14. Rules about the Wealth Owned For Less Than a Year

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1ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ عَمَّارٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا إِبْرَاهِيمَ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَكُونُ لَهُ الْوُلْدُ فَيَغِيبُ بَعْضُ وُلْدِهِ فَلاَ يَدْرِي أَيْنَ هُوَ وَمَاتَ الرَّجُلُ فَكَيْفَ يُصْنَعُ بِمِيرَاثِ الْغَائِبِ مِنْ أَبِيهِ قَالَ يُعْزَلُ حَتَّى يَجِي‏ءَ قُلْتُ فَعَلَى مَالِهِ زَكَاةٌ فَقَالَ لاَ حَتَّى يَجِي‏ءَ قُلْتُ فَإِذَا هُوَ جَاءَ أَ يُزَكِّيهِ فَقَالَ لاَ حَتَّى يَحُولَ عَلَيْهِ الْحَوْلُ فِي يَدِهِ.


1. Muhammad ibn ’Isma‘il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from Safwan ibn Yahya from Ishaq ibn ‘Ammar who has said the following: “I once asked abu Ibrahim, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who has a certain number of children, a certain one of them disappears and he does not know where he is. The man dies. How his legacy is dealt with? He (the Imam) said, ‘His share is kept aside until he comes? I then asked, ‘Is there Zakat on his share?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘No, until he comes.’ I then asked, ‘Is he required to pay Zakat as soon as he comes?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘No, until one year passes with the asset in his hands.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول كالموثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/46)



2ـ وَبِهَذَا الإِسْنَادِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدٍ الْحَلَبِيِّ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يُفِيدُ الْمَالَ قَالَ لاَ يُزَكِّيهِ حَتَّى يَحُولَ عَلَيْهِ الْحَوْلُ.


2. Through the same chain of narrators as that of the previous Hadith it is narrated from Safwan from ‘Abd Allah ibn Muskan from Muhammad al-Halabiy who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who earns a certain amount of wealth. He (the Imam) said, ‘He does not pay its Zakat until one year passes.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول كالصحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/46)



3ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ سِنَانٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) عَنْ رَجُلٍ كَانَ لَهُ مَالٌ مَوْضُوعٌ حَتَّى إِذَا كَانَ قَرِيباً مِنْ رَأْسِ الْحَوْلِ أَنْفَقَهُ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَحُولَ عَلَيْهِ أَ عَلَيْهِ صَدَقَةٌ قَالَ لاَ.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Mughirah ‘Abd Allah ibn Sinan who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who has a certain amount of asset and it is about the end of the year when he spends it just before the year is complete. Is there Zakat on him? He (the Imam) said, ‘No, he is not required to pay Zakat.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/46)



4ـ عَنْهُ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ حَرِيزِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الله عَنْ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) رَجُلٌ كَانَ عِنْدَهُ مِائَتَا دِرْهَمٍ غَيْرَ دِرْهَمٍ أَحَدَ عَشَرَ شَهْراً ثُمَّ أَصَابَ دِرْهَماً بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فِي الشَّهْرِ الثَّانِي عَشَرَ فَكَمَلَتْ عِنْدَهُ مِائَتَا دِرْهَمٍ أَ عَلَيْهِ زَكَاتُهَا قَالَ لاَ حَتَّى يَحُولَ عَلَيْهِ الْحَوْلُ وَهِيَ مِائَتَا دِرْهَمٍ فَإِنْ كَانَتْ مِائَةً وَخَمْسِينَ دِرْهَماً فَأَصَابَ خَمْسِينَ بَعْدَ أَنْ يَمْضِيَ شَهْرٌ فَلاَ زَكَاةَ عَلَيْهِ حَتَّى يَحُولَ عَلَى الْمِائَتَيْنِ الْحَوْلُ قُلْتُ فَإِنْ كَانَتْ عِنْدَهُ مِائَتَا دِرْهَمٍ غَيْرَ دِرْهَمٍ فَمَضَى عَلَيْهَا أَيَّامٌ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَنْقَضِيَ الشَّهْرُ ثُمَّ أَصَابَ دِرْهَماً فَأَتَى عَلَى الدَّرَاهِمِ مَعَ الدِّرْهَمِ حَوْلٌ أَ عَلَيْهِ زَكَاةٌ قَالَ نَعَمْ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَمْضِ عَلَيْهَا جَمِيعاً الْحَوْلُ فَلاَ شَيْ‏ءَ عَلَيْهِ فِيهَا قَالَ وَقَالَ زُرَارَةُ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مُسْلِمٍ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) أَيُّمَا رَجُلٍ كَانَ لَهُ مَالٌ وَحَالَ عَلَيْهِ الْحَوْلُ فَإِنَّهُ يُزَكِّيهِ قُلْتُ لَهُ فَإِنْ هُوَ وَهَبَهُ قَبْلَ حَلِّهِ بِشَهْرٍ أَوْ بِيَوْمٍ قَالَ لَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ أَبَداً قَالَ وَقَالَ زُرَارَةُ عَنْهُ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) أَنَّهُ قَالَ إِنَّمَا هَذَا بِمَنْزِلَةِ رَجُلٍ أَفْطَرَ فِي شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ يَوْماً فِي إِقَامَتِهِ ثُمَّ خَرَجَ فِي آخِرِ النَّهَارِ فِي سَفَرٍ فَأَرَادَ بِسَفَرِهِ ذَلِكَ إِبْطَالَ الْكَفَّارَةِ الَّتِي وَجَبَتْ عَلَيْهِ وَقَالَ إِنَّهُ حِينَ رَأَى الْهِلاَلَ الثَّانِيَ عَشَرَ وَجَبَتْ عَلَيْهِ الزَّكَاةُ وَلَكِنَّهُ لَوْ كَانَ وَهَبَهَا قَبْلَ ذَلِكَ لَجَازَ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ عَلَيْهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ بِمَنْزِلَةِ مَنْ خَرَجَ ثُمَّ أَفْطَرَ إِنَّمَا لاَ يَمْنَعُ مَا حَالَ عَلَيْهِ فَأَمَّا مَا لَمْ يَحُلْ فَلَهُ مَنْعُهُ وَلاَ يَحِلُّ لَهُ مَنْعُ مَالِ غَيْرِهِ فِيمَا قَدْ حَلَّ عَلَيْهِ قَالَ زُرَارَةُ وَقُلْتُ لَهُ رَجُلٌ كَانَتْ لَهُ مِائَتَا دِرْهَمٍ فَوَهَبَهَا لِبَعْضِ إِخْوَانِهِ أَوْ وُلْدِهِ أَوْ أَهْلِهِ فِرَاراً بِهَا مِنَ الزَّكَاةِ فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ قَبْلَ حَلِّهَا بِشَهْرٍ فَقَالَ إِذَا دَخَلَ الشَّهْرُ الثَّانِيَ عَشَرَ فَقَدْ حَالَ عَلَيْهَا الْحَوْلُ وَوَجَبَتْ عَلَيْهِ فِيهَا الزَّكَاةُ قُلْتُ لَهُ فَإِنْ أَحْدَثَ فِيهَا قَبْلَ الْحَوْلِ قَالَ جَائِزٌ ذَلِكَ لَهُ قُلْتُ إِنَّهُ فَرَّ بِهَا مِنَ الزَّكَاةِ قَالَ مَا أَدْخَلَ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ أَعْظَمُ مِمَّا مَنَعَ مِنْ زَكَاتِهَا فَقُلْتُ لَهُ إِنَّهُ يَقْدِرُ عَلَيْهَا قَالَ فَقَالَ وَمَا عِلْمُهُ أَنَّهُ يَقْدِرُ عَلَيْهَا وَقَدْ خَرَجَتْ مِنْ مِلْكِهِ قُلْتُ فَإِنَّهُ دَفَعَهَا إِلَيْهِ عَلَى شَرْطٍ فَقَالَ إِنَّهُ إِذَا سَمَّاهَا هِبَةً جَازَتِ الْهِبَةُ وَسَقَطَ الشَّرْطُ وَضَمِنَ الزَّكَاةَ قُلْتُ لَهُ وَكَيْفَ يَسْقُطُ الشَّرْطُ وَتَمْضِي الْهِبَةُ وَيَضْمَنُ الزَّكَاةَ فَقَالَ هَذَا شَرْطٌ فَاسِدٌ وَالْهِبَةُ الْمَضْمُونَةُ مَاضِيَةٌ وَالزَّكَاةُ لَهُ لاَزِمَةٌ عُقُوبَةً لَهُ ثُمَّ قَالَ إِنَّمَا ذَلِكَ لَهُ إِذَا اشْتَرَى بِهَا دَاراً أَوْ أَرْضاً أَوْ مَتَاعاً ثُمَّ قَالَ زُرَارَةُ قُلْتُ لَهُ إِنَّ أَبَاكَ قَالَ لِي مَنْ فَرَّ بِهَا مِنَ الزَّكَاةِ فَعَلَيْهِ أَنْ يُؤَدِّيَهَا قَالَ صَدَقَ أَبِي عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يُؤَدِّيَ مَا وَجَبَ عَلَيْهِ وَمَا لَمْ يَجِبْ عَلَيْهِ فَلاَ شَيْ‏ءَ عَلَيْهِ فِيهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ أَ رَأَيْتَ لَوْ أَنَّ رَجُلاً أُغْمِيَ عَلَيْهِ يَوْماً ثُمَّ مَاتَ فَذَهَبَتْ صَلاَتُهُ أَ كَانَ عَلَيْهِ وَقَدْ مَاتَ أَنْ يُؤَدِّيَهَا قُلْتُ لاَ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَكُونَ أَفَاقَ مِنْ يَوْمِهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَوْ أَنَّ رَجُلاً مَرِضَ فِي شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ ثُمَّ مَاتَ فِيهِ أَ كَانَ يُصَامُ عَنْهُ قُلْتُ لاَ قَالَ فَكَذَلِكَ الرَّجُلُ لاَ يُؤَدِّي عَنْ مَالِهِ إِلاَّ مَا حَالَ عَلَيْهِ الْحَوْلُ.


4. It is a narration from him (narrator of previous Hadith) by Hammad ibn ‘Isa from Hariz ibn ‘Abd Allah from Zurarah who has said the following: “I once asked abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who has two hundred dirham less one dirham for eleven months, then he gains one more dirham thereafter during the twelfth month to complete the two hundred. Is there Zakat on him? He (the Imam) said, ‘No, Zakat is not due on him until a year passes and it is two hundred dirham. If it was one hundred fifty dirham and after one month he finds a fifty dirham, in this case also, Zakat is not due on him until one year passes with two hundred dirham.’ I then asked, ‘If one has two hundred dirham less one dirham and after several days and before passing of a month he finds one dirham and then one year passes with the rest of dirham with him, is there Zakat on him? He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, (there is Zakat on him). If all of it has not remained with him for one complete year Zakat is not obligatory.’ “Zurarah and Muhammad ibn Muslim have said that abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘If one has a certain amount of asset which remains with him for one year, he is required to pay its Zakat.’ I then asked him (the Imam), ‘What happens if he gives it as gift to someone, one month before the passing of one year or one day? He (the Imam) said, ‘Zakat is not due on him ever.’ Zurarah has narrated from him (the Imam) that he (the Imam) said, ‘This is like the case of one who in the month of Ramadan is at home and then travels in the end of the day intending to avoid the penalty which becomes obligatory on him.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘When he sees the crescent of the twelfth month Zakat becomes obligatory on him.’ He (the Imam) has said, ‘When he sees the crescent of the twelfth month Zakat is due but if he gives it as a gift earlier, it is permissible, and he is not obligated for anything in this matter like the case of one who travels and then discontinues his fast. He cannot refuse once the year passes, but he can refuse if one year is not passed. He cannot refuse to pay what belongs to others. It applies to the asset on which one year has passed.’ Zurarah has said that he then asked, ‘A man had two hundred dirham and he gives it as gift to his brothers or children or his family to avoid Zakat. He did it one month before a year is complete.’ He (the Imam) said, ’Once the twelfth month comes one year is complete and Zakat is obligatory.’ I (Zurarah) then asked, ‘Can he use it (like giving as gift) before the year is complete?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, it is permissible for him.’I then said, ‘He is avoiding Zakat.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘What he has allowed into his soul is greater than avoiding payment of Zakat.’ I said, ‘He can get it back (from the recipient of gift).’ He (the Imam) said, ‘How can you tell if he can get it back? It is out of his hand (possession) already.’ I said, ‘He can give it as conditional gift.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Once he calls it a gift it becomes a lawful commitment, the condition falls (is invalid) and he is held responsible for Zakat.’ I then asked, ‘Why does the condition fall, the gift is approved and he is responsible for Zakat?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘This is an invalid condition, commitment for the gift is made and punishment of non-payment of Zakat is necessary.’ He (the Imam) then said, ‘It is for him if he purchases therewith a house or land or goods.’ Zurarah has said that he then said, ‘Your father said to me that if one by doing so avoids Zakat he must pay it.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘My father has spoken the truth. He must pay what is obligatory on him and he is not required to pay what is not obligatory up on him.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Think about a man who faints for a day, then dies and his Salah (prayer) is missed. Is there any Salah (prayer) on him now that he is dead?’ I replied, ‘No, Salah (prayer) is not obligatory on him unless he gains consciousness on the same day.’ He (the Imam) then said, ‘If a man becomes ill in the month of Ramadan and dies in that month, will there be fasting on his behalf?’ I replied, ‘No, it is not necessary.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘In the same way, a man is not required to pay Zakat until a year is complete.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/46)



5ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ مَرَّارٍ عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ عَمَّارٍ عَنْ أَبِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ رَجُلٍ وَرِثَ مَالاً وَالرَّجُلُ غَائِبٌ هَلْ عَلَيْهِ زَكَاةٌ قَالَ لاَ حَتَّى يَقْدَمَ قُلْتُ أَ يُزَكِّيهِ حِينَ يَقْدَمُ قَالَ لاَ حَتَّى يَحُولَ عَلَيْهِ الْحَوْلُ وَهُوَ عِنْدَهُ. بَابُ مَا يَسْتَفِيدُ الرَّجُلُ مِنَ الْمَالِ بَعْدَ أَنْ يُزَكِّيَ مَا عِنْدَهُ مِنَ الْمَالِ


5. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ’Isma‘ii ibn Marrar from Yunus from Ishaq ibn ‘Ammar who has said the following: “I once asked abu Ibrahim, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who is absent but has inherited a certain asset. Is there Zakat on him? He (the Imam) said, ‘No, Zakat is not due on him until he comes.’ I then asked, ‘Is he required to pay Zakat as soon as he comes?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘No, until one year passes.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/49)