَ الرَّابِعِ بِالْخِيَارِ إِنْ شَاءَ زَادَ ثَلاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ وَإِنْ شَاءَ خَرَجَ مِنَ الْمَسْجِدِ فَإِنْ أَقَامَ يَوْمَيْنِ بَعْدَ الثَّلاثَةِ فَلا يَخْرُجُ مِنَ الْمَسْجِدِ حَتَّى يُتِمَّ ثَلاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ.


4. Ahmad ibn Muhammad from has narrated from ibn Mahbub from abu Ayyub from abu ‘Ubaydah who has said the following: “Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘In the state of ’Ttikaf one must not smell perfumes, enjoy sweet basil, argue, buy or sell.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘After three days of ’Ttikaf one has the choice to remain in ’Ttikaf for another three days or leave the Masjid. If one remains for two days after the first three days, he must not leave the Masjid until after the second three days are complete.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/433)



5ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ دَاوُدَ بْنِ سِرْحَانَ قَالَ بَدَأَنِي أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) مِنْ غَيْرِ أَنْ أَسْأَلَهُ فَقَالَ الاعْتِكَافُ ثَلاثَةُ أَيَّامٍ يَعْنِي السُّنَّةَ إِنْ شَاءَ الله.


5. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Dawud ibn Sarhan who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, once initiated speaking without my asking anything, ‘’Ttikaf consists of three days, meaning, according to the Sunnah, by the will of Allah.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/433)