12. Times Zakat Is Due

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1ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ إِدْرِيسَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ جَمِيعاً عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ حَكِيمٍ عَنْ خَالِدِ بْنِ الْحَجَّاجِ الْكَرْخِيِّ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) عَنِ الزَّكَاةِ فَقَالَ انْظُرْ شَهْراً مِنَ السَّنَةِ فَانْوِ أَنْ تُؤَدِّيَ زَكَاتَكَ فِيهِ فَإِذَا دَخَلَ ذَلِكَ الشَّهْرُ فَانْظُرْ مَا نَضَّ يَعْنِي مَا حَصَلَ فِي يَدِكَ مِنْ مَالِكَ فَزَكِّهِ فَإِذَا حَالَ الْحَوْلُ مِنَ الشَّهْرِ الَّذِي زَكَّيْتَ فِيهِ فَاسْتَقْبِلْ بِمِثْلِ مَا صَنَعْتَ لَيْسَ عَلَيْكَ أَكْثَرُ مِنْهُ.


1. Ahmad ibn Idris has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar and Muhammad ibn ’Isma‘il from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan all from Safwan ibn Yahya from Muhammad ibn Hakim from Khalid ibn al-Hajjaj al-Karkhiy who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about Zakat. He (the Imam) said, ‘You can choose one of the months of the year and decide to pay Zakat in that month. In that month you must find out what are your assets and pay Zakat thereof. After one year you must do the same thing again and you are not required to do anything more than this.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول وقيل حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/41)



2ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ رَفَعَهُ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ هَلْ لِلزَّكَاةِ وَقْتٌ مَعْلُومٌ تُعْطَى فِيهِ فَقَالَ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ لَيَخْتَلِفُ فِي إِصَابَةِ الرَّجُلِ الْمَالَ وَأَمَّا الْفِطْرَةُ فَإِنَّهَا مَعْلُومَةٌ.


2. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad in a marfu‘ manner from abu Basir who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, Is there a definite time to pay Zakat? He (the Imam) said, ‘That depends on one’s earnings. However, the time for al-Fitrah is definite.”’


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرفوع - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/42)



3ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ يَعْقُوبَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) زَكَاتِي تَحِلُّ عَلَيَّ فِي شَهْرٍ أَ يَصْلُحُ لِي أَنْ أَحْبِسَ مِنْهَا شَيْئاً مَخَافَةَ أَنْ يَجِيئَنِي مَنْ يَسْأَلُنِي فَقَالَ إِذَا حَالَ الْحَوْلُ فَأَخْرِجْهَا مِنْ مَالِكَ لاَ تَخْلُطْهَا بِشَيْ‏ءٍ ثُمَّ أَعْطِهَا كَيْفَ شِئْتَ قَالَ قُلْتُ فَإِنْ أَنَا كَتَبْتُهَا وَأَثْبَتُّهَا يَسْتَقِيمُ لِي قَالَ لاَ يَضُرُّكَ.


3. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Ali from Yunus ibn Ya’qub who has said the following: “I once said to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, that there is a certain month in which I pay Zakat. Can I keep a certain amount separate for an emergency, in case, someone comes asking? He (the Imam) said, ‘Once the year is complete, you must pay Zakat of your asset and you must not mix it with anything, and then give whatever you want.’ I then asked, ’Can I write it down and keep a record to make it straight? He (the Imam) said, ‘That is not harmful.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/42)



4ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ الْبَرْقِيِّ عَنْ سَعْدِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ الأشْعَرِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ تَحِلُّ عَلَيْهِ الزَّكَاةُ فِي السَّنَةِ فِي ثَلاَثِ أَوْقَاتٍ أَ يُؤَخِّرُهَا حَتَّى يَدْفَعَهَا فِي وَقْتٍ وَاحِدٍ فَقَالَ مَتَى حَلَّتْ أَخْرَجَهَا وَعَنِ الزَّكَاةِ فِي الْحِنْطَةِ وَالشَّعِيرِ وَالتَّمْرِ وَالزَّبِيبِ مَتَى تَجِبُ عَلَى صَاحِبِهَا قَالَ إِذَا مَا صَرَمَ وَإِذَا مَا خَرَصَ.


4. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Khalid al-Barqiy from Sa‘d ibn Sa‘d al- Ash’ariy who has said the following: “I once asked abu al-Hassan, al-Rida’, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man whose accounting time comes three times in a year. Can he delay to make them all at one time? He (the Imam) said, ‘Whenever it comes he must pay Zakat.’ I then asked, ‘When it is the time to pay Zakat of wheat, barley, dates and raisins? He (the Imam) said, ‘It is when he cuts and estimates.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/43)



5ـ وَعَنْهُ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ حَمْزَةَ عَنِ الأصْفَهَانِيِّ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) يَكُونُ لِي عَلَى الرَّجُلِ مَالٌ فَأَقْبِضُهُ مِنْهُ مَتَى أُزَكِّيهِ قَالَ إِذَا قَبَضْتَهُ فَزَكِّهِ قُلْتُ فَإِنِّي أَقْبِضُ بَعْضَهُ فِي صَدْرِ السَّنَةِ وَبَعْضَهُ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ قَالَ فَتَبَسَّمَ ثُمَّ قَالَ مَا أَحْسَنَ مَا دَخَلْتَ فِيهَا ثُمَّ قَالَ مَا قَبَضْتَهُ مِنْهُ فِي السِّتَّةِ الأشْهُرِ الأولَى فَزَكِّهِ لِسَنَتِهِ وَمَا قَبَضْتَهُ بَعْدُ فِي السِّتَّةِ الأشْهُرِ الأخِيرَةِ فَاسْتَقْبِلْ بِهِ فِي السَّنَةِ الْمُسْتَقْبَلَةِ وَكَذَلِكَ إِذَا اسْتَفَدْتَ مَالاً مُنْقَطِعاً فِي السَّنَةِ كُلِّهَا فَمَا اسْتَفَدْتَ مِنْهُ فِي أَوَّلِ السَّنَةِ إِلَى سِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ فَزَكِّهِ فِي عَامِكَ ذَلِكَ كُلِّهِ وَمَا اسْتَفَدْتَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فَاسْتَقْبِلْ بِهِ السَّنَةَ الْمُسْتَقْبَلَةَ.


5. It is narrated from him (narrator of previous Hadith) Muhammad ibn Hamzah from al-Asfahaniy who has said the following: “I once said to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, that if I collect what I have lent to someone when must I pay Zakat? He (the Imam) said, ‘Pay when you collect it.’ I then said, ‘I collect a certain amount in a certain time of the year and another amount in another time of the year. He (the Imam) smiled and then said, ‘How good is the deal in which you are involved!’ He (the Imam) then said, ‘What you collect in the first six months, pay its Zakat after a year and what you collect in the other six months, pay its Zakat in the coming year. So also is the case with your earning, which you gain in separate times during a whole year. What you earn in the first six months pay its Zakat in that year and what you earn thereafter pay its Zakat in the coming year.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/43)



6ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ رَجُلٍ يَكُونُ نِصْفُ مَالِهِ عَيْناً وَنِصْفُهُ دَيْناً فَتَحِلُّ عَلَيْهِ الزَّكَاةُ قَالَ يُزَكِّي الْعَيْنَ وَيَدَعُ الدَّيْنَ قُلْتُ فَإِنَّهُ اقْتَضَاهُ بَعْدَ سِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ قَالَ يُزَكِّيهِ حِينَ اقْتَضَاهُ قُلْتُ فَإِنْ هُوَ حَالَ عَلَيْهِ الْحَوْلُ وَحَلَّ الشَّهْرُ الَّذِي كَانَ يُزَكِّي فِيهِ وَقَدْ أَتَى لِنِصْفِ مَالِهِ سَنَةٌ وَلِنِصْفِهِ الآخَرِ سِتَّةُ أَشْهُرٍ قَالَ يُزَكِّي الَّذِي مَرَّتْ عَلَيْهِ سَنَةٌ وَيَدَعُ الآخَرَ حَتَّى تَمُرَّ عَلَيْهِ سَنَتُهُ قُلْتُ فَإِنِ اشْتَهَى أَنْ يُزَكِّيَ ذَلِكَ قَالَ مَا أَحْسَنَ ذَلِكَ.


6. Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Muhammad ibn Yahya from abu Basir who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man whose asset is half in substance and half as loan. The time of paying Zakat comes. He (the Imam) said, ‘He is required to pay Zakat of the substance and leave the loan.’ I then said that he receives payment after six months. He (the Imam) said, ‘He is required to pay its Zakat when he receives payment.’ I then said, ‘The year is complete and the month of paying Zakat comes but one half of his asset has remained with him for one year and the other half for six months.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘He must pay Zakat for what has been with him for one year and leave the other half until one year is passed.’ I then asked, ‘Can he pay its Zakat if he wants?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘That is very good.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/43)



7ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) أَنَّهُ قَالَ فِي الرَّجُلِ يُخْرِجُ زَكَاتَهُ فَيَقْسِمُ بَعْضَهَا وَيُبْقِي بَعْضَهَا يَلْتَمِسُ بِهَا الْمَوْضِعَ فَيَكُونُ مِنْ أَوَّلِهِ إِلَى آخِرِهِ ثَلاَثَةُ أَشْهُرٍ قَالَ لاَ بَأْسَ.


7. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ’Abd Allah ibn af-Mughirah from ’Abd Allah ibn Sinan who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who pays his Zakat. He distributes a certain amount of it and keeps a certain amount to find proper recipient and this takes three months altogether. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not harmful.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/44)



8ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ يَزِيدَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) الرَّجُلُ يَكُونُ عِنْدَهُ الْمَالُ أَ يُزَكِّيهِ إِذَا مَضَى نِصْفُ السَّنَةِ قَالَ لاَ وَلَكِنْ حَتَّى يَحُولَ عَلَيْهِ الْحَوْلُ وَيَحِلَّ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ لأَحَدٍ أَنْ يُصَلِّيَ صَلاَةً إِلاَّ لِوَقْتِهَا وَكَذَلِكَ الزَّكَاةُ وَلاَ يَصُومُ أَحَدٌ شَهْرَ رَمَضَانَ إِلاَّ فِي شَهْرِهِ إِلاَّ قَضَاءً وَكُلُّ فَرِيضَةٍ إِنَّمَا تُؤَدَّى إِذَا حَلَّتْ.


8. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from Hariz from ‘Umar ibn Yazid who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who pays Zakat when half of the year passes. He (the Imam) said, ‘No, he must allow one year to pass. Just as it is not permissible to perform Salah (prayer) before its time, so also is Zakat. No one can fast for the month of Ramadan in a month other than the month of Ramadan. Every obligation is fulfilled when it is time for such obligation.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/44)



9ـ حَمَّادُ بْنُ عِيسَى عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) أَ يُزَكِّي الرَّجُلُ مَالَهُ إِذَا مَضَى ثُلُثُ السَّنَةِ قَالَ لاَ أَ يُصَلِّي الأولَى قَبْلَ الزَّوَالِ. وَقَدْ رُوِيَ أَيْضاً أَنَّهُ يَجُوزُ إِذَا أَتَاهُ مَنْ يَصْلُحُ لَهُ الزَّكَاةُ أَنْ يُعَجِّلَ لَهُ قَبْلَ وَقْتِ الزَّكَاةِ إِلاَّ أَنَّهُ يَضْمَنُهَا إِذَا جَاءَ وَقْتُ الزَّكَاةِ وَقَدْ أَيْسَرَ الْمُعْطَى أَوِ ارْتَدَّ أَعَادَ الزَّكَاةَ.


9. Hammad ibn ‘Isa has narrated from Hariz from Zurarah who has said the following: “I once asked abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘Can one pay Zakat after one-third of the year passes?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘No, can one perform al-Dhuhr before Zawal (declining of the sun toward the west at noontime)?”’ “It is also narrated that it is permissible if deserving recipient is present and to pay to him before the time for Zakat, except that he is responsible for it if at the time of Zakat, the recipient becomes affluent or an apostate, in which case he must pay Zakat again.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/45)