Maʿānī al-ʾAkhbār > The meaning of the one who wrongs himself, the moderate and the forerunner
Hadith #1

حدثنا أبو جعفر محمد بن علي بن نصر البخاري المقري قال: حدثنا أبو عبد الله الكوفي العلوي الفقيه بفرغانة بإسناد متصل إلى الصادق جعفر بن محمد عليهما السلام أنه سئل عن قول الله عز وجل: " ثم أورثنا الكتاب الذين اصطفينا من عبادنا فمنهم ظالم لنفسه ومنهم مقتصد ومنهم سابق بالخيرات بإذن الله " فقال: الظالم يحوم حوم نفسه، والمقتصد يحوم حوم قلبه، والسابق يحوم حوم ربه عز وجل.

1. We were told by Abu Ja’far, Muhammed bin Ali bin Nasr al-Bukhari al-Maqarri, that he said: We were told by Abu Abdillah al-Kufi al-Alawi, the Jurist, in Fergana, with a chain that connects to al-Sadiq, Ja’far bin Muhammed, peace be upon them both, that he was asked about the saying of Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He: «Then, We made the Book an inheritance to those whom We Chose from Our servants. And among them was the one who wronged himself, and among them was a moderate, and among them was a forerunner good deeds by the permission of Allah» (35:32) So he said: The wrongdoer goes around his own surrounding, the moderate goes around the surrounding of his heart and the forerunner goes around the surrounding of his Lord, Exalted and Glorious is He.



Hadith #2

حدثنا أحمد بن الحسن القطان، قال: حدثنا الحسن بن علي بن الحسين السكري قال: أخبرنا محمد بن زكريا الجوهري، قال: حدثنا جعفر بن محمد بن عمارة، عن أبيه، عن جابر بن يزيد الجعفي، عن أبي جعفر محمد بن علي الباقر عليهما السلام، قال: سألته عن قول الله عز وجل: " ثم أورثنا الكتاب الذين اصطفينا من عبادنا فمنهم ظالم لنفسه و منهم مقتصد ومنهم سابق بالخيرات بإذن الله " فقال: الظالم منا من لا يعرف حق الامام، والمقتصد العارف بحق الامام، والسابق بالخيرات بإذن الله هو الامام " جنات عدن يدخلونها " يعني السابق والمقتصد.

2. We were told by Ahmad bin Hasan al-Qattan, that he said: We were told by Hasan bin Ali bin Hussain al-Sukkari, that he said: We were informed by Muhammed bin Zakariya al-Jawhari, that he said: We were told by Ja’far bin Muhammed bin ‘Umara, from his father, from Jabir bin Yazid al-Ju’fi, from Abu Ja’far, Muhammed bin Ali al-Baqir, peace be upon them both, that he said: I asked him about the saying of Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He: «Then, We made the Book an inheritance to those whom We Chose from Our servants. And among them was the one who wronged himself, and among them was an economical, and among them was a forerunner good deeds by the permission of Allah» (35:32) So he said: The wrongdoer among us is the one who does not know the right of the Imam, the moderate is the one who knows the right of the Imam and the forerunner in good deeds by the permission of Allah is the Imam. «Gardens of Eden which they will enter» (35:33) meaning the forerunner and the moderate.



Hadith #3

حدثنا أبو عبد الله الحسين بن يحيى البجلي، قال: حدثنا أبي، قال: حدثنا أبو عوانة موسى بن يوسف الكوفي، قال: حدثنا عبد الله بن يحيى، عن يعقوب بن يحيى عن أبي حفص، عن أبي حمزة الثمالي، قال: كنت جالسا في المسجد الحرام مع أبي جعفر عليه السلام إذ أتاه رجلان من أهل البصرة فقالا له: يا ابن رسول الله إنا نريد أن نسألك عن مسألة فقال لهما: اسألا عما جئتما . قالا: أخبرنا عن قول الله عز وجل: " ثم أورثنا الكتاب الذين اصطفينا [من عبادنا فمنهم ظالم لنفسه ومنهم مقتصد ومنهم سابق بالخيرات بإذن الله ذلك هو الفضل الكبير] " إلى آخر الآيتين. قال: نزلت فينا أهل البيت. قال أبو حمزة فقلت: بأبي أنت وأمي فمن الظالم لنفسه؟ قال: من استوت حسناته وسيئاته منا أهل البيت فهو ظالملنفسه. فقلت: من المقتصد منكم؟ قال: العابد لله ربه في الحالين حتى يأتيه اليقين. فقلت: فمن السابق منكم بالخيرات؟ قال: من دعا والله إلى سبيل ربه، و أمر بالمعروف، ونهى عن المنكر، ولم يكن للمضلين عضدا، ولا للخائنين خصيما، ولم يرض بحكم الفاسقين إلا من خاف على نفسه ودينه ولم يجد أعوانا.

3. We were told by Abu Abdillah, Hussain bin Yahya al-Bajali, that he said: We were told by my father, that he said: We were told by Abu ‘Uwana, Musa bin Yusuf al-Kufi, that he said: We were told by Abdullah bin Yahya, from Ya’qoub bin Yahya, from Abu Hafs, from Abu Hamza al-Thumali, that he said: I was sitting in the Sacred Mosque with Abu Ja’far, peace be upon him, as two men from the people of Basra came to him, and they both said to him: O son of Allah’s Messenger, we, indeed, want to ask you about a matter. So he said to them both: Ask about what both of you came for. They both said: Inform us about the saying of Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He: «Then, We made the Book an inheritance to those whom We Chose from Our servants. And among them was the one who wronged himself, and among them was a moderate, and among them was a forerunner good deeds by the permission of Allah. That is the great virtue» (35:32) until the end of the two verses. He said: It was revealed for the sake of us, the Household. Abu Hamza said: Then I said: May my father be sacrificed for you, and so my mother, then who is the one who wrongs himself? He said: The one whose good deeds and misdeeds are evened towards us, the Household, he is the one who wrongs himself. Then I said: Who is the moderate to you? He said: The worshipper of Allah, his Lord, during the two conditions, until certainty comes to him. Then I said: Then who is the forerunner to you in good deeds? He said: He who calls, by Allah, to the path of his Lord, enjoins good, forbids evil, is not an assistance to the misleading, nor an adversary to (the advantage of) the traitors, nor is pleased with the rule of the grieve sinners, except for he who fears for himself and his religion and finds no assistants.