Maʿānī al-ʾAkhbār > The meaning of when the Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, sought assistance from Mu’awiya in writing the Revelation
Hadith #1

حدثنا محمد بن موسى بمن المتوكل - رضي الله عنه - قال: حدثنا عبد الله بن جعفر الحميري، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن الحسن بن محبوب، عن أبي حمزة الثمالي: قال: سمعت أبا جعفر عليه السلام يقول: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله - ومعاوية يكتب بين يديه، وأهوى بيده إلى خاصرته بالسيف -: من أدرك هذا يوما أميرا فليبقر خاصرته بالسيف، فرآه رجل ممن سمع ذلك من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يوما وهو يخطب بالشام على الناس فاخترط سيفه ثم مشي إليه فحال الناس بينه وبينه فقالوا: يا عبد الله مالك؟ فقال: سمعت رسول الله عليه السلام يقول: من أدرك هذا يوما أميرا فليبقر خاصرته بالسيف، قال: فقال: أتدري من استعمله؟ قال: لا، قالوا: أمير المؤمنين عمر. فقال الرجل: سمعنا وطاعة لأمير المؤمنين.

1. We were told by Muhammed bin Musa bin Mutawakkil, may Allah be pleased with him, that he said: We were told by Abdullah bin Ja’far al-Himyari, from Ahmad bin Muhammed bin Isa, from Hasan bin Mahbub, from Abu Hamza al-Thumali, that he said: I heard Abu Ja’far, peace be upon him, say: The Messenger of Allah, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, said, while Mu’awiya was writing between his hands, and he lowered his hand to his waist at the sword: The one who will manage to observe him one day as a commander, let him cut his waist with the sword. He was then seen by a man from among those who had heard that from Allah’s Messenger, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, one day while he was lecturing in the Levant for the people. He then drew his sword, then walked to him, and the people stood before him and him, and they said: O servant of Allah, what is it with you? He said: I heard the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, say: «The one who will manage to observe him one day as a commander, let him cut his waist with the sword.» He said: Then he said: Do you know who assigned him? He said: No. They said: The Commander of the Believers, Umar. Then the man said: (I am in) Hearing and Obedience to the Commander of the Believers.



Hadith #2

قال الشيخ أبو جعفر محمد بن علي مصنف هذا الكتاب - رضي الله عنه -: إن الناس يشبه عليهم أمر معاوية بأن يقولوا كان كاتب الوحي وليس ذلك بموجب له فضيلة، وذلك أنه قرن في ذلك إلى عبد الله بن سعد بن أبي سرح فكانا يكتبان له الوحي وهو الذي قال: " سأنزل مثل ما أنزل الله " وكان النبي صلى الله عليه وآله يملي عليه " والله غفور رحيم " فيكتب " والله عزيز حيكم " ويملي عليه " والله عزيز حكيم " فيكتب " والله عليم حكيم " فيقول له النبي صلى الله عليه وآله: هو واحد هو واحد، فقال عبد الله بن سعد: إن محمد لا يدري ما يقول! إنه يقول وأنا أقول غير ما يقول، فيقول لي: هو واحد هو واحد. وإن جاز هذا فإني سأنزل مثل ما أنزل الله فأنزل الله تبارك وتعالى فيه " ومن قال سأنزل مثل ما أنزل الله " فهرب وهجا النبي صلى الله عليه وآله فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وآله: من وجد عبد الله بن سعد بن أبي سرح ولو كان متعلقا بأستار الكعبة فليقتله. وإنما كان النبي صلى الله عليه وآله يقول له فيما يغيره: " هو واحد هو واحد " لأنه لا ينكتب ما يريده عبد الله إنما كان ينكتب ما كان يمليه عليه السلام فقال: هو واحد غيرت أم لم تغير لم ينكتب ما تكتبه بل ينكتب ما أمليه عن الوحي وجبرئيل عليه السلام يصلحه. وفي ذلك دلالة للنبي صلى الله عليه وآله ووجه الحكمة في استكتاب النبي صلى الله عليه وآله الوحي معاوية وعبد الله بن سعد وهما عدوان هو أن المشركين قالوا: إن محمدا يقول هذا القرآن من تلقاء نفسه ويأتي في كل حادثة بآية يزعم أنها أنزلت عليه، وسبيل من يضع الكلام في حوادث تحدث في الأوقات أن يغير الألفاظ إذا استعيد ذلك الكلام ولا يأتي به في ثاني الامر وبعد مرور الأوقات عليه إلا مغيرا عن حاله الأولى لفظا ومعنى أو لفظا دون معنى، فاستعان في كتب ما ينزل عليه في الحوادث الواقعة بعدوين له في دينه، عدلين عند أدائه ليعلم الكفار والمشركون أن كلامه في ثاني الامر كلامه في الأول غير مغير ولا مزال عن جهته فيكون أبلغ للحجة عليهم، ولو استعان في ذلك بوليين مثل سلمان وأبي ذر وأشباههما لكان الامر عند أعدائه غير واقع هذا الموقع وكان يتخيل فيه التواطؤ والتطابق فهذا وجه الحكمة في استكتابهما واضح بين والحمد لله.

Sheikh Abu Ja’far, Muhammed bin Ali, the compiler of this book, may Allah be pleased with him, said: Indeed, people are being confused by the matter of Mu’awiya, as they say that he was a writer of the Revelation, whereas that does not necessitate a virtue for him. That is due to him being parallel in that regard to Abdullah bin Sa’d bin Abi Sarh, and they both used to write the Revelation to him, and he was the one to said: «I will reveal like what Allah has revealed». Moreover, the Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, used to dictate for him: «And Allah is Forgiving, Merciful in particular», whereas he would write: «And Allah is Mighty, All-Wise», and he would dictate for him: «And Allah is Mighty, All-Wise», whereas he would write: «And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise». The Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, would then say: «It is one, it is one», to which Abdullah bin Sa’d would say: «Indeed, Muhammed does not know what he is saying! He is saying (something), and I am saying other than what he says, and so he says to me: It is one, it is one! If this was permitted, then I will reveal like what Allah has revealed.» Allah, Blessed and Exalted is He, then revealed for his sake: «And the one who said: I will reveal like what Allah has revealed» (6:93). He then fled and recited lampoonery against the Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, and so the Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, said: «The one who finds Abdullah bin Sa’d bin Abi Sarh, even if he may be adhering to the veils of the Ka’ba, let him kill him.» The Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, only used to tell him, with regards to what he was altering: «It is one, it is one» because it was not supposed to be written that which Abdullah wanted, but it should only be written what he, peace be upon him, dictated, and so he said: «It is one, regardless if you alter or do not alter. It shall not be written what you write, but rather, it should be written what I am dictating of the Revelation, and Jibra’eel, peace be upon him, will rectify it. In that lies a denotation to the Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, and the aspect of the wisdom with regards to that the Prophet, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his Family, assigned Mu’awiya and Abdullah bin Sa’d, while they were enemies, is that the polytheists said: «Indeed, Muhammed is saying that this Qur’an comes automatically, and he comes in every event with a verse which he claims has been revealed unto him.» This is due to that the method of the one who causes speech for events that occur at specific times, is that he alters the phrases if that speech was to be brought again, and he would not bring it at the second matter and after the specific times had passed it, except that he change it from its first case, by phrase and meaning, and by phrases without (causing change to the) meaning. Thus, he sought assistance in writing that which was sent down unto him with regards to occurring events, from two that were hostile to him in (matters of) religion, and (who were considered to be) just according to his enemies. This was in order for the disbelievers and polytheists to know that his speech at the second matter is (like) his speech at the first matter, not having been subject to alteration, nor having turned from its direction. Hence, it would be more serving to deliver the proof upon them. Had he sought assistance to that from two allies, such as Salman, Abu Dharr and their likes, the matter to his enemies would not have fallen into this spot, and it would be (a factor for it to be) imagined as collaboration and agreeability. This is the aspect of the wisdom behind the request for them to write. It is obvious and clear, and praise be to Allah.