65. The Case of Those Who Need Permission to Fast Optional Fasting

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1ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ قَالَ لا يَصْلُحُ لِلْمَرْأَةِ أَنْ تَصُومَ تَطَوُّعاً إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِ زَوْجِهَا.


1. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Khalid from al-Qasim ibn ‘Urwah from certain individuals of his people who has said the following: “Abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that a woman should not fast an optional fast without permission from her husband.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/371)



2ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ هِلالٍ عَنْ مَرْوَكِ بْنِ عُبَيْدٍ عَنْ نَشِيطِ بْنِ صَالِحٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) مِنْ فِقْهِ الضَّيْفِ أَنْ لا يَصُومَ تَطَوُّعاً إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِ صَاحِبِهِ وَمِنْ طَاعَةِ الْمَرْأَةِ لِزَوْجِهَا أَنْ لا تَصُومَ تَطَوُّعاً إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِهِ وَأَمْرِهِ وَمِنْ صَلاحِ الْعَبْدِ وَطَاعَتِهِ وَنُصْحِهِ لِمَوْلاهُ أَنْ لا يَصُومَ تَطَوُّعاً إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِ مَوْلاهُ وَأَمْرِهِ وَمِنْ بِرِّ الْوَلَدِ أَنْ لا يَصُومَ تَطَوُّعاً إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِ أَبَوَيْهِ وَأَمْرِهِمَا وَإِلاَّ كَانَ الضَّيْفُ جَاهِلاً وَكَانَتِ الْمَرْأَةُ عَاصِيَةً وَكَانَ الْعَبْدُ فَاسِقاً عَاصِياً وَكَانَ الْوَلَدُ عَاقّاً.


2. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn Ahmad from Ahmad ibn Hilal from Marwak ibn ‘Ubayd from Nashit ibn Salih from Hisham ibn al-Hakam who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, has said, ‘A guest of good understanding does not fast an optional fast without permission from his host. An obedient wife does not fast an optional fast without permission and order from her husband. An obedient and disciplined slave does not fast an optional fast without permission and order by his master. Children with good and kind behavior do not fast an optional fast without permission and order from their parents; otherwise, a guest is ignorant, a woman disobedient, the slave a sinner and disobedient, and the child is an ignored one.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/371)



3ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ بُنْدَارَ وَغَيْرُهُ عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ بِإِسْنَادٍ ذَكَرَهُ عَنِ الْفُضَيْلِ بْنِ يَسَارٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) إِذَا دَخَلَ رَجُلٌ بَلْدَةً فَهُوَ ضَيْفٌ عَلَى مَنْ بِهَا مِنْ أَهْلِ دِينِهِ حَتَّى يَرْحَلَ عَنْهُمْ وَلا يَنْبَغِي لِلضَّيْفِ أَنْ يَصُومَ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِهِمْ لِئَلاَّ يَعْمَلُوا الشَّيْ‏ءَ فَيَفْسُدَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلا يَنْبَغِي لَهُمْ أَنْ يَصُومُوا إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِ الضَّيْفِ لِئَلاَّ يَحْتَشِمَهُمْ فَيَشْتَهِيَ الطَّعَامَ فَيَتْرُكَهُ لَهُمْ.


3. Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Bandar [and others] from Ibrahim ibn Ishaq through his chain of narrators from al-Fadl ibn Yasar who has said the following: “Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has stated this Hadith: ‘The Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, has said, “When a man enters a town (residence), he is a guest of the inhabitants of that town who are followers of the religion he follows until he leaves that town (residence). It is not proper for him to fast without their permission, so that the food that may have been prepared does not spoil. It is not proper for them also to fast without permission so he because of exercising reservation does not eat the food that he desires.’””


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/372)



4ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ مَالِكِ بْنِ عَطِيَّةَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) لَيْسَ لِلْمَرْأَةِ أَنْ تَصُومَ تَطَوُّعاً إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِ زَوْجِهَا.


4. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from Malik ibn ‘Atiyyah from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said the following: “Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that a woman must not optionally fast without permission from her husband.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/372)



5ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ بُنْدَارَ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله عَنِ الْجَامُورَانِيِّ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ الْعَزْرَمِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ جَاءَتِ امْرَأَةٌ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فَقَالَتْ يَا رَسُولَ الله مَا حَقُّ الزَّوْجِ عَلَى الْمَرْأَةِ فَقَالَ هُوَ أَكْثَرُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَتْ أَخْبِرْنِي بِشَيْ‏ءٍ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ لَيْسَ لَهَا أَنْ تَصُومَ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِهِ.


5. Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Bandar has narrated from Ahmad ibn abu ‘Abd Allah al-Jamuraniy from al-Hassan ibn Ali ibn abu Hamzah from ‘Amr ibn Jubayr al-‘Arzamiy who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that once a woman came to the Holy prophet, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, and asked, ‘O Messenger of Allah, what is the right of a husband on the wife?’ He (the Messenger of Allah) said, ‘It is more than that.’ She then said, ‘Tell me about a few of them.’ He (the Messenger of Allah) said, ‘She must not fast without his permission.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/373)