Maʿānī al-ʾAkhbār > The meaning of the weakened
Hadith #1

حدثنا أبي، ومحمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد - رحمهما الله - قالا: حدثنا عبد الله بن جعفر الحميري، عن محمد بن الحسين بن أبي الخطاب قال: حدثنا نضر بن شعيب، عن عبد الغفار الجازي، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام أنه ذكر أن المستضعفين ضروب يخالف بعضهم بعضا، ومن لم يكن من أهل القبلة ناصبا فهو مستضعف.

1. We were told by my father, and Muhammed bin Hasan bin Ahmad bin Waleed, may Allah grant them both mercy, that they both said: We were told by Abdullah bin Ja’far al-Himyari, from Muhammed bin Hussain bin Abi’l-Khattab, that he said: We were told by Nadr bin Shu’ayb, from Abdul-Ghaffar al-Jazi, from Abu Abdillah, peace be upon him, that he mentioned that the weakened people are at (different) kinds, which some contradict the other, and that the one among the people of Qibla [1] who is not a Nasib, is a weakened individual.



Hadith #2

حدثنا أبي - رحمه الله - قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسين ابن أبي الخطاب، عن الحسن بن علي بن فضال، عن أبي المغرا حميد بن المثنى العجلي، قال: حدثني أبو حنيفة - رجل من أصحابنا - عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: من عرف الاختلاف فليس بمستضعف.

2. We were told by my father, may Allah grant him mercy, that he said: We were told by Sa’d bin Abdullah, that he said: We were told by Muhammed bin Hussain ibn Abi’l-Khattab, from Hasan bin Ali bin Faddal, from Abu’l-Maghra, Hameed bin Muthanna al-‘Ajali, that he said: I was told by Abu Hanifa, a man from our companions, of Abu Abdillah, peace be upon him, that he said: The one who knows the dispute, he is not a weakened individual.



Hadith #3

حدثنا المظفر بن جعفر العلوي - رضي الله عنه - قال: حدثنا جعفر بن محمد بن مسعود، عن أبيه، عن حمدويه، قال: حدثنا محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس بن عبد الرحمن، عن ابن مسكان، عن أبي بصير، قال: قال: أبو عبد الله عيه السلام: من عرف اختلاف الناس فليس بمستضعف.

3. We were told by Mudaffar bin Ja’far al-Alawi, may Allah be pleased with him, that he said: We were told by Ja’far bin Muhammed bin Mas’ud, from his father, from Hamdawayh, that he said: We were told by Muhammed bin Isa, from Yunus bin Abdul-Rahman, from Ibn Maskan, from Abu Baseer, that he said: Abu Abdillah, peace be upon him, said: The one who knows the dispute, he is not a weakened individual.



Hadith #4

حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد - رضي الله عنه - قال: حدثنا الحسين ابن الحسن بن أبان، عن الحسين بن سعيد، عن النضر بن سويد، وفضالة بن أيوب جميعا، عن موسى بن بكر، عن زرارة، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: سألته عن قول الله عز وجل: " إلا المستضعفين من الرجال والنساء والولدان " فقال: هو الذي لا يستطيع الكفر فيكفر ولا يهتدي سبيل الايمان فيؤمن، والصبيان، ومن كان من الرجال والنساء على مثل عقول الصبيان مرفوع عنهم القلم.

4. We were told by Muhammed bin Hasan bin Ahmad bin Waleed, may Allah be pleased with him, that he said: We were told by Hussain ibn Hasan bn Aban, from Hussain bin Sa’eed, from Nadr bin Suwayd, and Fadala bin Ayub, all of them, from Musa bin Bikr, from Zurara, from Abu Ja’far, peace be upon him, that he said: I asked him about the saying of Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He: «except for the weakened ones from the men, women and children» (4:98), so he said: It is the one who does not purposely disbelieve, so he disbelieves and is not guided to the path of faith by which he believes, and so are children. Those from men and women who possess the same (level of) intellect as children, the pen [1] is raised from them.



Hadith #5

حدثنا أبي، ومحمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد - رحمهما الله - قالا: حدثنا سعد ابن عبد الله قال: حدثنا أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن الحسن بن علي والوشاء، عن أحمد بن عائذ، عن أبي خديجة سالم بن مكرم الجمال، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام في قوله عز وجل: " إلا المستضعفين من الرجال والنساء والولدان لا يستطيعون حيلة ولا يهتدون سبيلا " فقال: لا يستطيعون حيلة إلى النصب فينصبون ولا يهتدون سبيل أهل الحق فيدخلون فيه، وهؤلاء يدخلون الجنة بأعمال حسنة وباجتناب المحارم التي نهى الله عز وجل عنها ولا ينالون منازل الأبرار.

5. We were told by my father, and Muhammed bin Hasan bin Ahmad bin Waleed, may Allah grant them both mercy, that they both said: We were told by Sa’d ibn Abdullah, that he said: We were told by Ahmad bin Muhammed bin Isa, from Hasan bin Ali al-Washha’, from Ahmad bin ‘A’idh, from Abu Khadija, Salem bin Makram, the Cameleer, from Abu Abdillah, peace be upon him, with regards to the saying of Him, Exalted and Glorious is He: «except for the weakened ones from the men, women and children; they cannot devise a plan, nor are they guided to a path» (4:98), so he said: They are unable to devise a plan towards Nusb [1] by which they antagonize, nor are guided to the path of the people of the truth by which they enter into it. These people will enter Paradise for good deeds and by refraining from the forbidden things which Allah, Exalted an Glorious is He, has prohibited, and they will not attain the ranks of the righteous.



Hadith #6

حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد - رضي الله عنه - قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسن الصفار، قال: حدثنا أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، قال: حدثنا علي بن الحكم، عن عبد الله بن جندب، عن سفيان بن السمت البجلي قال: قلت لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام: ما تقول في المستضعفين؟ فقال لي - شبيها بالفزع -: وتركتم أحدا يكون مستضعفا؟! وأين المستضعفون؟ فوالله لقد مشى بأمركم هذا العواتق إلى العواتق في خدورهن وتحدث به السقايات بطرق المدينة .

6. We were told by Muhammed bin Hasan bin Ahmad bin Waleed, may Allah be pleased with him, that he said: We were told by Muhammed bin Hasan al-Saffar, that he said: We were told by Ahmad bin Muhammed bin Isa, that he said: We were told by Ali bin Hakam, from Abdullah bin Jundub, from Sufyan bin Samt al-Bajali, that he said: I said to Abu Abdillah, peace be upon him: What do you say about the weakened ones? Then he said to me, as if he was terrified: And have you left anyone to be (in a state that they are) weakened? And where are the weakened ones? For by Allah, your matter has been carried by shoulders to shoulders in houses and it has been spoken if by rumor collectors in the roads of Medina.



Hadith #7

حدثنا أبي - رحمه الله - قال: حدثنا أحمد بن إدريس، عن محمد بن أحمد بن يحيى بن عمران الأشعري، قال: حدثنا إبراهيم بن إسحاق، عن عمر [و] بن إسحاق، قال: سئل أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: ما حد المستضعف الذي ذكره الله عز وجل؟ قال: من لا يحسن سورة من القرآن وقد خلقه الله عز وجل خلقة ما ينبغي له أن لا يحسن.

7. We were told by my father, may Allah grant him mercy, that he said: We were told by Ahmad bin Idrees, from Muhammed bin Ahmad bin Yahya bin Imran al-Ash’ari, that he said: We were told by Ibrahim bin Ishaq, from Amru bin Ishaq, that he said: Abu Abdillah, peace be upon him, said: What is the limitation of the weakened individual whom Allah, Exalted and Glorious, mentioned? He said: The one who is unable to (properly recite) a chapter of the Qur’an, when Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He, has created him in a manner that he should not be one who is unable to (do so).



Hadith #8

حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد، قال: حدثنا الحسين بن الحسنبن أبان، عن الحسين بن سعيد، عن صفوان بن يحيى، عن حجر بن زائدة، عن حمران، قال: سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن قول الله عز وجل: " إلا المستضعفين من الرجال " قال: هم أهل الولاية. قلت: وأي ولاية؟ فقال: أما إنها ليست بولاية في الدين ولكنها الولاية في المناكحة والموارثة والمخالطة وهم ليسوا بالمؤمنين ولا بالكفار، وهم المرجون لأمر الله عز وجل.

8. We were told by Muhammed bin Hasan bin Waleed, that he said: We were told by Hussain bin Hasan bin Aban, from Hussain bin Sa’eed, from Safwan bin Yahya, from Hijr bin Za’ida, from Hamran, that he said: I asked Abu Abdillah, peace be upon him, about the saying of Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He: «except for the weakened ones from the men» (4:98). He said: They are the people of authority. I said: Which authority? So he said: Verily, it is, indeed, not authority with regards to religion. However, it is authority with regards to marriage, inheritance and mingling, and they are not believers, nor disbelievers. They are those who seek the matter of Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He.



Hadith #9

حدثنا المظفر بن جعفر بن المظفر العلوي - رضي الله عنه - قال: حدثنا جعفر بن محمد بن مسعود، عن أبيه، عن علي بن محمد، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن الحسن بن علي، عن عبد الكريم بن عمرو الخثعمي، عن سليمان بن خالد، قال: سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن قول الله عز وجل: " إلا المستضعفين من الرجال والنساء والولدان - الآية - " قال: يا سليمان في هؤلاء المستضعفين من هو أثخن رقبة منك، المستضعفون قوم يصومون ويصلون تعف بطونهم وفروجهم لا يرون أن الحق في غيرنا، آخذين بأغصان الشجرة فأولئك عسى الله أن يعفو عنهم إذ كانوا آخذين بالأغصان، وإن لم يعرفوا أولئك، فإن عفى عنهم فبرحمته، وإن عذبهم فبضلالتهم عما عرفهم.

9. We were told by Mudaffar bin Ja’far bin Mudaffar al-Alawi, may Allah be pleased with him, that he said: We were told by Ja’far bin Muhammed bin Mas’ud, from his father, from Ali bin Muhammed, from Ahmad bin Muhammed, from Hasan bin Ali, from Abdul-Karim bin Amru al-Khath’ami, from Sulayman bin Khalid, that he said: I asked Abu Abdillah, peace be upon him, about the saying of Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He: «except for the weakened ones from the men, women and children» (4:98) - the verse. He said: O Sulayman, among these weakened ones, there are those with a thicker neck than you. The weakened are a people who fast, pray and whose bellies and private organs are modest; they do not believe that the truth is with other than us. They hold onto the branches of the tree. For those, Allah might pardon them if they were to adhere to the branches. Moreover, if they were to not know those, then if Allah was to pardon them, it would be due to His mercy, and if He was to torment them, it would be due to their aberration from what He made them know.



Hadith #10

حدثنا أبي - رحمه الله - قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، عن أحمد بن أبي عبد الله البرقي، عن عثمان بن عيسى، عن موسى بن بكر، عن سليمان بن خالد، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: سألته عن المستضعفين فقال: البلهاء في خدرها، والخادم تقول لها صلي فتصلي لا تدري إلا ما قلت لها، والجليب الذي لا يدري إلا ما قلت له، والكبير الفاني والصبي الصغير. هؤلاء المستضعفون. وأما رجل شديد العنق جدل خصم يتولى الشرى والبيع لا تستطيع أن تغبنه في شئ، تقول: هذا مستضعف؟ لا ولا كرامة!

10. We were told by my father, may Allah grant him mercy, that he said: We were told by Sa’d bin Abdullah, from Ahmad bin Abi Abdillah al-Barqi, from Uthman bin Isa, from Musa bin Bikr, from Sulayman bin Khalid, from Abu Ja’far, peace be upon him, that he said: I asked him about the weakened ones, so he said: The stupid one in her modest home; the servant to whom you would say: «Pray» and she would pray, not knowing except what you would tell her. Also, it is the imported (servant) who does not know except what you tell him, and it is the dying old and the small child. They are the weakened ones. As for a man with a strong neck, fond to arguing and quarreling, who deals with buying and selling and whom you are unable to defraud in anything, would you say that he is a weakened? No, and there is no dignity (to him).



Hadith #11

أبي - رحمه الله - قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن علي بن الحكم، عن سيف بن عميرة، عن أبي الصباح، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام أنه قال في المستضعفين الذين لا يجدون حيلة ولا يهتدون سبيلا: لا يستطيعون حيلة فيدخلوا في الكفر ولم يهتدوا فيدخلوا في الايمان فليس هم من الكفر والايمان في شئ.

11. My father, may Allah grant him mercy, said: We were told by Sa’d bin Abdullah, from Ahmad bin Muhammed bin Isa, from Ali bin Hakam, from Saif bin ‘Umayra, from Abu’s-Sabah, from Abu Ja’far, peace be upon him, that he said with regards to the weakened who do not find any (means of) deception nor are guided to the path: They are unfit to (reach) deception by which they enter into disbelief, nor are they guided by which they enter into faith. Hence, they are into nothing with regards to disbelief and faith.